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Alexander the Great

[Na] Leader of the Macedonians. Born in 356 bc, Alexander was tutored in his early years by Aristotle before succeeding his father Philip as king of Macedonia and the mainland of ...

Alexander the great

Alexander the great (356–323 bc)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Companion to English Literature (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Literature
Length:
85 words

... the great ( 356–323 bc ) The most famous general in the classical world. Alexander was made the centre of a cluster of medieval legends, comparable to the cycles concerning Charlemagne and King Arthur . The chief romances concerning him are the great French Roman d'Alexandre of the 12th century and the English King Alisaunder of the early 14th century. The story of the rivalry of his two wives forms the subject of Nathaniel Lee 's tragedy The Rival Queens...

Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great (356–323)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to English Literature (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Literature
Length:
188 words

...at the instance of the courtesan Thaïs; his wives Roxana and Barsine were both Persian. He died of fever at Babylon when only 32 years old. Alexander was made the centre of a cluster of medieval legends, comparable to the cycles concerning Charlemagne and King Arthur . The chief romances concerning him are the great French Roman d'Alexandre of the 12th century and the English King Alisaunder of the early 14th century. The story of the rivalry of his two wives forms the subject of Nathaniel Lee 's tragedy The Rival Queens . ...

Consumerism

Consumerism   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
3,809 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

..., London, 1979; Alexander, D. , Retailing in England During the Industrial Revolution , London, 1970; Brewer, J. , & Porter, R. , eds., Consumption and the World of Goods , London, 1993; Campbell, C. , The Romantic Ethic and the Spirit of Modern Consumerism , Oxford, 1987; Earle, P. , The Making of the English Middle Class: Business, Society and Family Life in London, 1660–1730 , London, 1989; McKendrick, N. , Brewer, J. , & Plumb, J. H. , The Birth of a Consumer Society: The Commercialization of Eighteenth-Century England , London, 1982; Mui, H....

Enlightenment

Enlightenment   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
7,794 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...a party in the early 1750s, it was led by men like Alexander Carlyle ( 1722–1805 ), John Home ( 1722–1808 ), and William Robertson—a group of clergyman educated at Edinburgh University, who had served in the College Company of Edinburgh Volunteers in opposition to the Jacobite army. These clergy gained control of the general assembly of the Church of Scotland and used their powers to discipline evangelical and democratic tendencies at a local level. Their moderatism upheld the virtue of civility and politeness as characteristics of the Christian and good...

Law

Law   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,210 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... Alexander Hamilton ( 1757–1804 ), George Washington 's private secretary during the *American Revolution , justified these developments on the grounds that ‘though individual oppression may now and then proceed from the courts of justice, the general liberty of the people can never be endangered from that quarter’. A radical interpretation of common law ideology, which emphasized individual natural rights and looked to the judges as the guardians of those rights against executive power, was therefore the essence of the constitutional challenge which the...

Exploration

Exploration   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,825 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...on the part of the latter. The view that colonists might lapse from European civility into something much closer to the savagery of the tropical populations they were attempting to dominate had been advanced much earlier, notably by Diderot ; but these accounts effectively provided much first-hand information to suggest that colonization was disorderly and morally ambiguous. *Missionary literature was also very widely consumed, and provided a view of indigenous peoples distinct from that of natural historians such as Forster and Alexander von...

Atossa

Atossa   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough ( 1660–1744 ), is said to be intended under this name by Alexander Pope ( Moral Essays , ii ( 1731–5 )). Her friend, Lady Mary Wortley Montagu , is called sappho . The Duchess of Buckingham has also been suggested for Atossa. The name was originally that of the daughter of cyrus , king of Persia, in the 6th century bc . She was successively the wife of her brother Cambyses , of the Magdian Smerdis, and of darius the Great, by whom she bore xerxes...

Atticus

Atticus   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Roman scholar and master of Greek, publisher and patron of the arts ( 110–32 bc ). His taste and judgement were so highly thought of that even cicero submitted several of his treatises to him. Atticus Finch See finch . Christian Atticus, The Reginald Heber ( 1783–1826 ), bishop of Calcutta, a great hymn writer. English Atticus, The Joseph Addison ( 1672–1719 ), so called by Alexander Pope ( Epistle to Dr Arbuthnot , 1735 ) because of his refined taste and philosophical mind. Irish Atticus, The George Faulkner ( 1700–75 ), bookseller, publisher and...

Nickname

Nickname   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...nicknames alluding to their appearance, attributes or achievements. They include the following: alexander the great : Alexander III ( 356–323 bc ), king of Macedon Alexander the Liberator: Alexander II ( 1818–81 ), tsar of Russia Alfonso the Astronomer: Alfonso X ( 1221–84 ), king of León and Castile Alfonso the Battler: Alfonso I ( 1073–1134 ), king of Aragon and Navarre Alfonso the Magnanimous: Alfonso V ( 1396–1458 ), king of León, Castile and Sicily alfred the great : Alfred ( 849–99 ), king of Wessex barbarossa : Frederick I ( 1122–90 ),...

Richard III

Richard III   Quick reference

An A-Z Guide to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...for the Old Vic in 1944–5 and 1948–9 , and for his film version he had John Gielgud as Clarence and Ralph Richardson as Buckingham; Margaret was omitted, but Jane Shore was introduced as a nonspeaking role. Ian Holm played Richard in Peter Hall 's Stratford-upon-Avon production, as part of The Wars of the Roses , in 1963 , etc., with Peggy Ashcroft as Margaret. In 1984 , Bill Alexander directed an intelligent production at Stratford with Antony Sher as a brilliant Richard. Despite the precedent of Ashcroft's Margaret, Bill Alexander cut...

Dog

Dog   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... ( under spain ) . Dog, The diogenes ( 412–323 BC). When Alexander the Great of Macedon went to see Diogenes he supposedly introduced himself with these words: ‘I am Alexander, surnamed the Great,’ to which the philosopher replied: ‘And I am Diogenes, surnamed the Dog.’ The Athenians raised to his memory a pillar of Parian marble, surmounted by a dog. See also cynic . Dog-and-pony show Derogatory US slang for an elaborate formal public occasion, especially a public presentation, as for a political party’s new manifesto. The allusion is to a travelling...

Letter

Letter   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...of safe conduct A writ under the great seal , guaranteeing safety of passage to the person named in the passport. Letter of the law To keep to the letter of the law is to observe it strictly; to follow out the regulations thoroughly and to avoid breaking them. Letter of Uriah A treacherous letter, implying friendship but in reality a death warrant. And it came to pass in the morning, that David wrote a letter to Joab, and sent it by the hand of Uriah. And he wrote in the letter, saying, Set ye Uriah in the forefront of the hottest battle, and retire ye...

Nine

Nine   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...from 9 am to 5 pm. Nine Worthies, The Nine heroes: three from the Bible, three from the classics and three from romance, or three pagans, three Jews and three Christians, who were bracketed together by writers like the seven wonders of the world . They are usually given as hector , alexander the great and Julius caesar ; joshua , david and Judas maccabaeus ; arthur , charlemagne and godfrey of bouillon . Shakespeare’s Pageant of the Nine Worthies in Love’s Labour’s Lost (V, ii ( 1594 )) has an incomplete list of five, which includes Pompey ...

Henry V

Henry V   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,163 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...are horrified that the French have killed the English boys who were guarding the camp. Fluellen praises Harry, proud that the King was born in Monmouth, and makes a far-fetched comparison between Harry and Alexander the Great, likening Alexander’s killing of his friend Cleitus to Harry’s rejection of Falstaff. The King, angry to have heard of the slaughter of the boys, receives Montjoy, who concedes defeat. Fluellen congratulates the King for living up to the example of his ancestors and for being proud to be Welsh: heralds go to count the dead. Harry speaks...

Love’s Labour’s Lost

Love’s Labour’s Lost   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,517 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Pompey the Great, Nathaniel (who forgets his words) plays Alexander the Great, Mote plays the infant Hercules strangling snakes in his cradle, but Holofernes’ performance as Judas Maccabeus is dashed by heckling. Armado appears as Hector, and is even more dashed by Costard’s public claim that Jaquenetta is two months’ pregnant by him: the two nearly come to blows, but at this point the entertainment is interrupted by the coming of a messenger, Mercadé. He brings the news that the Princess’s father has died. The women at last listen seriously to the mens’...

The Two Gentlemen of Verona

The Two Gentlemen of Verona   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,682 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...subsequent critics (such as Alexander Leggatt ) have been less inclined to regard all an audience’s laughs at the central characters’ expense as unintended by Shakespeare, the notion that certain figures in the play (notably Julia) are fatally out of drawing with the play’s Lylyan genre remains a prevalent one in recent discussions. Stage history: The Folio’s text may suggest that the play was still in use by Shakespeare’s company as late as 1606 , but since the Renaissance it has been one of his least successful plays in the theatre: in England only ...

All Is True

All Is True   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,792 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and the sometimes cosmetic alteration of their sequence. Despite the impression given by the play, Queen Catherine was still alive when Princess Elizabeth was born (hence the Catholic view that she was illegitimate), and despite the impression of an achieved harmony at the play’s close, Cranmer’s troubles with the Council, dramatized in 5.1–2, still lay seven years ahead when she was christened. Synopsis: A prologue promises a serious play which will depict the abrupt falls of great men. 1.1 The Duke of Norfolk tells the Duke of Buckingham about the...

King Lear

King Lear   Reference library

Stanley Wells and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,801 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...that the 1608 quarto represents the play as Shakespeare first wrote it, and the Folio a substantial revision, cutting some 300 lines and adding about 100, and with many other variations. The Oxford editors first disentangled the two texts under their original printed titles of The History and The Tragedy of King Lear . The synopsis given below is based on the History but indicates major variations in the Tragedy . Sources: Lear’s story had often been told and Shakespeare appears to have known several versions. He treats it with great freedom,...

The Merchant of Venice

The Merchant of Venice   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,171 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...before the Lady’s maid warns him not to drink the wine which the Lady always offers her suitors before bed, which she drugs: he is thus enabled to win her. As in the play, the Jew is foiled in his attempt to exact a pound of flesh from the defaulting merchant. Shakespeare knew the pound of flesh story from other sources too, one of which, Alexander Silvayn ’s The Orator (translated in 1596 ), influenced his own trial scene. In rewriting the story of Giannetto as that of Bassanio, Shakespeare replaced the seduction test with the choice of the three...

A Midsummer Night’s Dream

A Midsummer Night’s Dream   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,220 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

... Barber, C. L. , in Shakespeare’s Festive Comedy (1957) Barton, Anne in Shakespeare and the Idea of the Play (1962) Dent, R. W. , ‘Imagination in A Midsummer Night’s Dream ’, Shakespeare Quarterly 15 (1964) Leggatt, Alexander , in Shakespeare’s Comedy of Love (1974) Montrose, Louis , ‘“Shaping Fantasies”: Configurations of Gender and Power in Elizabethan Culture’, Representations , 1 (1983) Young, David P. , ‘ Something of Great Constancy’: The Art of ‘A Midsummer Night’s Dream ’...

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