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Alexander the Great

[Na] Leader of the Macedonians. Born in 356 bc, Alexander was tutored in his early years by Aristotle before succeeding his father Philip as king of Macedonia and the mainland of ...

Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
294 words

... the Great (Alexander III of Macedon), son of Philip II of Macedon and Olympias ; born 356 b.c., died 323 . Alexander was the instigator of the first attempt at world domination by a Greek-speaking ruler. His life and exploits are recorded briefly by Byz. chroniclers with emphasis given to his meeting with the widowed Kandake, the priests of Jerusalem, and the Brahmans of India. Little detail is given on his military campaigns, which are noted for starting from Constantinople and for destroying the empire of the Persians, which was then followed by...

Ramsey, William

Ramsey, William (1349)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...H. M. Colvin , ed.: The Middle Ages (1963), i and ii of The History of the King’s Works (London, 1963–82) J. H. Harvey : The Perpendicular Style 1330–1485 (London, 1978) B. C. Rehl : ‘An Historical Reinterpretation of the Gloucester Choir’, Marsyas , xx (1979–80), pp. 1–6 F. Woodman : The Architectural History of King’s College Chapel and its Place in the Development of Late Gothic Architecture in England and France (London, 1986) Age of Chivalry: Art in Plantagenet England, 1200–1400 (exh. cat., ed. J. Alexander and P. Binski ; London,...

Pulpit

Pulpit   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
2,880 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Cockington, Devon, SS George and Mary), the austerity of the pulpit in Wells Cathedral, which was incorporated above the tomb of Bishop William Knight ( reg 1541–7 ), contrasts sharply with any previous example. The wooden sound-board, painted with the Bishop’s coat of arms, was removed in the late 18th century. The inscription (2 Timothy 4:2), written beneath the cornice in the English translation of the Great Bible ( 1539 ), emphasizes the importance of preaching among the reformers. Under Edward VI ( reg 1547–53 ) it was ordered that a pulpit was to be...

Reliquary

Reliquary   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
5,691 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in the 12th century; Saint-Nectaire-le-Haut, St Nectaire, Treasury), the gold head of Saint Paul (late 11th century; Münster, Domschatz), and the renowned head of Pope Alexander ( 1145 ; Brussels, Musées Royaux A. & Hist.), which Wibald of Stavelot probably commissioned from Godefroid of Huy for Stavelot Abbey. The head of the saint is set on a portable altar decorated with plaques in champlevé enamel that present a typological programme. Similar statues and busts of copper gilt were mass-produced in the workshops of Limoge at the end of the 12th...

Alexander legend

Alexander legend   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
286 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and Islamic literatures. Alexander Romances: a hare with a crossbow hunts a man. A monde renverse scene from a lower margin in The Romance of Alexander . The Bodleian Library, University of Oxford, MS Bodley 264 fol. 81v Francis G. Gentry W. J. Aerts et al ., Alexander the Great in the Middle Ages: Ten Studies on the Last Days of Alexander in Literary and Historical Writing (1978). J. Brummack , Die Darstellung des Orients in den deutschen Alexandergeschichten des Mittelalters (1966). G. Cary , The Medieval Alexander (1956). J. Cölln et al .,...

John Mair

John Mair (c.1467–1550)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
85 words

...and logician; teacher of John Knox; Rector of St Salvator’s College, St Andrews, 1531–1550 . In addition to writing logical works and commentaries on Aristotle, he wrote a history of Great Britain, and collaborated on the first printed edition of the Reportatio Parisiensis of *Duns Scotus ( 1517–1518 ). Richard Cross Broadie, Alexander , ‘John Mair’, in The Dictionary of Literary Biography. Volume 281: British Rhetoricians and Logicians, 1500–1660, Second Series , ed. Edward A. Malone (2003),...

Pisa, Council of

Pisa, Council of   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
142 words

...of the Great Schism that had divided Christendom since 1378 resolved to meet, despite their repective Popes , with a view to convoking a council . From Pisa , they launched a campaign to justify their undertaking, while Gregory XII and Benedict XIII each tried to unite their followers. From 25 March 1409 , participants from France , Italy , England , Bohemia , Poland , Portugal , Germany and the Netherlands flowed into Pisa. Strong in their great number (some 500) and convinced of representing the Church, they tried the two rival...

Gospels, Synoptic

Gospels, Synoptic   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
359 words

...to those of the 13th c.: Alexander of Hales , John of La Rochelle , Walter of Château-Thierry , Albert the Great , Nicholas of Gorran and Peter John Olivi commented on the three synoptics. A particular place must be given to Peter Comestor's Historia evangelica , St Bonaventure 's commentary on Luke and St Thomas Aquinas 's Catena aurea , which brought together many passages from the Greek Fathers . F. Stegmüller , RBMA , 2-5, 1950–1955. B. Smalley , The Gospels in the Schools, c.1100-c.1280 , London, 1985. G. Conticello , “ San Tommaso...

sentences

sentences   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
505 words

...intend to give way to the dialecticians. In the Prologue of his book, citing a passage of St Hilary, he tried to keep between extreme positions: “ temperato inter utrumque moderamine utentes (using a measured choice between the various propositions)” (I, 4, 18-19). Starting from Alexander of Hales , whose Glossa constituted the first commentary on the book, the masters “read” the Sentences . We can count 43 commentaries between Alexander of Hales ( 1224 ) and Peter Aureoli ( c. 1316 ). The Sentences would be “read” until the 16th century. Their...

Pahlavi

Pahlavi   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
452 words

..., comparable to the biblical Leviticus, which defined the rules of purity; the Bundahishn , or Book of original creation, and its parallel, the Anthology of Zâdspram , two general treatises full of essential doctrines; finally the Dênkard , a veritable philosophical summa , a difficult text that is still not entirely understood. M. Boyce , “ Middle Persian Literature ”, HO , Iranistik, 2. Literatur , 1968, 31-66. From Alexander the Great to Kul Tegin , Budapest, 1990. P. Gignoux , A. Tafazzoli , Anthologie de Zâdspram , StIr.C , 13, 1993....

Desiderius of Monte Cassino

Desiderius of Monte Cassino (c.1027–1087)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
458 words
Illustration(s):
1

...strove to ally the papacy, in frequent conflict with the emperors, to the Normans of southern Italy ; he organised the council of Melfi ( 1059 ) in the course of which Nicholas II invested Richard of Capua and Robert Guiscard with their conquests; in 1061 , he appealed to Richard to guarantee the election of Alexander II ; in 1084 , Robert Guiscard sacked Rome to save Gregory VII . Under his influence, Monte Cassino fully supported the great ideals of Church reform and provided monks to occupy episcopal sees . After the death of ...

suburbicarian bishopric

suburbicarian bishopric   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
440 words

...The bishop of Ostia-Velletri was the first in dignity. As dean of the Sacred College, he was the first to recognise the newly elected Pope , whom he had the privilege of consecrating since at least the 4th century. The importance of the bishopric of Ostia explains why several of its titulars became popes ( Lucius III , Gregory IX , Alexander IV , Innocent V , Benedict XI and Innocent VI ). The bishop of Porto came next in dignity; he was vice-dean of the Sacred College (this was the title of John XXII at the time of his election ). The see of...

quaestio, Question

quaestio, Question   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
490 words

...but also in many written works that were never the object of oral teaching, like the great theological summae of the 13th century. Certain series of disputed questions, in particular those of Alexander of Hales , Bonaventure , Thomas Aquinas , Giles of Rome , Matthew of Aquasparta , have great importance for the history of doctrines . The separate existence of disputed questions did not prevent many biblical commentaries continuing to have many questions in the text; it was the same in the faculty of arts; certain collections of apparently...

Louis VII the Young

Louis VII the Young (1120–1180)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
584 words
Illustration(s):
1

..., the king, who had shown great courage, confirmed his position as leader of the French baronage. Bad relations with his wife led, on their return from the East, to the annulment of the marriage, with disastrous territorial consequences. Suger's death inaugurated a new period of the reign. The king supported the party of Alexander III in the Schism , at the risk of alienating the emperor. He posed more and more as defender of the papacy and the Churches ( ordinance of Soissons, 10 Jun 1155 ). At the head of a domain ever better mastered and managed,...

Vladimir Monomakh

Vladimir Monomakh (1053–1125)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
324 words

... the Wise, was born in 1053 , the son of Prince Pereyaslavl Vsevolod and the daughter of the Byzantine Emperor Constantine Monomachos . Having married, c. 1073 , Guida of England, daughter of Harold Godwinson († 1066 ), he was allied to the reigning dynasties of France , Germany , Poland , Denmark , Norway , Sweden and Hungary . One of his younger sons, Yury Dolgoruki (“the long-armed”) († 1157 ), prince of the land of Rostov and Suzdal', was the great-grandfather of Alexander Nevsky and is considered the founding ancestor of the...

William of Malavalle

William of Malavalle (1157)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
391 words

.... (died 1157 ) In the Maremma of Grosseto, in the south of Tuscany , San Guglielmo , duke of Aquitaine , is known. His name is associated with certain places, a beneficent herb, a gigantic cork-oak, a fountain. It is said that with a blow of his lance or sword he killed a great serpent or dragon that was terrorizing the country. At Malavalle, between Tirli and Castiglione della Pescaia, is a small ruined church to which nearby villages go on pilgrimage in May. The cult of the hermit William had been authorized by Alexander III , then by Innocent...

Hermits of Saint Augustine, Order of

Hermits of Saint Augustine, Order of   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
476 words

.... It inspired the majority of the great Rules , like those of Isidore of Seville or St Benedict of Nursia . But St Augustine had left no proper normative text, only a series of general recommendations. In the second half of the 11th c., when Benedictine power touched its apogee, these orientations inspired the spiritual search of communities of canons and then guided the first steps of the Premonstratensians , before being taken up by congregations of hermits, particularly numerous in central and northern Italy . In 1252 , Alexander IV , taking up...

Gregorian reform

Gregorian reform   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
629 words

...reform The expression “Gregorian reform” designates the reform of the Church, as conceived and applied by Gregory VII ( 1073–1085 ), but it also covers the ecclesastical reform that developed from the mid 11th to the mid 12th century. It affected every area of the Church's life. At the highest level, Gregory VII wanted to give the papacy great independence from the imperial power. From 1059 , the election of the Pope was in the hands of the cardinals alone: the Dictatus papae of 1075 defined the pope's superiority in the spiritual...

Mosan art

Mosan art   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
470 words

...before the 10th c., the lands of the Meuse found in Bishop Notger ( 972–1008 ) the precursor of a brilliant future at Liège (we owe him the rebuilding of Saint-Lambert, and the church of St John the Evangelist). Recipients of the cultural heritage of Lotharingia , these lands were able to enter the slipstream of Ottonian output and to benefit from the monastic renewal at Lobbes , Stavelot, Saint-Vanne, Saint-Hubert, Saint-Trond, Saint-Jacques and Saint-Laurent, Liège, or at the regular chapters of Floreffe and Averbode. Within earshot of great...

Gregory VII, Pope

Gregory VII, Pope (1029?–1085)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
496 words

...uncle, abbot of Santa Maria on the Aventine, he had as his masters Lawrence, archbishop of Amalfi , and the future Gregory VI . Leo IX appointed him oeconomus , cardinal sub-deacon of the Roman Church and rector of the abbey of San Paolo fuori le Mura ( 1050 ). At the death of Alexander II , Hildebrand's election ( 22 April 1073 ) was approved by the clergy of Rome , in the presence of the cardinal-bishops. The Pope held a first reforming council at the Lateran (9– 17 March 1074 ). Scorning the strong resistance encountered, a second...

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