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Alexander the Great

[Na] Leader of the Macedonians. Born in 356 bc, Alexander was tutored in his early years by Aristotle before succeeding his father Philip as king of Macedonia and the mainland of ...

Alliteration

Alliteration   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...been translated into modern alliterative verse in 1973 by Michael Alexander as: ‘Attend! We have heard of the thriving of the throne of Denmark, / how the folk-kings flourished in former days’. Such verse died out with the coming of the Normans and consequent French influence, but was revived in the 13c. The best-known poems are Langland ’s Piers Plowman and the anonymous Sir Gawain and the Green Knight (both 14c). Two lines from Langland run: ‘In a somer seson whan soft was the sonne, / I shope me in shroudes, as I a shepe were’ (shope dressed,...

Spelling Reform

Spelling Reform   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
1,878 words

...The later 1870s saw the founding of spelling-reform associations on both sides of the Atlantic, whose members included Tennyson and Darwin. Such eminent philologists as Henry sweet and Alexander Ellis in the UK and Francis March in the US experimented with reformed alphabets. In the 1880s, many students of the new science of phonetics were interested in the development of a phonetic alphabet not only for academic purposes but also as a possible precursor of a reformed spelling system for English. New Spelling At the beginning of the 20c, the cause...

aesthetics

aesthetics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Semiotics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
1,757 words

...is a branch of philosophy that concerns either the nature of beauty (whether natural or artistic) or the nature of art (whether beautiful or not). Aesthetics is sometimes understood to encompass any rigorous and philosophical contemplation of the arts; taken in this sense, aesthetics developed in the West out of the discussions of dramatic, rhetorical, and musical performance forms in Plato and Aristotle and led to a great diversity of perspectives. In this first framework, the semiotics of art is simply one among various approaches. Aesthetics is...

Cockney

Cockney   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
3,389 words

..., the Sam Weller dialect had passed away so completely that I should have given it up as a literary fiction if I had not discovered it surviving in a Middlesex village, and heard of it from an Essex one. Some time in the eighties the late Alexander Tuer called attention in the Pall Mall Gazette to several peculiarities of modern cockney, and to the obsolescence of the Dickens dialect that was still being copied from book to book by authors who never dreamt of using their ears, much less of training them to listen. Cockney beyond the 19c Currently, the term...

Dialect

Dialect   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
6,534 words

... east anglia and the london area; Southern , extending west to Celtic Cornwall; Kentish , stopping short of the Isle of Wight. The social and literary standard form of English which slowly emerged after the Norman Conquest in 1066 was based not on the Southern but the East Midland dialect, with an increasing Scandinavian overlay. Dialects and standard With the introduction by Caxton of the printing press in London in 1476 a great boost was given to the speech of the capital. As the standard language evolved, writing in the other dialects of...

Buddhism

Buddhism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Semiotics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
4,131 words

...systematically the doctrines and practices of the absolute language, which it identified with mantras and dhāraṇīs . The word of the Buddha was considered to be a reality in itself, which cannot be reduced to mere expression of an individual thought: It was the objective expression, the double of reality as experienced after enlightenment. As the great Japanese monk Kūkai ( 774–835 ) wrote, only if language and reality are closely and deeply related can the Buddha show the way to salvation through his teachings ( Hakeda , 1972 ). The esoteric Japanese...

Old English

Old English 1   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
2,865 words

... he bore God’s ire; of human kind in the high hall. till their wine-hall, he could clearly make out plated in gold. a free translation Down off the moorlands’ misting fells came Grendel stalking; God’s brand was on him. The spoiler meant to snatch away from the high hall some of the human race. He came on under the clouds, clearly saw at last the gold-hall of men, the mead-drinking place nailed with gold plates. ( Michael Alexander , Beowulf , Penguin Classics, 1973) 2. Prose: The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (years 981, 982) 981. Hēr on þìs gēare wæs...

Sublime, The

Sublime, The   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,813 words

...change. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the sublime was associated with the grandiosity of great oratory and the expansiveness of the natural environment. Although the influence of the concept waned by the 1900s, its development from pragmatics to aesthetics and, recently, to politics has established a contemporary alternative to the dominant ancient inheritance. The sublime tradition began with “Longinus's” fragmentary treatise, Peri Hypsos (On the Sublime) . Written approximately one century into the common era, it deviated from the dominant...

Controversia and Suasoria

Controversia and Suasoria   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,407 words

...to a historical fantasy such as “Alexander deliberates whether or not to cross the ocean,” the speaker would offer Alexander advice on his course of action, speaking of him in the third person and occasionally addressing him directly. [ See Deliberative genre .] The controversia , on the other hand, was a fictitious forensic speech that argued for or against an imaginary defendant. After the statement of a law and a summation of the facts of the case, the speaker would have to anticipate or rebut the arguments from the other side, concoct dialogues with...

Declamation

Declamation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
1,390 words

...rhetoricians specialized in the more advanced controversia . [ See Controversia and suasoria .] The suasoria offered the easier situation wherein the student plays adviser to some great man: Should Numa accept the kingship offered by the Roman people? Should Alexander set sail upon the ocean? The controversia presented a more challenging structure: the declaimer imagines himself as a lawyer in court. His teacher has provided a few sentences describing the (bizarre) situation and a law that stipulates dire punishment. The declaimer must compose and...

Classical rhetoric

Classical rhetoric   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
16,967 words

...of public speaking originally composed by Anaximenes of Lampsacus around the middle of the fourth century bce , possibly before Aristotle's final revision of his lectures and perhaps known to him. At some time, this work, Rhetoric to Alexander , was revised by an unknown editor who prefixed an inept letter purporting to be a dedication by Aristotle to Alexander the Great; this forger, or someone else, then made a number of changes throughout to bring the work into somewhat closer harmony with Aristotle's genuine teaching. Originally, there seem to have been...

Imitation

Imitation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,482 words

...and imitation, not dialectic, was the method of attaining it. Rhetorical schools became common in cities of the eastern Mediterranean region beginning in the late fourth century bce when Greek culture was spread by the conquests of Alexander the Great . By the second century bce , some Romans were beginning to study rhetoric. In these schools, students practiced exercises in written composition ( progymnasmata ) and in declamation; probably models for imitation were furnished by teachers. Between the fourth and the first centuries bce , linguistic and...

Composition

Composition   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
5,174 words

...emphasis on rhetoric as a branch of politics helped produce the conquerer Alexander the Great ( 356–323 bce ); and the teachings of the pragmatist Isocrates helped produce the learned soldier-citizen Timoteus (died 354 bce ). Cicero ( 106–43 bce ) was a master of various composition practices, processes, and products—speeches, dialogues, treatises, and poems. Following Isocrates and the Sophistic tradition, composing in language was for Cicero an act of world making; he used the Latin ornatus , cognate with Greek kosmos , to describe figured...

Speech acts, utterances as

Speech acts, utterances as   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,315 words

...take in the uses of language and language games. Within the larger act of communicating something, Austin identifies three component speech acts: the locutionary act —the act of saying something, in direct or indirect discourse; the illocutionary act , the act performed in saying something—acts of proposing, promising, apologizing,; and the perlocutionary act , identified primarily in terms of the outcome or consequences of a communicative effort, (e.g., persuading and convincing). Of these three classes, the illocutionary act counts as Austin's great...

Deliberative genre

Deliberative genre   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
5,376 words

...by great drama because each required the making of firm decisions about uncertain matters—the very essence of deliberation. The Nature of Deliberation. History shows, then, that deliberation is distinct from the cabal, the rump session, the closed-door meeting, the conspiracy. “Every activity performed in public,” declares Hannah Arendt ( The Human Condition , 1958 ), “can attain an excellence never matched in privacy; for excellence, by definition, the presence of others is always required.” John Stuart Mill ( 1806–1873 ) argues that the force of...

Style

Style   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
9,178 words

...in the age of neoclassicism in the first half of the eighteenth century. In this process, the metaphor of style as dress was revitalized. In An Essay on Virgil's “Georgics” ( 1697 ), Joseph Addison explicitly opposes the idea of dress to that of nakedness, when he says that the Georgics should “not to appear in the natural simplicity and nakedness of its subject, but in the pleasantest dress poetry can bestow on it.” Two prominent instances among the ubiquitous definitions of style as dress are the definitions of Alexander Pope : “Expression is the dress...

Nineteenth-Century rhetoric

Nineteenth-Century rhetoric   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
6,780 words

...treatises circulating in the early decades of the century such as Increase Cooke's The American Orator ( 1814 ) and Alexander Jamieson's A Grammar of Rhetoric and Polite Literature ( 1837 ). Similarly, Genung, whose series of treatises The Practical Elements of Rhetoric ( 1886 ), Handbook of Rhetorical Analysis ( 1888 ), and Working Principles of Rhetoric ( 1893 ) dominated rhetoric scholarship between 1880 and 1900 , stresses the principle of adaptation as the most basic rhetorical process and acknowledges the traditional status of that...

Medieval rhetoric

Medieval rhetoric   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
9,884 words

...today. Complicating matters further, new textbooks that were created as sequels to Donatus were composed in Latin verse, such as the Graecismus of Eberhard of Béthune (died c.1212 ) and the Doctrinale puerorum ( 1199 ) of Alexander of Villa-Dei ( c.1170–c.1250 ). These developments indicate the fineness of the line that demarcated grammar (traditionally understood as the art of correct reading and writing) and rhetoric (the art of persuasive writing and speaking). Accordingly, it is not surprising that twentieth-century philologists such as Ernst...

Eighteenth-century rhetoric

Eighteenth-century rhetoric   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
7,184 words

...began teaching rhetoric at the innovative Dissenting Academy at Warrington in 1762 , he is best known as the discoverer of oxygen, propounder of Unitarianism, and Dissenting rhetorician who opposed the British constitutional union of church and state and defended the rights of the American colonies. Campbell was a professor at Aberdeen closely associated with the advocates of commonsense philosophy— Thomas Reid , Alexander Gerard , and James Beattie . Campbell's Philosophy of Rhetoric has been described as “perhaps the most comprehensive and original...

Renaissance rhetoric

Renaissance rhetoric   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
15,239 words

...pp. 254–255). The Progymnasmata by Aphthonius: The Art of Rhetoric by Hermogenes; Three Books of Rhetoric by Aristotle Addressed to Theodectes; The Rhetoric Addressed to Alexander by the Same; The Art of Poetry by the Same; Questions Concerning the Composition of Declamations, Especially in Judicial Causes, by Sopater Rhetor; The Differences of Statutes by Cyrus the Sophist; The Art of Rhetoric by Dionysius of Halicarnassus; On Interpretation by Demetrius of Phaleron; On the Figures of Sense and Diction by Alexander the Sophist; Annotations on the Figures of...

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