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Alexander the Great

[Na] Leader of the Macedonians. Born in 356 bc, Alexander was tutored in his early years by Aristotle before succeeding his father Philip as king of Macedonia and the mainland of ...

Consumerism

Consumerism   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
3,809 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

..., London, 1979; Alexander, D. , Retailing in England During the Industrial Revolution , London, 1970; Brewer, J. , & Porter, R. , eds., Consumption and the World of Goods , London, 1993; Campbell, C. , The Romantic Ethic and the Spirit of Modern Consumerism , Oxford, 1987; Earle, P. , The Making of the English Middle Class: Business, Society and Family Life in London, 1660–1730 , London, 1989; McKendrick, N. , Brewer, J. , & Plumb, J. H. , The Birth of a Consumer Society: The Commercialization of Eighteenth-Century England , London, 1982; Mui, H....

Enlightenment

Enlightenment   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
7,794 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...a party in the early 1750s, it was led by men like Alexander Carlyle ( 1722–1805 ), John Home ( 1722–1808 ), and William Robertson—a group of clergyman educated at Edinburgh University, who had served in the College Company of Edinburgh Volunteers in opposition to the Jacobite army. These clergy gained control of the general assembly of the Church of Scotland and used their powers to discipline evangelical and democratic tendencies at a local level. Their moderatism upheld the virtue of civility and politeness as characteristics of the Christian and good...

Law

Law   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,210 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... Alexander Hamilton ( 1757–1804 ), George Washington 's private secretary during the *American Revolution , justified these developments on the grounds that ‘though individual oppression may now and then proceed from the courts of justice, the general liberty of the people can never be endangered from that quarter’. A radical interpretation of common law ideology, which emphasized individual natural rights and looked to the judges as the guardians of those rights against executive power, was therefore the essence of the constitutional challenge which the...

Exploration

Exploration   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,825 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...on the part of the latter. The view that colonists might lapse from European civility into something much closer to the savagery of the tropical populations they were attempting to dominate had been advanced much earlier, notably by Diderot ; but these accounts effectively provided much first-hand information to suggest that colonization was disorderly and morally ambiguous. *Missionary literature was also very widely consumed, and provided a view of indigenous peoples distinct from that of natural historians such as Forster and Alexander von...

Alexander, Archibald

Alexander, Archibald (1772–1851)   Reference library

James Moorhead

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...during the Great Awakening of the eighteenth century. Alexander’s works often lacked systematic precision, but he established the basic intellectual tone and themes that would remain dominant in the so-called Princeton Theology until the early twentieth century. Under such notable successors as Charles Hodge ( 1797–1878 ) and Benjamin B. Warfield ( 1851–1921 ), these motifs were transformed into a well-integrated theological system whose central features included: adherence to Reformed orthodoxy, commitment to an inductive theology based upon the infallible...

Dallas, Alexander James

Dallas, Alexander James (1759–1817)   Reference library

Mark G. Spencer

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Adjudged in the Several Courts of the United States and of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, 1798–1807). Blacklist: A list of the Tories who took part with Great Britain (Philadelphia, 1802). An Exposition of the Causes and Character of the War (Washington, 1815). Further Reading Callaway, H. G. “Introduction,” to Alexander James Dallas, An Exposition of the Causes and Character of the War (Edinburgh, UK, 2011). Dallas, George Mifflin . Life and Writings of Alexander James Dallas (Philadelphia, 1871). Walters, Raymond Jr. Alexander James Dallas:...

Hodges, William

Hodges, William (1744–97)   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...after which he published a travel narrative and a set of views. His views of the Ganges, then in the collection of Warren *Hastings , were later cited by Alexander von Humboldt as one of his principal inspirations to visit the tropics and study natural history. Nicholas Thomas...

Hamilton, Alexander

Hamilton, Alexander (1712–56)   Reference library

Elaine G. Breslaw

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...from the Chair, in the Lodge-Room at Annapolis, by the Right Worshipful the Master, to the Brethren of the Ancient and Honourable Society of Free and Accepted Masons, in Maryland…, in June, 1750,” as an Appendix in John Gordon , Brotherly Love Explain’d and Enforc’d, a Sermon Preached June 25, 1750 (Annapolis, MD, 1750), pp. 23–7. A Defence of Doctor Thomson’s Discourse on the preparation of the Body for the small pox and the manner of receiving the infection … (Philadelphia, 1751). Gentleman’s Progress: The Itinerarium of Dr. Alexander Hamilton...

Hawkesworth, John

Hawkesworth, John (1715–73)   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...journal that the published account bore scant relation to the facts of the voyage, a charge enthusiastically seconded in print by Alexander Dalrymple ( 1737–1808 ), who thought the compiler was somehow responsible for Cook's failure to discover the Great Southern Continent. Elizabeth *Carter , James *Boswell , and Hester Chapone ( 1727–1801 ) were among the many who thought Hawkesworth's rejection of a particular providence in the account of the Endeavour's escape from the coral of the Great Barrier Reef was a godless rehearsal of the doctrines of *...

Russia and the American Enlightenment

Russia and the American Enlightenment   Reference library

Daniel L. Schlafly, Jr.

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...on the emperor, hoping he would promote “a more social and rational order of things.” Jefferson wrote to Alexander that same year, praising his “virtue and wisdom,” while Alexander’s reply lauded America’s “free and wise Constitution which assures the happiness of each.” In 1806 , after Jefferson was sent a bust of Alexander I, the president wrote to the emperor that “his ruling passion is the advancement of the peace and prosperity of his people.” In return, Alexander thanked Jefferson for the copy of the American Constitution he had sent and cited the...

Bonner, Edmund

Bonner, Edmund (1500?–1569)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
381 words

...with great energy; in four years about seventy-five Protestants were burned in his diocese (out of a national total of fewer than three hundred). For this, he earned the title “bloody butcher Bonner” among Protestants. It is clear, however, that he and his officials labored hard to persuade those accused of heresy to recant. In 1559 Bonner refused to take the oath of supremacy as required by Elizabeth 's government. He was once more deprived of his bishopric and spent the remainder of his life in the Marshalsea prison. Alexander, Gina . Bonner and the...

Spotswood, Alexander

Spotswood, Alexander (1676–1740)   Reference library

Bruce P. Lenman

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Alexander ( 1676–1740 ) A cosmopolitan man of the early anglophone Enlightenment, Spotswood promoted continental perspectives and practical education for social and economic improvement. The son of a military surgeon from a formerly distinguished Scottish family, Spotswood was born in Tangier in 1676 . Tangier was part of the dowry of Charles II’s Portuguese queen and, until abandoned in 1684 , was a major garrison for the army of the later Stuarts. John Churchill, future Duke of Marlborough, served there. Later under his command Alexander...

Margaret of Parma

Margaret of Parma (1522–1586)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
939 words

...Montmorency, count of Hornes. On the marriage of Margaret's son Alexander ( November 1565 ), a number of Protestant nobles formed a “league” opposed to Philip II's placards against heresy and to the Inquisition. With like-minded Catholic nobles they formed a confederation consisting largely of the lesser nobility and on 5 April 1566 presented to the governess-general a request for the suspension of the placards and the convening of the States-General. Under the pressure of circumstances, Margaret modified the application of the placards, but this “moderation”...

Asper, Hans

Asper, Hans (1499–1571)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
379 words

...of the inner circle of the Zurich magistrates, the Large Council ( Grossrat ), Asper was known after 1545 as “the Apelles of Zurich.” Like the original Apelles, court painter of Alexander the Great ( 336–323 BC), Asper painted the portraits of Reformation leaders and other influential citizens. His artistic imagination was fueled by the German artist Albrecht Dürer , whose Zurich student was Asper's teacher, and all his work discloses the spirit of the late Gothic period. A member of a well-known Zurich family—his father, Heinrich, also served on the...

Ames, Fisher

Ames, Fisher (1758–1808)   Reference library

Todd Estes

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...in the House debate over the Jay Treaty and his funeral orations on the deaths of George Washington and Alexander Hamilton were judged especially effective. Ames’s speeches typically were delivered without notes yet they were coherent and well organized. His speeches usually began quietly and slowly and gradually built in intensity and emotion even as they contained highly logical arguments and evidence. The perorations of his speeches were especially notable and usually merged melodrama, histrionics, and hyperbole designed to move the immediate audience. The...

Smith, William

Smith, William (1697–1769)   Reference library

Adam Nadeau

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Zenger’s case before the supreme court, Smith and his colleague, James Alexander ( 1691–1756 ), were disbarred for arguing that the supreme court justices were appointed illegally (their commissions were at royal pleasure rather than during good behavior). Smith and Alexander appealed to the assembly and their disbarment was successfully overturned two years later. Meanwhile, the Philadelphia lawyer Andrew Hamilton won Zenger his acquittal in a landmark case in the history of the freedom of speech in America, which “began the destruction of seditious...

Commerce and Trade

Commerce and Trade   Reference library

Paul Tonks

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...The major focus on commerce and trade in the American Enlightenment reflected an important transformation in America’s global status and reputation. As a result of the insights of the American Enlightenment and the creation of a democratic republic, the New World had a tremendous intellectual impact on the Old World. The central project, advocated by Alexander Hamilton in the immediate aftermath of the adoption of the United States Constitution, of developing the United States as a nation built upon international commerce and trade was crucial to the later...

Tuesday Club Of Annapolis

Tuesday Club Of Annapolis   Reference library

Elaine G. Breslaw

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Club Of Annapolis The Tuesday Club of Annapolis ( 1745–56 ) is the best-documented social and cultural club of the American colonial world. Established by Dr Alexander Hamilton, formerly of Edinburgh, Scotland, the goal of the club was to transport the ideas and manners of the Scottish intellectual world to the less sophisticated American environment. It became a major vehicle for spreading the enlightened ideals of religious tolerance, republican government, social improvement, and the value of commerce. At the same time it encouraged literary forays...

Kent, James

Kent, James (1763–1847)   Reference library

Daniel J. Hulsebosch

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...was the most influential judge and legal writer in the United States between the Revolution and the Civil War. He was born in colonial New York in 1763 , the same year that the British Empire gained the Ohio Valley from France in the treaty that ended the Seven Years’ War, and he died eight decades later, in late 1847 , just after the United States settled its dispute over the Oregon Territory with Great Britain and as it was negotiating a peace treaty with Mexico that ceded Texas, California, and the territories between them. Kent’s life spanned the...

Farnese, House of

Farnese, House of   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
476 words

...in the history of the sixteenth-century papacy, the Farnese, who possessed lands around Lake Bolsena in papal territory, can be traced to the eleventh century. From that time members of the family appeared as soldiers and condottieri in the service of Orvieto, Viterbo, and other cities. In the fifteenth century the family penetrated the Roman aristocracy, and in 1493 Alessandro Farnese ( 1468–1549 ) was made a cardinal by Alexander VI (r. 1492–1503 ), in part owing to the pope's liaison with Alessandro's sister, Giulia ( 1474–1524 ). In the...

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