You are looking at 1-20 of 21 entries  for:

  • All: Alexander the Great x
  • Early Modern History (1500 to 1700) x
clear all

View:

Overview

Alexander the Great

[Na] Leader of the Macedonians. Born in 356 bc, Alexander was tutored in his early years by Aristotle before succeeding his father Philip as king of Macedonia and the mainland of ...

Council of Pisa

Council of Pisa   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
209 words

...ending the Great Schism and deciding between the rival claims of Benedict XIII and Gregory XII . The Council, which met from 25 March until 7 August 1409 , deposed both popes on 5 June , and on 26 June elected Pietro Philarghi ( Peter of Candia ) as Pope Alexander V , who died on 3 May 1410 . The authority of the Council has been much debated by Catholic historians, and Alexander V is variously described as a pope, an antipope, and a ‘council pope’. In the short term the Council exacerbated the Great Schism by adding a third pope to the...

Great Schism

Great Schism   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
345 words

...Clement's successor in the Avignon obedience was Benedict XIII ; in the Roman obedience, Urban VI's successors were Boniface IX , Innocent VII , and Gregory XII . The Council of Pisa was convened in 1409 to resolve the split, and decided to do so by electing a Pisan pope, Alexander V , who was recognized by neither Avignon nor Rome; Alexander's successor in the Pisan obedience was John XXIII . The schism was ended by the Council of Constance , which elected Martin V in 1417 . Thereafter two antipopes, Clement VIII and the obscure Benedict XIV ,...

Hus, Jan

Hus, Jan (c.1372–1415)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
672 words

...an attack on the suppression of clergy ( De arguendo clero pro concione ). In 1409 the Council of Pisa elected Alexander V as pope, and so exacerbated the Great Schism by establishing another rival to Gregory XII and Benedict XIII . King Wenceslas IV supported Alexander, as did Hus and the Czech ‘nation’ at the university; Sbinko and the other three ‘nations’ (Saxons, Bavarians, and Poles) supported Gregory. By a royal decree of 18 January 1409 control of the university had been awarded to the Czech ‘nation’ (which led to the withdrawal of...

papacy

papacy   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
679 words

...the Avignonese obedience were Clement VII and Benedict XIII ; the popes of the Pisan obedience were Alexander V ( 1409–10 ) and John XXIII . The election of Martin V in 1417 concluded the Great Schism, though it was prolonged in a formal sense by the two popes of Peñiscola ( Clement VIII and the obscure Benedict XIV) and reopened when the Council of Basel deposed Eugenius IV , the successor of Martin V , and instead elected Felix V , the last antipope. The court of Eugenius IV was in Florence ( 1435–45 ), but with the election of his...

Gaza, Theodore

Gaza, Theodore (1415)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
430 words

...a treatise on the history of the Turks (in the form of an epistle to Francesco Filelfo ), he again attacked Pletho, this time about the nature of history: Pletho had depicted the Ottoman conquest as the revenge of fate for Alexander the Great's earlier conquest; Gaza demurred, and, in appealing to sources such as the history of the Turks by the eleventh-century chronicler John Skylitzes , contributed significantly to the development of analytical historical criticism. In 1455 Gaza moved to Naples, where he lived until 1458 , enjoying the patronage of ...

Gregory XII

Gregory XII (c.1325–1415)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
565 words

...On 26 June the united college of cardinals elected Alexander V as the next pope. Neither Benedict nor Gregory was willing to yield. Benedict had fled to Perpignan without his cardinals and there summoned a council. Gregory opened his council at Cividale (near Aquileia) on 6 June 1409 ; attendance was sparse, but Gregory nonetheless excommunicated Popes Benedict XIII and Alexander V before abandoning the Council on 6 September . Fearful of the hostility of the patriarch of Aquileia, Gregory fled to Gaetà, but on being banished from the kingdom of...

umbrellas and parasols

umbrellas and parasols   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
410 words

... Pope Alexander III gave the doge of Venice the privilege of protection by an umbrella, and until 1797 the doge walked or rode under a sumptuous state umbrella. Umbrellas also appear in religious contexts and have the same symbolic function as the baldacchino : a large umbrella hangs in each of the basilican churches of Rome, and in the fifteenth century an umbrella was incorporated into the heraldic device of the Papal State ; a fresco by Francesco Salviati in the Farnese Palace in Rome depicts Pope Eugenius IV beneath the banner of the Papal...

Borja, Francisco de

Borja, Francisco de (1510–72)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
403 words

...third general of the Jesuits , the great-grandson of Pope Alexander VI and of King Ferdinand V of Castile . In 1534 he succeeded his father as duke of Gandía, and in 1539 he was appointed viceroy of Catalonia by Charles V . In 1546 his wife died, leaving him with eight children, and two years later he secretly joined the Jesuits, securing a three-year dispensation from his vow of poverty to enable him to set his family affairs in order (which included the resignation of his dukedom to his eldest son). He travelled to Rome in the autumn of 1550 ,...

Alfonso V, El Magnánimo

Alfonso V, El Magnánimo (1394–1458)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
498 words

...was once cured of an illness by having the history of Alexander the Great by Quintus Curtius Rufius read to him. Alfonso's conquest of Naples gave him a new base for his military exploits. He fought in the war for the succession of Milan ( 1447–50 ) and in the war against Francesco Sforza ( 1450–3 ), and declined to submit to the Peace of Lodi until 1455 ; in 1454 he signed an accord with Al-Ashraf Inal , the Mameluke sultan of Egypt, with a view to mounting a crusade (never to be realized) against the Ottomans. Alfonso's empire was divided at...

John XXIII

John XXIII (1370–1419)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
897 words

... and joined the dissident cardinals of Benedict XIII in a third college of cardinals, which assembled in March 1409 at the Council of Pisa . The Council deposed Popes Gregory and Benedict and elected Pietro Philarghi ( Peter of Candia ) as Pope Alexander V . When Alexander died suddenly on 3 May 1410 (possibly poisoned by Baldassare), the Pisan cardinals elected Baldassare as Pope John XXIII . Simony was of course a determining factor in the election, but the electors were also mindful that Baldassare's private army would be the likeliest means...

Martin V

Martin V (1368–1431)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
823 words

... Benedict XIII and elected Pietro Philarghi as Pope Alexander V . When Alexander died suddenly on 3 May 1410 , the Pisan cardinals elected Baldassare Cossa as Pope John XXIII . Oddo remained loyal to Pope John until his flight from the Council of Constance . The Council deposed John XXIII and Benedict XIII , received the abdication of Gregory XII , declared the Holy See vacant, and created an electoral conclave consisting of 22 cardinals and 30 representatives of the five nations present at the conference. Cardinal Oddo was elected on St Martin's...

Louis XII

Louis XII (1462–1515)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
591 words

...Pope Alexander VI and married Anne of Brittany , the widow of Charles VIII . In 1499 he renewed the Wars of Italy by invading Italy in pursuit of his family's claim to the duchy of Milan, which originated in the marriage of his grandfather ( Louis I , duke of Orléans) to Valentina Visconti, daughter of Gian Galeazzo Visconti , duke of Milan. The French army and its Venetian allies captured Milan on 6 October 1499 and went on to occupy Genoa. King Louis marched south to Naples, where he reached an accommodation with King Ferdinand for the...

Isabella the Catholic

Isabella the Catholic (1451–1504)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
600 words

...a court school for young noblemen, of which the first head was the Italian humanist Pietro Martire d'Anghiera . She was also the principal supporter of the voyages of Columbus . Her piety also led Isabella to agree to the introduction of the Spanish Inquisition , to drive the Moors from Spain (both Isabella and Ferdinand were present at the conquest of Granada ), and, very reluctantly, to persecute and then banish the Jews of Spain. In 1494 Pope Alexander VI granted the title of reges catholici (‘Catholic sovereigns’) to Ferdinand and Isabella, who...

Cisneros, Cardinal Francisco Jiménez

Cisneros, Cardinal Francisco Jiménez (1436–1517)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
1,017 words

...Ferdinand from Castile. The sudden death of Philip in September 1506 , together with the mental incapacity of Juana, the youth of the future Charles V , and the absence in Naples of Ferdinand, combined to make Cisneros the virtual ruler of Spain until the return in May 1507 of Ferdinand, who brought with him a cardinal's hat for Cisneros and his appointment as grand inquisitor-general of Castile and León. The next great cause in the life of Cardinal Cisneros was the securing of the enclave of Oran on the north coast of Africa . The port of Mers el Kebir...

Malatesta family

Malatesta family   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
1,138 words

...the service of the new pope, Sixtus IV , on whose behalf he defended Rome against the duke of Calabria; he died of his wounds in 1482 . His widow became regent of Rimini on behalf of their son Pandolfo ( d.1534 ). On coming of age, Pandolfo consolidated his power by killing relatives who had contested his authority. He was a condottiere who distinguished himself in the fight against the French in the battle of Fornovo . He fled Rimini when Cesare Borgia was unleashed on Romagna by his father Pope Alexander VI , but returned after the fall of the...

Nicholas V

Nicholas V  

(1397–1455),Pope from 6 March 1447 until his death on 24 March 1455, was born Tommaso Parentucelli in Sarzana (near La Spezia) on 13 November 1397, the son of a ...
John XXIII

John XXIII  

(d. 1419), antipope to Benedict XIII and Gregory XII from 1410 to 1415. He was crowned Pope in 1410, but the validity of his election has been contested as being simoniacal. Of the three Popes then ...
Gregory XII

Gregory XII  

(30 Nov. 1406–4 July 1415: d. 18 Oct. 1417)Successor of Innocent VII, Angelo Correr was born of noble family at Venice c.1325, and was successively bishop of Castello, Venice, (1380), Latin patriarch ...
Malatesta family

Malatesta family  

Leading family of the area between the Italian regions of Romagna and the Marche between the 13th and 15th centuries. It developed lordships over an area comprising Rimini, Cesena, and ...
18th century

18th century: c. 1700 - 1800  

Reference type:
Timeline
Current Version:
2012

...Alexander (1676–1721) The Oxford Companion to Ships and the Sea 2 Australia and Oceania Pacific Islands 1709 1709 Abraham Darby at Coalbrookdale discovers the use of coke in the smelting of pig iron Darby, Abraham (14 Apr 1678) The Grove Encyclopedia of Decorative Arts 1 Britain 1500-1750 Technology Inventions and discoveries Great Britain - from 1707 British Isles Europe Britain 1709 1709 In a friendly keyboard contest in Rome between Handel and Domenico Scarlatti, the result is a draw – Handel being the winner on the organ and Scarlatti on the...

View: