You are looking at 1-20 of 146 entries  for:

  • All: Alexander the Great x
  • Contemporary History (post 1945) x
clear all

View:

Overview

Alexander the Great

[Na] Leader of the Macedonians. Born in 356 bc, Alexander was tutored in his early years by Aristotle before succeeding his father Philip as king of Macedonia and the mainland of ...

Emancipation of Serfs in Russia

Emancipation of Serfs in Russia   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
659 words

...Serfs also made up the bulk of the Russian army. While voices of moral outrage such as Alexander Radishchev's in Journey from St. Petersburg to Moscow ( 1790 ) denounced the institution, and even the conservative tsar Nicholas I ( r. 1825–1855 ) expressed moral misgivings, serfdom was so central to the Russian economy and social order that Nicholas did not dare touch it. The Russian defeat in the Crimean War ( 1854–1856 ) shocked the new tsar, Alexander II ( 1818–1881 ; r. 1855–1881 ), into action. Upon ascending the throne, Alexander declared that it...

Berlin, Congress of

Berlin, Congress of   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
563 words

..., the Berlin Congress was chaired by the German chancellor Otto von Bismarck with plenipotentiaries of the European powers in attendance. Benjamin Disraeli represented Great Britain; Gyula Andrássy , Austria-Hungary; William Henry Waddington , France; Alexander Gorchakov , Russia; Luigi Corti , Italy; and Alexander Carathéodory , the Ottomans. The task of the Congress was to ensure the settlement of the Eastern Crisis provoked by the uprising of the South Slav tenantries in Herzegovina in July 1875 . The uprising spread to Bosnia and by the...

Lateran Pact

Lateran Pact   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
379 words

...institution within the framework of the regime, a matter of no small import in areas of rural Italy where the Church had great power. The Lateran accords did not completely resolve Church-state friction. In 1931 a bitter dispute over the closure by the state of the youth sections of Catholic Action led Pius XI (serving as pope 1922–1939 ) to issue a critical encyclical. Further conflicts arose over certain aspects of the Fascist anti-Semitic laws of 1938 , but on the whole both sides respected the accords and benefited from them. The Concordat was...

Alexandria

Alexandria   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
373 words

...bombardment of Alexandria. Despite the damage, British authorities moved quickly to rebuild. By 1906 the Corniche was constructed. Built along the ancient Canopic Way, the grandiose promenade consisted of modern hotels, restaurants, and foreign embassies, which were linked to the Municipal Gardens and the Nebi Daniel Mosque (thought to be the resting place of Alexander the Great), making the city a prized destination for European writers and artists, such as the English novelist E. M. Forster and the Greek poet Constantine Cavafy . Today Alexandria has...

Gulag

Gulag   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
387 words

...[ See also Russia, the Russian Empire, and the Soviet Union ; and Stalinism . ] Bibliography Khlevniuk, Oleg V. The History of the Gulag: From Collectivization to the Great Terror . Translated by Vadim A. Staklo , with editorial assistance and commentary by David J. Nordlander. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2004. An English-language edition of documents from official Soviet archives on the 1930s Gulag. Solzhenitsyn, Alexander I. The Gulag Archipelago, 1918–1956: An Experiment in Literary Investigation . 3 vols. Translated by Thomas P....

Shultz, George Pratt

Shultz, George Pratt (13 Dec. 1920)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
384 words

...Stanford University and president of the Bechtel Group, Inc. In 1982 he was appointed Secretary of State by President Reagan , following the resignation of Alexander Haig . He served with great distinction and was one of the most influential and successful secretaries of state in American history. He worked quietly to tone down the virulently anti-Soviet rhetoric in which Reagan had engaged in the early 1980s and to resume talks with the Soviets after their breakdown in 1983 . Following the accession to power in the Soviet Union of Mikhail Gorbachev in...

Prussia

Prussia   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
618 words

...East Prussia. In the destructive context of the Thirty Years' War ( 1618–1648 ) and its aftermath, Frederick William , theGreat Elector” ( r. 1640–1688 ), began to lay the foundations of the modern Brandenburg-Prussian state: a modern army and an efficient administration. His Prussian successors, especially Frederick William I ( r. 1713–1740 ) and Frederick II (“the Great,” r. 1740–1786 ), continued these efforts and vaulted Prussia into the status of a great power, both militarily and economically. Throughout its brief but dramatic history, Prussia was...

Macedonia

Macedonia   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
583 words

...and the Macedonian Orthodox Church declared itself autocephalous, a decision still contested by other Orthodox patriarchates. This process confirmed a distinct Macedonian nationality. Since the collapse of Yugoslavia in 1991 , Macedonia has struggled to find stability in the face of economic difficulties, Greek hostility, and ethnic conflict. Always poor and small, and having few natural resources, Macedonia remains weak. The Greek government has consistently argued that “Macedonia” has been a Greek term since the time of Alexander of Macedon (Alexander the...

Vienna, Congress of

Vienna, Congress of   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,914 words

...Tsar Alexander I of Russia, the calm and practical Viscount Castlereagh (Robert Stewart) of England, and the Prussian ministers Wilhelm von Humboldt and Karl August von Hardenberg. Talleyrand ( 1754–1838 ) was bishop of Autun ( 1788–1791 ), foreign minister of the Directory and the empire ( 1797–1807 ) and of the restored monarchy ( 1814–1815 ), and ambassador to Great Britain ( 1830–1834 ). Tactically unscrupulous but committed to strategic principles of balance and moderation, he served France whether a monarchy, a republic, or an empire. His skillful...

Georgia

Georgia   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,724 words

...spoke Armenian before the (mythical) invasion of Alexander the Great and only then created ena kartuli (the Georgian language). Georgians in the Middle Ages identified with their language, the particular religion embraced by the king (first paganism, then Christianity), and the developing historical tradition set down in the chronicles after the invention of the first Georgian alphabet. In the seventh century Islamic armies moved into Georgia, but the various kingdoms remained semi-independent, from the late eighth century under the Bagratid (Bagratuni)...

Saint Petersburg

Saint Petersburg   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
480 words

...capital in 1712 , a status that it retained until 1918 . Petersburg was the center of Russian culture throughout the nineteenth century, as reflected in the novels of Fyodor Dostoyevsky ( 1831–1881 ) and Leo Tolstoy ( 1828–1910 ), the poetry of Alexander Pushkin ( 1799–1837 ) and Nikolai Nekrasov ( 1821–1878 ), and the music of Mikhail Glinka ( 1804–1857 ), Pietr Tchaikovsky ( 1840–1893 ), and Igor Stravinsky ( 1882–1971 ). These traditions were carried on in the twentieth century by Anna Akhmatova ( 1889–1966 ) in poetry (“Poem without a...

Borneo, British North

Borneo, British North   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
626 words

...state, although in 1764 Alexander Dalrymple, then a servant of the British East India Company, argued for a settlement at Balambangan and, alongside it, a territory he called “Felicia,” influenced by the British but not under their rule. Northern Borneo was in fact then part of two states, in the sense that the neighboring Malayo-Muslim sultanates of Brunei and Sulu claimed overlordship, Brunei focusing on the west coast and Sulu focusing mainly on the east. A “state” of North Borneo emerged only after 1878 , when what became the British North Borneo...

Waldheim, Kurt

Waldheim, Kurt (21 Dec. 1918)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
504 words

...) Secretary-General of the UN 1972–82 , President of Austria 1986–92 Born into a middle-class Catholic family in Lower Austria, Waldheim grew up in a country torn by political divisions and trying to come to terms with its decline from being a great empire in 1914 to being a small state in 1918 . Waldheim studied law in Vienna with the intention of entering the diplomatic service, but the Nazi takeover ( Anschluss ) of Austria in 1938 prevented him realizing this ambition. The war came and he was called up, serving in the German army as a...

Trans-Siberian Railway

Trans-Siberian Railway   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
612 words

.... The history of Russia's transcontinental line reflects the tsarist and Soviet governments' attempts to assert political control over Siberia and to exploit its resources. More than four thousand miles (sixty-five hundred kilometers) long, the Trans-Siberian Railway travels from Moscow, through Tiumen, Omsk, Novosibirsk, Krasnoiarsk, Irkutsk, Ulan-Ude, Chita, and Khabarovsk, to Vladivostok. Spearheaded by the minister of finance Sergei Witte, construction of the Trans-Siberian began in 1892 in the reign of Tsar Alexander III out of concern for the...

Sardinia, Kingdom of

Sardinia, Kingdom of   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
599 words

...1799 , the Austro-Russian troops of General Alexander Suvorov conquered Turin and regained the country's independence. Nonetheless, on 11 September 1802 the kingdom became part of France yet again. This annexation produced an enduring legacy not only for Sardinia but for the whole of Italy because the French financial, judicial, and educational regulations were adopted throughout the kingdom. In addition, the French system of administration—with the novelty of the prefects—was implemented in all territories that Napoleon occupied in Italy. After the defeat...

Russia, the Russian Empire, and the Soviet Union

Russia, the Russian Empire, and the Soviet Union   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
7,664 words
Illustration(s):
5

...Press, 1971. Hosking, Geoffrey . The Russian Constitutional Experiment: Government and Duma, 1907–1914 . Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1973. Hughes, Lindsey . Peter the Great: A Biography . New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2002. Jones, Robert E. The Emancipation of the Russian Nobility, 1762–1785 . Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1973. Madariaga, Isabel de . Russia in the Age of Catherine the Great . New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1981. Malia, Martin . Alexander Herzen and the Birth of Russian Socialism ....

Intelligentsia

Intelligentsia   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
2,039 words

...socialist ideas, calling for the abolition of serfdom and reform of the monarchy into a democratic, federal republic. The Russian intelligentsia became more cohesive in the 1860s, as intellectuals and artists realized they no longer fit easily into traditional social hierarchies of clergy, nobility, merchants, the urban middle class, and the peasantry. They developed a common sense of purpose, sharing in their disappointment over the losses of the Crimean War ( 1854–1856 ) and supporting the liberalizing reforms of Tsar Alexander II ( 1818–1881 ). As levels...

Finland

Finland   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,933 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to a British alliance and refused to enter the Continental System established by Napoleon. Napoleon's allies Denmark and Russia declared war on Sweden in 1808 . Russia overran Finland and annexed it at the Peace of Frederikshamn ( 1809 ). Tsar Alexander I , as Grand Duke of Finland, appointed Sprengtporten governor-general. The Finnish estates met at Borgå in 1809 and persuaded Alexander that all the members of the Committee for Finnish Affairs should be Finns. The governor-general appointed by the grand duke would run a council that oversaw extant Finnish...

New Orleans

New Orleans   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,118 words

... Alexander O'Reilly , arrived. He made the city a viable and profitable port for the king of Spain by completely reorganizing the local government and firmly establishing authority. During the time of the American Revolution, New Orleans was still controlled by Spain, and the population had grown to little more than three thousand. Threatened by the British settlement of the western portions of Florida, the governor of New Orleans took measures to secure the city against a British invasion. In the early years of the American Revolution, Spain had backed the...

Bulgaria

Bulgaria   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,109 words

...and Great Britain objected and proposed the convocation of the Congress of Berlin, where the newly created state was dismembered into three parts: the autonomous principality of Bulgaria; the autonomous region of Eastern Rumelia, or southern Bulgaria; and the rest of Thrace and Macedonia, which was returned to the Ottomans. The principality of Bulgaria, which comprised 37.5 percent of the size of the San Stefano variant, became a constitutional monarchy with a liberal constitution. Its first prince, Alexander Battenberg , credited with achieving the...

View: