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Alexander the Great

[Na] Leader of the Macedonians. Born in 356 bc, Alexander was tutored in his early years by Aristotle before succeeding his father Philip as king of Macedonia and the mainland of ...

Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great (356–323 BCE), king of Macedon (336–323 BCE).   Reference library

Dictionary of African Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,405 words

...BCE, Alexander campaigned throughout the territories of the Persian Empire from Egypt in the west to northern India in the east. The campaign can be divided into three phases. The first, which lasted from 334 BCE to 330 BCE, is known to historians as the “Greek Crusade” and was marked by the great set battles of Granicus, Issus, and Gaugamela. It climaxed with the destruction of the Persian capital of Persepolis and the assassination of the Persian king Darius III by his own officers. The second phase, which lasted from 330 BCE to 327 BCE, saw Alexander adopt...

MARTIN, William Alexander Parsons

MARTIN, William Alexander Parsons (1827–1916)   Reference library

Lydia GERBER

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...prepare Manchu and Chinese students for a career in the diplomatic service. During the 100-Day Reforms in the summer of 1898 Sun Jianai ( 1827–1909 ), president of the recently founded Imperial University (later Beijing University), asked Martin to serve as head of faculty. William Alexander Parsons Martin, an American Presbyterian missionary at the turn of the twentieth century, lived in China for sixty-six years. When Boxer militias, obviously supported by the Chinese government, laid siege to the legation quarters in Beijing in June 1900 , Martin...

Pear Garden

Pear Garden   Reference library

Nirmal DASS

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...to the present day . Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Scott, A. C. (1978). The classical theatre of China . Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Children of the Pear Garden In his 1894 essay “A View From the Great Wall” William Alexander Parsons Martin discusses the “Children of the Pear-garden”: It is a mistake to reckon the whole population of China as adherents of the Buddhist faith. It has absorbed Taoism, but the educated classes, almost without exception, adhere to Confucius; and even the uneducated profess allegiance to the Great...

Tiananmen Square

Tiananmen Square   Reference library

Anthony Alexander LOH

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...and the rewriting of Chinese history. Instead, it has been used for exhibiting official and avant-garde artwork, contemporary fashion shows, and so forth. To its west is the Great Hall of the People, which, with its ten thousand seats, is the annual meeting site of the National People’s Congress. All major plenums of the CCP and government are held there as well. Soldiers stand before the southern Gate of Tiananmen Square, early in the morning. Each morning, tourists from all over China visit the heart of Beijing to see the national flag raised. The...

Lǐ Lìsān

Lǐ Lìsān (1899–1967)   Reference library

Michael DILLON

The Berkshire Dictionary of Chinese Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,291 words
Illustration(s):
2

...trade union organization. During the Cultural Revolution, his links with the Soviet Union (and his Russian wife) made him an easy target for Red Guards, the bands of students who had become Mao’s fearsome supporters and enforcers. (Officially called theGreat Proletarian Cultural Revolution,” the Cultural Revolution of 1966–1976 was a complex socio-political mass movement that urged people—especially young people—to rebel against traditional, capitalist, and so-called backwards cultural elements in Chinese society; this radicalization, spurred on by Mao...

Qianlong, Emperor(of Qing)

Qianlong, Emperor(of Qing) (1711–1799)   Reference library

Colin MACKERRAS

The Berkshire Dictionary of Chinese Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,845 words
Illustration(s):
3

...overpopulation, political corruption, and deteriorating relations between China and the West led to China’s decline and contributed to the eventual demise of the Qing dynasty. Introduction The fourth emperor of the Manchu-led Qīng 清 ‎ dynasty ( 1644–1911 / 1912 ) following the Manchu seizure of Beijing, Hongli ruled under the title Qiánlóng 乾隆 ‎, or “heavenly prosperity.” Qianlong was the fourth son of Emperor Yōngzhèng 雍正 ‎ (r. 1722–1735 ) and the grandson of the great Emperor Kāngxī 康熙 ‎ (r. 1661–1722 ). His military campaigns considerably expanded...

Héshēn

Héshēn (1750–1799)   Reference library

Colin MACKERRAS

The Berkshire Dictionary of Chinese Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,963 words
Illustration(s):
1

...David S. (1959). Ho-shen and his accusers: ideology and political behavior in the eighteenth century. In David S. Nivison & Arthur F. Wright (Eds.), Confucianism in action (pp. 209–243). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. Spence, Jonathan D. (1990). The search for modern China . New York and London: W. W. Norton. Woodside, Alexander . (2002). The Ch’ien-lung reign. In Willard J. Peterson (Ed.), The Cambridge history of China, Volume 9 Part One, the Ch’ing Dynasty to 1800 (pp. 230–309). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ...

Máo Zédōng

Máo Zédōng (1893–1976)   Reference library

Ross TERRILL

The Berkshire Dictionary of Chinese Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
8,608 words
Illustration(s):
5

...through the Soviet Embassy in China or carried in envelopes by Chinese or Russian individuals shuttling back and forth to Moscow, later through Sun Yat-sen’s widow, Soong Ching-ling—the CCP would not have followed the road of compromise with the GMD year after year. During 1921 the CCP received sixteen times as much money from Moscow as it raised within China, and the ratio kept escalating. The historian Alexander Pantsov writes that from its founding “until the mid-1930s, the CCP was able to function only by relying on the Kremlin’s help to the tune of...

National Committee on United States–China Relations

National Committee on United States–China Relations   Reference library

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

... Jan Berris has been with the National Committee since 1971 and has managed and led hundreds of delegations between the United States and China, including the 1972 Chinese Ping Pong Team, the first PRC group to visit the United States. The Committee has had a long line of distinguished chairpersons whose prestige and influence has been of great help to the organization; the latest is The Honorable Carla Hills, former Secretary of Housing and Urban Development and U.S. Trade Representative. In the early years, the focus of the National Committee was on...

Jiāng Qīng

Jiāng Qīng (1914–1991)   Reference library

Natascha GENTZ

The Berkshire Dictionary of Chinese Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
7,147 words
Illustration(s):
2

...constant career in the Shanghai film and theater realm, not the least because she had now settled in the city. Jiang Qing continued to appear in two of the most popular pieces of the Left Wing Drama League: in November 1935 in Nikolai Gogol’s The Government Inspector , more prominently in the main role of Katharina in The Storm by the dramatist Alexander Ostrowski in February 1937 , and in many other films and plays. In May 1936 , she joined another film company, the Lianhua Company (Liánhuá yǐngpiàn gōngsī 联华影片公司 ‎), after the Diantong Company was...

Chén Dúxiù

Chén Dúxiù (1879–1942)   Reference library

Anne S. CHAO

The Berkshire Dictionary of Chinese Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
6,756 words
Illustration(s):
2

...the Chinese Communist movement . South Orange, NJ: Seton Hall University Press. Meisner, Maurice . (1976). Li Ta-chao and the origins of Chinese Marxism . Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Pantsov, Alexander . (2000). The Bolsheviks and the Chinese Revolution, 1919–1927 . Richmond, UK: Curzon. Price, Don D. (1974). Russia and the roots of the Chinese Revolution, 1896–1911. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Sang Bing 桑兵 ‎. (1995). Qingmo xin zhishijie di shetuan yu huodong 清末新知识界的社团与活动 ‎ [The social groups and activities of the...

Hán Gān

Hán Gān (706–c. 783 ce)   Reference library

Shelley Drake HAWKS

The Berkshire Dictionary of Chinese Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
5,395 words
Illustration(s):
3

...the imagination of later emperors who wished for the same. Throughout Chinese history, the presentation of an extraordinary horse by nomadic peoples to the imperial court was an event of great auspiciousness. It meant that the “barbarian” people revered the Chinese emperor and signaled that the dynasty was secure and well governed. The Horse in Early Chinese History According to the sinologist Victor Mair, the Chinese have “a strained attachment to the horse” ( Hessler 2006 , 331). On one hand, Chinese emperors understood the fundamental importance of the...

Chiang Kai-shek

Chiang Kai-shek (1887–1975)   Reference library

Jonathan FENBY, Dian QU, and Chieh-Ju LIAO

The Berkshire Dictionary of Chinese Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
7,501 words
Illustration(s):
3

...After his death, Chiang was widely regarded as a figure from the past, one who had failed to move China into the post-imperial age. More recently, the huge odds he faced have been taken into account and the modernization plans of the 1930s have been regarded as a precursor to the evolution that the mainland has undergone since the launch of economic reform in 1978/1979 . The truth lies in the middle. He was a clever politician with great endurance who was never able to engage with the scale of the task that confronted him. Essentially conservative in outlook,...

Yuè Fēi

Yuè Fēi (1103–1142)   Reference library

Marc A. MATTEN

The Berkshire Dictionary of Chinese Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
4,921 words
Illustration(s):
3

...The unison of criticism finally led to a revision of the guideline. A representative of the Ministry of Education in Beijing stated in a press conference that the historic judgment on Yue would remain untouched. Possible reinterpretations of the national hero that had briefly been discussed were of a purely academic nature, and were not intended to be taught in school. Thus, Yue Fei maintained his classification of celebrated national hero without dishonoring the multiethnic Chinese nation-state or its history. Marc A. MATTEN Friedrich-Alexander...

Buchan, William Comyn, earl of

Buchan, William Comyn, earl of (d. 1233)   Reference library

J. A. Cannon

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
155 words

...wife he was grandfather of the Red Comyn, and great-grandfather of the Red Comyn (d. 1303 ) who was a competitor for the Scottish throne in 1291 . His son Walter became earl of Menteith [S] and was one of the leaders of the powerful Comyn interest in the early years of Alexander III . His second marriage was to Margaret , countess of Buchan, in whose right he was recognized as earl. His son Alexander, by his second wife, was also justiciar 1251–5 and 1257–89 . In 1200 Comyn was one of the noblemen sent by William the Lion to make friendly...

Alexander III

Alexander III (1241–86)   Reference library

Keith J. Stringer

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
301 words

...and the Durwards. Thereafter, however, Alexander dealt with the great lords firmly but sensitively, and crown–magnate relations were stable. Continuing earlier processes of consolidation and expansion, he and his war captains campaigned extensively in the west, and brought matters to a successful conclusion in 1266 , when sovereignty over Man and the Western Isles was relinquished by Norway. Their annexation to Scotland, one of the greatest triumphs of Scottish state-building, was facilitated by amicable relations with England. Alexander had married ...

Alexander, Archibald

Alexander, Archibald (1772–1851)   Reference library

James Moorhead

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...during the Great Awakening of the eighteenth century. Alexander’s works often lacked systematic precision, but he established the basic intellectual tone and themes that would remain dominant in the so-called Princeton Theology until the early twentieth century. Under such notable successors as Charles Hodge ( 1797–1878 ) and Benjamin B. Warfield ( 1851–1921 ), these motifs were transformed into a well-integrated theological system whose central features included: adherence to Reformed orthodoxy, commitment to an inductive theology based upon the infallible...

Great Cause

Great Cause   Reference library

J. A. Cannon

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
103 words

... Cause . The disputed Scottish succession which arose when Alexander III died in 1286 leaving only a young granddaughter, the Maid of Norway, who herself died in Orkney on her journey to Scotland in 1290 . Edward I had already been consulted before the Maid’s death and was called in again to adjudicate between the thirteen ‘competitors’, chief of whom were John Hastings , John Balliol , and Robert Bruce . The complex proceedings culminated in Edward claiming the throne of Scotland for himself. Though Bruce’s grandson succeeded in resisting the...

Perth, treaty of

Perth, treaty of (1266)   Reference library

J. A. Cannon

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
109 words

...treaty of , 1266 . The failure of Haakon IV ’s great expedition at Largs in October 1263 led to a vigorous Scottish counter-attack, which subdued the Inner Hebrides. On 2 July 1266 Magnus IV of Norway, Haakon’s successor, signed the treaty of Perth with Alexander III of Scotland. In return for four payments of 4,000 marks and a tribute of 100 marks in perpetuity, the Norwegians surrendered sovereignty over all the Western Islands and the Isle of Man . They retained possession of Orkney and Shetland. The Isle of Man had to be subdued and at...

Leslie, Alexander

Leslie, Alexander (c.1580–1661)   Reference library

J. A. Cannon

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
162 words

...Alexander ( c. 1580–1661 ) . Leslie was a good professional soldier, who served for many years with great distinction in the Swedish army and fought alongside Gustav Adolf at Lützen in 1632 . When the Scottish presbyterians began armed resistance in 1639 , Leslie was placed in command of the covenanting army. In 1640 he brushed aside royalist resistance at Newburn and occupied Newcastle. During the armed truce before the outbreak of the Civil War, he was created earl of Leven [S] in 1641 . He remained at the head of the Scottish forces in...

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