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Alexander the Great

[Na] Leader of the Macedonians. Born in 356 bc, Alexander was tutored in his early years by Aristotle before succeeding his father Philip as king of Macedonia and the mainland of ...

Alexander, Lloyd

Alexander, Lloyd   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
1,137 words
Illustration(s):
1

...young women, developing the fairy-tale tradition of the active heroine. The Gawgon and the Boy ( 2001 ) takes an unusual turn in Alexander's authorship; it is a warm and self-ironic childhood memoir just on the edge of the supernatural. The most essential characteristic of his works is the psychological and philosophical depth hidden behind the surface, as well as the brilliance of language and the richness of intertextual associations. Disguised as fantasy or adventure, his books are unquestionably about the here and now. The recurrent images of war and...

Volkov, Alexander

Volkov, Alexander   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
189 words

...Alexander ( 1891–1977 ), Soviet writer best known for his fantasy novels for children. Volkov's very first work, The Wizard of the Emerald City ( 1939 ), was a free adaptation of L. Frank Baum 's The Wizard of Oz in which the focus was shifted toward collective rather than individual achievements and friendship and obedience were presented as central virtues. Following the great success of the first book, he wrote five sequels, the plot of each involving new threats to the Magic Land. Ellie , the counterpart of Dorothy , and her sister Annie are...

Edward, George

Edward, George   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
236 words

...), sons of the artist Alexander Dalziel ( 1781– 1832 ) and founders of Dalziel Brothers, a British wood- engraving firm in the second half of the 19th century . It was the most influential firm of wood engravers, draftsmen, printers, and publishers, dominating the Victorian illustration and publishing field. It is said that every one of their illustrations includes the signature “Dalziel.” George Dalziel came to London and set up as an engraver in 1835 ; he was joined by Edward in 1840 . They established their printing firm, The Camden Town, in ...

Wizards

Wizards   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
378 words

...a special race, the Sons of Don, the great goddess in Celtic mythology. One of the wizard's foremost abilities is changing his shape, as demonstrated by Merlin in The Sword in the Stone . In the Harry Potter novels, J. K. Rowling coined the word “animagus” to describe this quality. Wizards can be clearly good or bad, as is seen in the opposition between Dumbledore and Voldemort in the Harry Potter books. But they can also be ambiguous, like Malebron in Alan Garner ’s Elidor ( 1965 ), who pursues his own goals and abuses the protagonist; or ...

George, St

George, St   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Children's Literature (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
297 words

...maiden may derive from the legend of Perseus and Andromeda. Elements of the story of Alexander the Great, including the magnificent horse, are also among the ingredients. A full narrative of these legends appeared in the 13th-cent. Golden Legend by Jacobus a Voragine; Caxton printed his own Golden Legend, based on this, which was immensely popular, and in broadside ballad form, and in The Seven Champions of Christendom ( 1596–7 ) by Richard Johnson , the story reached an even wider audience. It supplied characters for the mummers’ play , and was...

Valentine and Orson

Valentine and Orson   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Children's Literature (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
308 words

...became a popular chapbook , and was among the favourite adventure stories of many English children from the 16th to the 18th cent. The wife of Alexander, Emperor of Constantinople, gives birth to twin sons, but she and the children are cast out of the court because of her supposed unfaithfulness and she subsequently loses the children. One is brought up by the King of France and the other is nurtured by a bear. The first is named Valentine, the second Orson (bear’s-son). The two eventually meet, neither knowing who the other is, and fight; Orson is then tamed...

Ward, Lynd

Ward, Lynd   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
397 words

... Hans Alexander Mueller at the Academy for Graphic Arts, and discovered the woodcut novels of Frans Masereel , a Flemish artist whose left-wing ideology he shared. His first book, Gods' Man: A Novel in Woodcuts (note the possessive plural), used 139 woodcuts to tell a Faustian tale of a young artist who sells his soul for recognition. Despite appearing the week of the market crash of 1929 , its novelty and mesmeric power brought Ward both financial and critical success. Five more woodcut novels followed, Vertigo , appearing in 1937 , being the last and...

Abbott, Jacob

Abbott, Jacob   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
583 words
Illustration(s):
1

...gently guided by example toward the right path and making use of teachable moments. Subsequent series followed “Rollo,” including the Jonas books ( 1839– 1842 ), the Lucy series ( 1842 ), the Franconia stories ( 1850– 1853 ), Harper's Story Books ( 1854–1857 ), and the Makers of History Series ( 1848–1861 ), with twenty-two volumes by Jacob and ten by his brother, John . Jacob's set featured such leaders as Alexander the Great ( 1848 ), Romulus ( 1852 ), and Peter the Great ( 1859 ). As a whole, it was the moral tales that offered readers a...

Series Books

Series Books   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
1,187 words

... (from 1959 ), and Madeleine L'Engle 's great unclassifiable series, which began with A Wrinkle in Time ( 1962 ). Joan Aiken 's James III series started in 1962 , and Lloyd Alexander's The Chronicles of Prydain first appeared in 1964 . Susan Cooper's The Dark Is Rising series began in 1965 with the publication of Over Sea, Under Stone . In the age of J. K. Rowling 's Harry Potter (from 1997 ) and Philip Pullman 's His Dark Materials (from 1995 ), fantasy is currently in the ascendancy. Trilogies are plentiful. However, even before these...

Busch, Wilhelm

Busch, Wilhelm   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
602 words
Illustration(s):
1

...), German satirical cartoonist. Busch was the eldest of seven children in a North German grocer's family. His father wanted him to become an engineer, but Busch preferred art, studying in Düsseldorf, Antwerp, and Munich. To his great disappointment, he never achieved success as a painter; however, his talents as a caricaturist and poet of satirical verses brought him enormous popularity. In 1858 his cartoons began appearing in the Munich satirical journal Fliegende Blätter . His “picture story” about the misadventures of two mischievous boys, Max und...

Brontë, Charlotte

Brontë, Charlotte   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
564 words

...Brontë's long-lost wooden soldiers, who possess the ability to come to life and find a new set of child protectors to help them find safe harbor in the Brontë Museum. See also Bewick, John, and Thomas Bewick ; Children as Authors ; Doll and Toy Stories ; and Fairy Tales and Folk Tales . Susan R. Gannon Alexander, Christine , and Margaret Smith . The Oxford Companion to the Brontës . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003. Wilks, Brian . The Brontës: An Illustrated Biography . New York: Peter Bedrick,...

EWING, Juliana Horatia

EWING, Juliana Horatia (1841–85)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Children's Literature (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
710 words

...contributor, most of her stories making their first appearance in its pages. Her mother soon willingly relinquished the role of author to her daughter, and in 1862 Juliana Horatia’s first collection of tales was published. By the time she wrote Mrs Overtheway’s Remembrances ( 1869 ) she had become a fluent and competent narrator of the events of daily life as seen by a child. In 1867 she married Major Alexander (‘Rex’) Ewing. The Ewings went to Canada shortly after their marriage, and lived in Fredericton, New Brunswick, for more than two years;...

Russia

Russia   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
2,495 words
Illustration(s):
2

... ( 1938 ) by Lazar Lagin , a free adaptation of The Brass Bottle by F. Anstey , in which the released genie's ways and morals come into conflict with his young Communist rescuer. Adapting foreign sources to the declared needs of the Soviet audience was a common practice, possibly because of the cultural isolation of the Soviet Union. Thus, the most popular Russian fantasy novel ever written, The Wizard of the Emerald City ( 1939 ) by Alexander Volkov , is a retelling of The Wizard of Oz . For the most part, adaptations focused on social improvement...

Ewing, Juliana Horatia

Ewing, Juliana Horatia   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
581 words
Illustration(s):
1

...her own childhood. Juliana wrote the last two episodes in Canada, for in June 1867 the author had married Colonel Alexander Ewing , and he had been posted to New Brunswick. Though the new life involved many moves, no settled home, and worst of all no garden of her own, she was proud of being a soldier's wife and used an army background for three of her books, Lob Lie-by-the-fire ( 1874 ), Jackanapes ( 1883 ), and The Story of a Short Life ( 1885 ). (The dates refer to their eventual publication in book form.) The last was written in a fit of...

Bewick, Thomas

Bewick, Thomas (1753–1828)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Children's Literature (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
1,011 words

...a number of children’s books, e.g. an edition of Berquin ’s Looking-Glass for the Mind published by Elizabeth Newbery in 1792 . His work, though good for the time, did not have the distinction of his brother’s. Thomas Bewick not only raised the art of wood engraving to the highest level, but was also the first person to make the work of the illustrator as important in books for children as the text. In America, his work was imitated with great skill by Alexander Anderson . Jenny Uglow’s Nature’s Engraver: A Life of Thomas Bewick ( 2006 ) explores...

Peter Pan

Peter Pan   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Children's Literature (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
1,824 words

...versions of the play, but simply ‘Never Land’ in the published text) was that of a district of Australia; it was also the title of a play by Wilson Barrett, first performed in 1902 . Barrie wrote the first draft of Peter Pan between 23 November 1903 and 1 March 1904 . It differs from the final version in some of its names (Michael is ‘Alexander’ and Tinker Bell is ‘Tippy-Toe’), in the inclusion of certain episodes later discarded as impractical (among these being a stage direction for the pirate ship to sail on to the stage), and in the lengthy and...

Fairy Tales and Folk Tales

Fairy Tales and Folk Tales   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
5,901 words
Illustration(s):
2

...notion—of what a fairy tale is and should be. Even the work of the highly original writer Lloyd Alexander , who published The Truthful Harp in 1967 to complement his Prydain Chronicles , could not escape being absorbed by the Disney empire. His Prydain Chronicles consist of five novels: The Book of Three ( 1964 ), The Black Cauldron ( 1965 ), The Castle of Llyr ( 1966 ), Taran Wanderer ( 1967 ), and The High King ( 1968 ). Based on the Mabinogion , a collection of Welsh tales, Alexander's chronicles form a delightfully ironic and intricate...

Tom Brown’s Schooldays

Tom Brown’s Schooldays   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Children's Literature (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
1,223 words

...to him before he went to school, I took to writing a story, as the easiest way of bringing out what I wanted.’ A few weeks later he showed the manuscript to his friend J. M. Ludlow, who thought it ‘a work of absorbing interest’ and encouraged Hughes to send it to the publisher Alexander Macmillan, who was active in the Christian Socialist movement, of which Hughes and Ludlow were both members. Macmillan greatly liked the book and quickly got on with having proofs prepared, even before Hughes had finished writing it. Then in December 1856 Hughes’s eldest...

Le Guin, Ursula K.

Le Guin, Ursula K.   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
1,171 words
Illustration(s):
1

...nature of the character; examples range from Leese Webster the spider to Tom in Le Guin's 1998 children's book Tom Mouse . By far, Le Guin's most popular books for children are her Catwings books. In four small picture books— Catwings ( 1988 ), Catwings Return ( 1989 ), Wonderful Alexander and the Catwings ( 1994 ), and Jane on Her Own ( 1999 )—Le Guin tells the story of six kittens, five of which have wings. The winged kittens are the products of their city stray mother's dream that her unborn offspring will be able to fly to their freedom and...

United States

United States   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
3,286 words
Illustration(s):
2

...from the pigs that ran loose in the city, foreshadows later American humor. Most publishers of the time, however, offered didactic works. The mood of the Quaker publisher Samuel Wood was particularly serious. In False Stories Corrected ( 1814 ) he denounced fantasy as reprehensible, and he was severe about “old Santa-claw.” Beginning in 1806 he produced a huge output of toy books that were profusely illustrated, many of them by Alexander Anderson . Most provided instruction, but in little books such as The Seasons ( 1810 ) we get a glimpse of the...

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