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Alexander the Great

[Na] Leader of the Macedonians. Born in 356 bc, Alexander was tutored in his early years by Aristotle before succeeding his father Philip as king of Macedonia and the mainland of ...

Consumerism

Consumerism   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
3,809 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

..., London, 1979; Alexander, D. , Retailing in England During the Industrial Revolution , London, 1970; Brewer, J. , & Porter, R. , eds., Consumption and the World of Goods , London, 1993; Campbell, C. , The Romantic Ethic and the Spirit of Modern Consumerism , Oxford, 1987; Earle, P. , The Making of the English Middle Class: Business, Society and Family Life in London, 1660–1730 , London, 1989; McKendrick, N. , Brewer, J. , & Plumb, J. H. , The Birth of a Consumer Society: The Commercialization of Eighteenth-Century England , London, 1982; Mui, H....

Enlightenment

Enlightenment   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
7,794 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...a party in the early 1750s, it was led by men like Alexander Carlyle ( 1722–1805 ), John Home ( 1722–1808 ), and William Robertson—a group of clergyman educated at Edinburgh University, who had served in the College Company of Edinburgh Volunteers in opposition to the Jacobite army. These clergy gained control of the general assembly of the Church of Scotland and used their powers to discipline evangelical and democratic tendencies at a local level. Their moderatism upheld the virtue of civility and politeness as characteristics of the Christian and good...

Law

Law   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,210 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... Alexander Hamilton ( 1757–1804 ), George Washington 's private secretary during the *American Revolution , justified these developments on the grounds that ‘though individual oppression may now and then proceed from the courts of justice, the general liberty of the people can never be endangered from that quarter’. A radical interpretation of common law ideology, which emphasized individual natural rights and looked to the judges as the guardians of those rights against executive power, was therefore the essence of the constitutional challenge which the...

Exploration

Exploration   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,825 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...on the part of the latter. The view that colonists might lapse from European civility into something much closer to the savagery of the tropical populations they were attempting to dominate had been advanced much earlier, notably by Diderot ; but these accounts effectively provided much first-hand information to suggest that colonization was disorderly and morally ambiguous. *Missionary literature was also very widely consumed, and provided a view of indigenous peoples distinct from that of natural historians such as Forster and Alexander von...

Great Awakening

Great Awakening   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
2,515 words

...this region, where Alexander Campbell's Disciples of Christ ( 1824 ) gathered schismatic Presbyterians, Methodists, and Baptists into a major new communion modeled on ecumenical and apostolic principles. By 1845 the Second Great Awakening had succumbed to a series of reversals: the disappointment of Adventist expectations in 1844 ; the murder of Joseph Smith in the same year; and the regional division of the Presbyterian, Methodist, and Baptist communions between 1837 and 1845 over issues related to the debate over slavery. Yet the revival left...

Grimm, Friedrich Melchior

Grimm, Friedrich Melchior (1723–1807)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
2,008 words

...Frederick the Great , but for a few years only; the empress Catherine II of Russia; Stanisław II Poniatowski , king of Poland; Leopold , grand duke of Tuscany and future emperor; Christian IV , duke of Deux-Ponts; Alexander , margrave of Ansbach; Augustus of Saxe-Gotha; and Prince Frederick-William of Prussia, the future king. At its height, between 1770 and 1775 , the Correspondance littéraire had about fifteen princely subscribers. The cost of a subscription varied from 600 livres (the duchess of Saxe-Gotha) to 1,500 (Catherine II). The activity...

Pope, Alexander

Pope, Alexander (1688–1744)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
1,769 words

...Works by Pope The Twickenham Edition of the Poems of Alexander Pope . Edited by John Butt et al. 11 vols. New Haven, Conn., 1939–1969. A meticulous and fully annotated text of the poems, with all textual variants and full introductions to each poem. The Correspondence of Alexander Pope . Edited by George Sherburn . 5 vols. Oxford, 1956. The Poems of Alexander Pope . Edited by John Butt . London, 1963. A one-volume version of the Twickenham Edition above, without introductions and with much reduced annotation. The Prose Works of Alexander Pope . Edited by...

Hamilton, Alexander

Hamilton, Alexander (1757–1804)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
2,340 words

.... The Young Hamilton, A Biography . Boston, 1978. The most thorough guide to the details of Hamilton's early life. Goebel, Julius , ed. The Law Practice of Alexander Hamilton . New York, 1964–1981. Hamilton, Alexander , ed. The Papers of Alexander Hamilton , edited by Harold C. Syrett and others. 27 vols. New York, 1961–1987. McCoy, Drew R. The Elusive Republic: Political Economy in Jeffersonian America . Chapel Hill, N.C., 1980. A brilliant study that examines the ideological divisions between Federalists and Jeffersonians over the development of the...

Addison, Joseph

Addison, Joseph (1672–1719)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
646 words

...career. He married the dowager countess of Warwick in 1716 , but his health began to fail from overwork, and he died on 17 June 1719 . [See also Clubs and Societies ; Coffeehouses and Cafes ; Journals, Newspapers, and Gazettes , subentry on Great Britain ; Pope, Alexander ; Popularization ; and Sociability .] Addison, Joseph , and Richard Steele . The Spectator . Edited by Donald F. Bond . 5 vols. Oxford, 1965. Thorough annotation and indexing enhance the reader's experience. Ellison, Julie K. Cato's Tears and the Making of Anglo-American...

Campbell, Archibald

Campbell, Archibald (1682–1761)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
691 words

...was the second son of the first duke of Argyll, the chief of the Clan Campbell. Educated at Eton and at the universities of Glasgow and Utrecht, he continually held important offices of state in Scotland after 1705 , and in the United Kingdom after 1708 . Until 1743 , when he inherited his dukedom, his political power derived from the influence of his brother, the second duke, and from Ilay's own connection to the prime minister, Sir Robert Walpole . From about 1724 until his death, the third duke was the most important patron to Scots in Great...

Russia

Russia   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
4,755 words

...Kamensky, Aleksandr B. Ot Petra I do Pavla I . Moscow, 1999. Karamzin, Nikolay M. Memoir on Ancient and Modern Russia . Translated and edited by Richard Pipes . Cambridge, Mass., 1952. Lentin, A. Peter the Great: The Law on the Imperial Succession . Oxford, 1996. Reproduces the original Russian version of The Justice of the Monarch's Will , with translation and useful commentary. Lopatin, V. S. Ekaterina II; G. A. Potemkin: Lichnaia perepiska, 1769–1791 . Moscow, 1997. An outstanding contribution to the study of Russia in the age of Catherine...

Kauffman, Angelica Maria Catherina Anna

Kauffman, Angelica Maria Catherina Anna (1741–1807)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
642 words

...art, which would affirm the ideals of civic humanism as well as provide employment for artists. Kauffman, one of the first to exhibit paintings of English history and classical history at the Royal Academy, helped to promote a taste and market for such history-painting with scenes from the Trojan War, classical mythology, medieval history, Italian Renaissance poetry, Shakespeare , and the works of English authors Laurence Sterne and Alexander Pope . Her paintings were widely known through engravings; some were used to make the new “mechanical paintings,”...

Travel Literature

Travel Literature   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
5,030 words

...and German. It set forth the geology and natural history of Dalmatia, together with an anthropological account of the primitive customs of its inhabitants, the pastoral population of the inland mountains, called Morlacchi. Dalmatia was not nearly so remote as Tahiti, though the Morlacchi seemed almost as exotic as the Tahitians, and Fortis demonstrated the importance of scientific travel for the detailed description of customs. The word “anthropology” took on its modern meaning in French in 1788 with the publication by Alexandre-César Chavannes of ...

Ottoman Empire

Ottoman Empire   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
1,282 words

...such as the French renegade Claude-Alexandre , count Bonneval, in the 1730s and 1740s under Mahmut I , or baron François de Tott , employed as a military adviser and mathematics teacher to the navy by Mustafa III in the 1770s. The disastrous war against the Russians between 1768 and 1774 ended in the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca , by which the Ottomans ceded the Crimea. The interests of the different European countries in the Empire were reflected in their strong commercial and diplomatic links, as can be seen not only in the number of Europeans resident...

Catherine II

Catherine II (1729–1796)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
2,586 words

...Voltaire and the Instruction of 1767 in the English Text of 1768 . Cambridge, 1931; repr., 1971. Contains the first English translation of the Nakaz . The correspondence with Voltaire is incomplete; his letters to the empress are in Th. Besterman's magisterial edition of Voltaire's complete works. Studies Alexander, John T. Catherine the Great—Life and Legend . Oxford, 1989. Biographies of Catherine continue to proliferate; this political portrait succeeds in negotiating the gap between popular and scholarly biographies. Hubner, E. , J. Kusber , and Peter...

China

China   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
2,431 words

...la Chine ( 1735 ); and the Mémoires concernant l'histoire, les sciences, les arts, les moeurs, les usages, etc. des Chinois ( 1776–1814 ), edited by Amiot and others. Scholarly studies by Jesuits also appeared, such as the thirteen-volume Histoire général de la Chine, ou annales de cet empire ( 1777–1785 ) by Joseph Anne Marie de Moyriac de Mailla , edited by Jean Baptiste Gabriel Alexandre Grosier . European compilers of travel literature—the abbé Antoine François Prévost and Jean François de La Harpe —further broadened the audience for writings by...

Montagu, Mary Wortley

Montagu, Mary Wortley (1689–1762)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
858 words

...of Steele and Addison , who also loved literature, and the two corresponded. Despite her father's opposition, the couple married secretly in August 1712 . Her marriage soon disappointed the young woman, but she decided to devote herself to promoting her husband's career. The Whigs were victorious in the elections of 1715 , and Edward Wortley Montagu was elected a member of Parliament. In London, Lady Mary met many famous writers, including the abbé Conti , Joseph Addison , and Alexander Pope . In 1715 , she contracted smallpox, which spoiled her...

Radishchev, Alexander Nikolayevich

Radishchev, Alexander Nikolayevich (1749–1802)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
1,242 words

.... Moscow, 1975. In the Biblioteka Poeta series, annotated and containing the celebrated “Ode to Liberty” and Radishchev's other verse. STUDIES Lang, D. M. The First Russian Radical: Alexander Radishchev, 1749–1802 . New York, 1960. The first English biography. Mcconnell, Allen . A Russian Philosophe: Alexander Radishchev, 1749–1802 . The Hague, 1964. Treats Radishchev's intellectual development more fully than does Lang. Page, Tanya . A Radishchev Monstrology: The Journey from Petersburg to Moscow and Later Writings in the Light of French Sources....

Saint Petersburg Academy

Saint Petersburg Academy   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
1,393 words

...1979. On the distinctiveness of Peter the Great's Academy. Ostrovitianov, K. V. , ed. Istoriia Akademii nauk SSSR . 2 vols. Moscow and Leningrad, 1958. Vol. 1 of this official Soviet history covers the eighteenth century. Pekarskii, P. P. Istoriia Imperatorskoi Akademii nauk . 2 vols. St. Petersburg, 1870–1873. The classic account of the Academy. Schulze, Ludmilla . The Russification of St. Petersburg Academy of Science and Arts in the Eighteenth Century . British Journal for the History of Science 18 (1985), 305–335. Vucinich, Alexander . Science in...

Optimism, Philosophical

Optimism, Philosophical   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
2,025 words

.... What the Enlightenment came to term “optimism” was the view, derived from philosophical claims about the goodness of God, that despite apparent evils the world is as good as it can possibly be: that, in the famous phrase of the German philosopher Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz ( 1646–1716 ), we live in “the best among all possible worlds” ( Essais de théodicée , 1710 ; Eng. trans., Theodicy , 1952 , 128). Optimism typically took a universal perspective, frequently appealing to the great chain of being and to the plenitude of the world system. The...

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