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Alexander the Great

[Na] Leader of the Macedonians. Born in 356 bc, Alexander was tutored in his early years by Aristotle before succeeding his father Philip as king of Macedonia and the mainland of ...

Alexander, Itinerary of

Alexander, Itinerary of   Reference library

Robert Shorrock

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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2018

..., Itinerary of ( Itinerarium Alexandri ) Anonymous Latin work, written in or soon after ad 340, which summarized the Eastern campaigns of Alexander the Great and Trajan. Only the part about Alexander survives (emphasizing not only his great achievements but also his personal flaws). The work is dedicated to Constantius II on the eve of his own campaign against the Persians, as an encouragement for him to surpass his famous predecessors. It takes inspiration from a work of Varro (written in 77 bc for Pompey, before his Spanish campaign) and...

Alexander Romance

Alexander Romance   Reference library

Theo van Lint, Leslie MacCoull, Ruth Webb, Robert Shorrock, and John Watt

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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2018

... Romance A fictionalized biography of Alexander the Great purporting to be written by his own historian, Callisthenes (so sometimes referred to as Ps.-Callisthenes). The Romance exists in many languages; the Greek version itself has several different recensions. Alexander Romance , Armenian Translation of the Greek version of Pseudo-Callisthenes, transmitted in various redactions and elaborations. Probably first translated in the 5th century, the Armenian version has had relevance for the reconstruction of the lost original Greek text. The addition...

Praxagoras of Athens

Praxagoras of Athens (330)   Reference library

Oliver Nicholson

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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2018

...in the Bibliotheca of Photius (62), emphasizing Constantine’s successive victories over a lion set upon him by Galerius , over Maxentius , and Licinius . The most recent event mentioned is Constantine’s foundation of Constantinople . A pagan from an old Athenian family, Praxagoras earlier wrote two books on the ancient kings of Athens , and in his 30th year a history of Alexander the Great. Oliver Nicholson Text: FGrHist Jacoby, no. 219. ET and discussion: Barnes , Constantine , 195–7. Rowland Smith , ‘A Lost Historian of Alexander...

Alexander Jannaeus

Alexander Jannaeus (103 to 76)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

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2008

... Damascus , historian of Herod the Great and a source for Josephus. The Temple Scroll (11Q19 lxiv.6–9) states that whoever turns his nation over to a foreigner must be hung on a tree. Thus, Yigael Yadin suggested that Alexander Jannaeus executed his enemies according to the laws appearing in the Temple Scroll, and concluded that Pesher Nahum, therefore, does not criticize Jannaeus. This suggestion cannot be accepted since the author of the pesher alluded to Deuteronomy 21.23 : (“You shall not leave his corpse overnight on the tree but you shall bury it on...

George Monachus Hamartolus

George Monachus Hamartolus (9th cent)   Reference library

Brian Croke

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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2018

...George the Monk and ‘sinner’, author of a Byzantine chronicle extending from Creation to 842 and written in the 860s/870s. His compilation drew mainly on the chronicle of George the Syncellus , as well as utilizing for Late Antiquity Eusebius of Caesarea , Theodoret , John Malalas , and Theophanes . The Chronicle divides into four books: the first covers the period from Adam to Alexander the Great, the second the historical period covered by the Old Testament, the third Roman history from Julius Caesar to Constantine I ; and the fourth from the 330s to...

Chronicle, Maronite

Chronicle, Maronite   Reference library

Amir Harrak

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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2018

...Maronite Anonymous Syriac record written shortly after 664, covering the period between the end of the reign of Alexander the Great and the year 664. The author, a Maronite living in Palestine , witnessed Arab–Byzantine battles (siding with the latter). He saw also the Arab civil war between ʿAli (murdered in 661 ‘while praying in Hira ’) and Muʿawiya (d. 680, siding with the latter). He records also the tense relations between various Christian communities and the ‘Umayyad Caliph Muʿawiya. Amir Harrak Hoyland, Seeing Islam , 135–9. ed....

Harpocration of Panopolis

Harpocration of Panopolis   Reference library

Ruth Webb

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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2018

... ad ’, in A. Egberts , B. P. Muhs , and J. Van Der Vliet , eds., Perspectives on Panopolis: An Egyptian Town from Alexander the Great to the Arab Conquest (2002),...

Nahr al-Malik

Nahr al-Malik   Reference library

Daniel Potts

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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2018

...al-Malik ‘King’s canal/river’ ( Ammianus Marcellinus , XXIV, 6, 1: Naarmalcha ), a navigable canal linking the Euphrates and Tigris, joining the latter below Seleucia – Ctesiphon and irrigating the area in between. Probably identical with the much older Nār-šarri (King’s Canal), it was dredged and repaired by Julian the Apostate. Yaqut records three traditions identifying its founder as Iskandar (Alexander the Great), Aqfurshah b. Balash (Pakor), or Soleyman b. Dawud (Solomon son of David). Istakhri mentions it was crossed by a bridge of boats. Daniel...

Tipasa

Tipasa   Reference library

Gareth Sears

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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2018

...built near the theatre, probably during the first half of the 4th century . Firmus besieged Tipasa unsuccessfully in 371/2. Eight churches, most originating in the 4th–5th centuries, are known. The Basilica of S. Salsa, on the eastern hill, was surrounded by a substantial necropolis; the Passio of the martyr ( BHL 7467) was written by someone familiar with the site. The Basilica of Alexander and the Great Basilica complex were on the western hill, the former in an extramural necropolis. These complexes were all built away from the centrally located...

Caucasus Passes

Caucasus Passes   Reference library

Manana Odisheli

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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2018

... claims that Alexander the Great hung the gates between two rocks. Strabo (XI, 3, 5) notes that it took three days to negotiate the pass. Georgian tradition attributes the building of the first fortress at Dariel to King Mirian I (2nd cent. bc ) and King Vakhtang I Gorgasali is said to have restored the fortress. Roman payment to the Persian Empire towards the costs of maintaining a garrison at the Caspian Gates intended to exclude nomad invaders from the steppes of Central Asia became a persistent topic of diplomacy from the time of the Emperor ...

Soterichus

Soterichus (3rd cent)   Reference library

Robert Shorrock

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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2018

...and panegyric . According to the Suda he produced a panegyric on Diocletian and a Life of Apollonius of Tyana . He also wrote a poem describing the sack of Thebes by Alexander the Great (the Python or Alexandriacon ). It is not known whether allusion was made to Dionysus in this poem, but the god clearly held centre stage in Soterichus’ four-book Dionysiaca or Bassarica . A poem on Ariadne is also likely to have touched upon the role of Dionysus. Interest in women and the theme of love suggested by the poem on Ariadne is further in...

Katalymmata ton Plakoton

Katalymmata ton Plakoton   Reference library

Rowena Loverance

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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2018

...atrium. The west-oriented church, probably a martyrium , which had transepts with five apses and an unusual processional arrangement, is dated 616–19 . It may be associated with S. John the Almsgiver, who returned to his native Cyprus c . 617–20 , but it was abandoned in the mid-7th century. The walls were lavishly decorated. There was marble from Proconnesus , glass mosaic , opus sectile , and mother of pearl. The floor mosaics incorporate a liturgical inscription in a medallion. Heraclius is personified as Alexander the Great in a...

Galen in Late Antiquity

Galen in Late Antiquity   Reference library

Caroline Petit

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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2018

...in Late Antiquity After Galen’s death ( c . ad 216), we have clear evidence of his influence not just in the great medical texts of the period ( Oribasius , Aëtius of Amida , Alexander of Tralles , Paul of Aegina ), but also in Christian literature, Greek and Latin , from the early 4th century onwards. The simplified, abbreviated, systematized form of his doctrines taught by ‘iatrosophists’ in Late Antique Alexandria in the 4th to 6th/7th centuries is called ‘Galenism’ (Temkin). Alternative forms of medical practice remained available...

Cirta

Cirta   Reference library

Ralf Bockmann

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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2018

...the city was of great strategic importance. Cirta was devastated when the troops of the usurper Domitius Alexander who had withdrawn there were defeated by Maxentius ’ Praefectus Praetorio Rufius Volusianus in 310 ( Zosimus , II, 12). After 312, Constantine I rebuilt Cirta with generous imperial funds, and changed its name to Constantina. The Donatist Bishop Silvanus of Cirta was investigated by the Consularis Domitius Zenophilus in 320, having been accused of handing over scriptures to the pagan authorities during the Great Persecution . The ...

epic, Greek

epic, Greek   Reference library

Robert Shorrock

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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2018

... in fourteen books) and Nonnus of Panopolis (on the adventures of Dionysus and his efforts to earn a place for himself in Olympus, in 48 books). Pisander of Laranda outdid both of these with a 60-book epic, the Heroikai Theogamiai , which told the story of the world down to the age of Alexander the Great. Such was its popularity that it was said to have led to the demise of the Epic Cycle. Historical epic also flourished in its own right. An account of the sack of Thebes by Alexander the Great was the subject of a poem by Soterichus. Three fragments...

Dexippus

Dexippus (200)   Reference library

Roger C. Blockley

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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2018

...in Photius’ summary and some passages in the Excerpta de Sententiis , appear to have been a literary account of the manoeuvres after the death of Alexander the Great. The other two works appear to have been more popular. The Chronicle was used or referred to by Evagrius in his HE , by Stephanus of Byzantium , by George the Syncellus, and in the Historia Augusta . Its chronology was discussed at some length by Eunapius of Sardis , who continued it. The Chronicle was an annalistic record of the main events and personalities of various peoples...

Aethicus Ister

Aethicus Ister   Reference library

Michael W. Herren

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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2018

...from Istria’, narrates the travelogue, commenting on savage peoples in the north and east, where he encounters monsters, Amazons, and figures of Greek mythology. Aethicus describes marvellous inventions including a submarine used by Alexander the Great, who also immures ‘the unclean races’. The last part deals in coded fashion with contemporary events in the Balkans . Sources are chiefly the Bible, Isidore ’s Etymologiae , and Orosius . The Latinity is a bizarre mix of learned vocabulary and proto-Romance syntax. Michael W. Herren ed. (with ET and...

Zonaras, John

Zonaras, John (1159)   Reference library

Roger Scott

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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2018

...patrology, hagiography, and homiletics are collected in PG 38. Roger Scott Chronicle: ed. L. A. Dindorf, 6 vols. (1868–75). ed. M. Pinder and Th. Büttner-Wobst, 3 vols. (CSHB, 1841–97). Partial ET T. M. Banchich and E. N. Lane , The History of Zonaras: From Alexander Severus to the Death of Theodosius the Great (2009). Hunger , Literatur , vol. 1, 416–19. F. Millar , A Study of Cassius Dio (1964), 2–3, 195–6. ODB III,...

Ptolemies

Ptolemies   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

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2008

...Alexander; on the other, the writings of Demetrius, a Jewish historian and exegete (active in the reign of Ptolemy IV Philopator) who was the first to systematically incorporate the biblical accounts of the Jews' past into the chronological framework of Greek mythology and history. These two opposing poles—apostasy on the one hand and the development of new modes of Jewish culture on the other—remained characteristic of the Jewish Diaspora experience for many centuries to come. In the reign of Euergetes's successor, Ptolemy IV Philopator ( 222–205 bce ),...

Peter I

Peter I (311)   Reference library

Tim Vivian

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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2018

... of the see. Because of his death towards the end of the Great Persecution , he is commonly called ‘the last of the martyrs ’. At Easter 306, Peter issued a Canonical Letter , fourteen canons on penance , which expound neither a theology of martyrdom nor an eschatological exalting of it, but offer lenient regulations for the reconciliation to the Church of lapsi , those who had given way to official requirements during the Great Persecution of the Christians . Peter himself, like Dionysius before him, had gone into hiding during the persecution. The...

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