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Alexander the Great

[Na] Leader of the Macedonians. Born in 356 bc, Alexander was tutored in his early years by Aristotle before succeeding his father Philip as king of Macedonia and the mainland of ...

Alexander ‘the Great’

Alexander ‘the Great’ (336–323 bc)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

... ‘the Great’ ( 336–323 bc ), son of Philip II and king of Macedon, was the greatest military commander of the ancient world; his achievements inspired envy and imitation from Roman generals such as Pompey , Caesar , and Trajan , and achieved legendary status in the Christian and Islamic worlds through the Romance of Alexander . The main surviving sources were written between 300 and 500 years after Alexander's death by the Greek authors Plutarch , who wrote a biography and also wrote two encomiastic essays; Arrian, whose history focuses on...

Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
12 words

... the Great ( see facing page...

Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great (356–323)   Reference library

Stanley M. BURSTEIN

Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
History
Length:
980 words

...Alexander the Great ( 356–323 bce ) King of Macedonia The thirteen-year reign ( 336–323 bce ) of Alexander III of Macedon fundamentally changed the political and cultural structure of ancient southwestern Asia. The Persian Empire, which had ruled the vast region from the Mediterranean to the borders of India, disappeared in 330 bce as the result of Alexander’s conquests, replaced by a new multistate system dominated by Macedonians and Greeks. The region’s center of gravity shifted westward from its ancient focus in Mesopotamia and southwestern...

Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great (356–323bce)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
3,339 words
Illustration(s):
3

...Waldemar . Who's Who in the Age of Alexander the Great: Prosopography of Alexander's Empire . Oxford: Blackwell, 2006. Holt, Frank L. Alexander the Great and the Mystery of the Elephant Medallions . Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003. Holt, Frank L. Into the Land of Bones: Alexander the Great in Afghanistan . Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005. Lendering, Jona . Alexander de Grote: De ondergang van het Perzische rijk . Amsterdam: Athenaeum: Polak and Van Gennep, 2004. Tarn, William W. Alexander the Great . 2 vols. Cambridge,...

Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
107 words

... the Great [Na] Leader of the Macedonians . Born in 356 bc , Alexander was tutored in his early years by Aristotle before succeeding his father Philip as king of Macedonia and the mainland of Greece in 336 bc . Early in his reign he set about releasing the Greeks from Persian domination, but continued his campaigns into a programme of imperialist aggrandizement that eventually created a massive, albeit short‐lived, empire from India to Egypt. After his death from fever in 323 bc his hastily constructed dominion fell apart, the most lasting...

Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great (356–323)   Reference library

Albert Brian Bosworth

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
2,434 words
Illustration(s):
1

...south the kingdoms of Sambus and Musicanus were visited with fire and slaughter when their allegiance wavered, and, as he approached his base in the Indus delta (Patalene), the natives fled in terror (July 325). 7. Alexander now returned to the west, deputing Nearchus to take his fleet across the southern coastline while he led the main army through the Gedrosian desert (Makran), in emulation—so Nearchus claimed—of Cyrus the Great and Semiramis. The horrors of heat and famine which ensued were considerable, but perhaps exaggerated in the sources,...

Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great   Quick reference

Albert Brian Bosworth

Who's Who in the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
2,409 words

...submission, and Alexander's impetuousness cost him a debilitating chest wound. Further south the kingdoms of Sambus and Musicanus were visited with fire and slaughter when their allegiance wavered, and, as he approached his base in the Indus delta (Patalene), the natives fled in terror ( July 325 ). 7. Alexander now returned to the west, deputing Nearchus to take his fleet across the southern coastline while he led the main army through the Gedrosian desert (Makran), in emulation—so Nearchus claimed—of Cyrus the Great and Semiramis. The horrors of heat and...

Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Exploration

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History
Length:
2,363 words
Illustration(s):
1

... the Great This entry contains two subentries: Fact ; Fiction Fact Alexander was born in Macedonia, in northern Greece, in the summer of 356 b.c.e. Word came to Philip II , king of Macedonia, that his queen, Olympias , had given birth to a son at the same time that word came that his horses had won the premier chariot race at the Olympics. It would not be the last time that such omens attended Alexander. When Alexander was thirteen, his father brought the philosopher Aristotle to Macedonia to tutor Alexander, and from him Alexander developed an...

Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great (356–323 BCE), king of Macedon (336–323 BCE).   Reference library

Dictionary of African Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,405 words

...BCE, Alexander campaigned throughout the territories of the Persian Empire from Egypt in the west to northern India in the east. The campaign can be divided into three phases. The first, which lasted from 334 BCE to 330 BCE, is known to historians as the “Greek Crusade” and was marked by the great set battles of Granicus, Issus, and Gaugamela. It climaxed with the destruction of the Persian capital of Persepolis and the assassination of the Persian king Darius III by his own officers. The second phase, which lasted from 330 BCE to 327 BCE, saw Alexander adopt...

Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
294 words

... the Great (Alexander III of Macedon), son of Philip II of Macedon and Olympias ; born 356 b.c., died 323 . Alexander was the instigator of the first attempt at world domination by a Greek-speaking ruler. His life and exploits are recorded briefly by Byz. chroniclers with emphasis given to his meeting with the widowed Kandake, the priests of Jerusalem, and the Brahmans of India. Little detail is given on his military campaigns, which are noted for starting from Constantinople and for destroying the empire of the Persians, which was then followed by...

Alexander, Field Marshal Sir Harold

Alexander, Field Marshal Sir Harold (1891–1961)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

..., Field Marshal Sir Harold ( 1891–1961 ), British Army officer who, from commanding the 1st British Division during the fall of France rose to become Allied Supreme Commander in the Mediterranean . Alexander , who was the fourth son of the Earl of Caledon, served with great distinction in the First World War , and by 1937 was the youngest general in the British Army. He took command of the British Expeditionary Force during the Dunkirk evacuation of May– June 1940 , was promoted lt-general that December, and succeeded Auchinleck at Southern...

Italian campaign

Italian campaign   Reference library

Brian Holden Reid

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
2,829 words
Illustration(s):
6

...from the decisive point—closing the rear of the German Army. But even after the fall of Rome on 4 June, Alexander's second pursuit ordered three days later was wooden and hesitant. He gave the impression of preferring to close up to the next German defensive position—now identified by ULTRA as the Gothic Line —rather than to destroy German forces in the open. This failure in the pursuit was the most marked feature of the western Allies in the Second World War. After DIADEM the Italian campaign assumed a secondary status and six divisions (including the expert...

Brooke, Field Marshal Sir Alan

Brooke, Field Marshal Sir Alan (1883–1963)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...with Churchill and in negotiating with the Americans. The US Joint Chiefs of Staff were wary of the speed and clarity of his thinking—he never did get on with Marshall —but they soon accepted that they were dealing with someone who was ruthlessly professional, and his advice, especially early on, carried great weight. Brooke's other strength was the great skill with which he chose his generals and the loyalty with which he backed them. Alexander , Montgomery , and Slim were among his protégés and after the war Montgomery wrote to him: ‘I can only say...

GUlag

GUlag   Reference library

Akashi Yoji, Norman Davies, and Robert Service

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
1,918 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to replace the Poles. Up to the time of my departure from Kolyma, July 7th, 1942 , no Poles had returned from Tchukotka.’ (Quoted in W. Anders, An Army in Exile , London, 1949 , p. 73). The scale of the GUlag's operation beggars belief. At the end of the Great Terror in March 1939 , up to 10% of the Soviet population may have found themselves in the camps. The historian Robert Conquest has estimated one million deaths per annum during the war years that followed. By the time of Stalin's death in 1953 the total number of victims of the GUlag probably...

Churchill as war leader

Churchill as war leader   Reference library

John Gooch

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...his ammunition. Ismay and his staff ensured that, notwithstanding the mercurial energies of their master, the military machinery ran as smoothly as possible. They were a ‘winning team’, as were the chiefs of staff after December 1941 , and the pairings of Alexander and Montgomery in the Western Desert and Alexander and Harding in Italy. Churchill was not disposed to share his leadership with other politicians: the Dominions were never offered full partnership at the highest levels and his service ministers were never more than civil administrators. He...

Grand Alliance

Grand Alliance   Reference library

Michael Howard

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...the German defences with operation DIADEM and surged forward to capture Rome on 4 June. Once again, as in the previous September, glittering possibilities opened up. The Pisa–Rimini Line now appeared to Churchill far too modest an objective, as it did to General *Alexander , the Allied C-in-C in Italy. Alexander put forward far-reaching proposals, contingent on his retaining the ANVIL divisions, for an offensive that would break through the Gothic Line between Pisa and Rimini, overrun the plain of Lombardy, and thence strike north-east into Austria via the...

Gaulle, Brig-General Charles de and the Free French

Gaulle, Brig-General Charles de and the Free French   Reference library

P. M. H. Bell

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...as leader of the Free French, in which he acted with the connivance of a number of British officials and with at least the knowledge of the prime minister. In the event Muselier overreached himself, and de Gaulle was able to win over Churchill in support of his authority; but again the affair left a bitter aftertaste. Finally in March 1942 Muselier attempted to secede from de Gaulle's command, taking the Free French fleet with him. This time he had the support of A. V. Alexander , the First Lord of the Admiralty, and briefly that of the war cabinet. De...

Germany

Germany   Reference library

Jürgen Förster, Charles Messenger (Armed Forces), and Wolfgang Petter (Culture)

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
21,337 words
Illustration(s):
3

...the regime. The ‘White Rose’ was a group at Munich University in 1942–3 —its nucleus consisted of the students Sophie and Hans Scholl , Willi Graf , Christoph Probst , Alexander Schmorell , and Professor Kurt Huber— which used pamphlets to arouse a university movement against the regime. They were denounced by the university beadle on 18 February 1943 , tried with their friends, and executed. The abortive attempt to assassinate Hitler by Colonel Claus Schenk von Stauffenberg on 20 July 1944 was the last effort to avert catastrophe. The regime...

Italy

Italy   Reference library

Giorgio Rochat, Lucio Ceva (Intelligence), and Tr. John Gooch

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
19,646 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Parri (Party of Action). The second winter in the mountains was the worst. The Allied push came to a halt 15 km. (9.3 mi.) outside Bologna and, in a radio announcement which was also heard by the Germans, Alexander announced the suspension of operations for the winter, an error which the communists subsequently, but incorrectly, claimed had been a deliberate ploy by the British to rid themselves of politically inconvenient allies. Nevertheless, the Nazis and the fascists, who had already undertaken bloody reprisals against the civilian population ( see ...

Consumerism

Consumerism   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
3,809 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

..., London, 1979; Alexander, D. , Retailing in England During the Industrial Revolution , London, 1970; Brewer, J. , & Porter, R. , eds., Consumption and the World of Goods , London, 1993; Campbell, C. , The Romantic Ethic and the Spirit of Modern Consumerism , Oxford, 1987; Earle, P. , The Making of the English Middle Class: Business, Society and Family Life in London, 1660–1730 , London, 1989; McKendrick, N. , Brewer, J. , & Plumb, J. H. , The Birth of a Consumer Society: The Commercialization of Eighteenth-Century England , London, 1982; Mui, H....

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