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Alexander the Great

[Na] Leader of the Macedonians. Born in 356 bc, Alexander was tutored in his early years by Aristotle before succeeding his father Philip as king of Macedonia and the mainland of ...

Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
12 words

... the Great ( see facing page...

Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
681 words

...shapes and were embellished with updated versions of the elaborate figures and florals of later 5th-century bc Attic pottery. Thanks to Alexander , this Macedonian decorative art came to dominate Hellenistic culture from Egypt to Afghanistan . W. W. Tarn : Alexander the Great (Cambridge, 1948/ R 1979) J. R. Hamilton : Alexander the Great (London, 1973/ R Pittsburgh, 1979) M. Andronikos and others: The Search for Alexander: An Exhibition (Boston, 1980) R. Lane Fox : The Search for Alexander (Boston, 1980) B. Barr-Sharrarr and E. N. Borza ,...

Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great (356–323bce)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
3,339 words
Illustration(s):
3

...Waldemar . Who's Who in the Age of Alexander the Great: Prosopography of Alexander's Empire . Oxford: Blackwell, 2006. Holt, Frank L. Alexander the Great and the Mystery of the Elephant Medallions . Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003. Holt, Frank L. Into the Land of Bones: Alexander the Great in Afghanistan . Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005. Lendering, Jona . Alexander de Grote: De ondergang van het Perzische rijk . Amsterdam: Athenaeum: Polak and Van Gennep, 2004. Tarn, William W. Alexander the Great . 2 vols. Cambridge,...

Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great (356–323)   Reference library

Albert Brian Bosworth

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
2,434 words
Illustration(s):
1

...south the kingdoms of Sambus and Musicanus were visited with fire and slaughter when their allegiance wavered, and, as he approached his base in the Indus delta (Patalene), the natives fled in terror (July 325). 7. Alexander now returned to the west, deputing Nearchus to take his fleet across the southern coastline while he led the main army through the Gedrosian desert (Makran), in emulation—so Nearchus claimed—of Cyrus the Great and Semiramis. The horrors of heat and famine which ensued were considerable, but perhaps exaggerated in the sources,...

Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great   Quick reference

Albert Brian Bosworth

Who's Who in the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
2,409 words

...submission, and Alexander's impetuousness cost him a debilitating chest wound. Further south the kingdoms of Sambus and Musicanus were visited with fire and slaughter when their allegiance wavered, and, as he approached his base in the Indus delta (Patalene), the natives fled in terror ( July 325 ). 7. Alexander now returned to the west, deputing Nearchus to take his fleet across the southern coastline while he led the main army through the Gedrosian desert (Makran), in emulation—so Nearchus claimed—of Cyrus the Great and Semiramis. The horrors of heat and...

Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great  

Reference type:
Overview Page
[Na]Leader of the Macedonians. Born in 356 bc, Alexander was tutored in his early years by Aristotle before succeeding his father Philip as king of Macedonia and the mainland of Greece in 336 bc. ...
Thaïs

Thaïs   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Classical studies
Length:
24 words

...Famous Athenian hetaira who accompanied Alexander the Great ( see Alexander (1) 4). Many examples are recorded of her wit in...

Roxa'na

Roxa'na   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Classical studies
Length:
20 words

... ( Rōxănē ) Wife of Alexander the Great and mother of his posthumous son Alexander IV . Both were murdered c .311 bc...

Perse'polis

Perse'polis   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Classical studies
Length:
30 words

...In Persia, the residence and the burial-place of the Achaemenid kings (Cyrus, Darius, Xerxes, etc.). In 331 bc it was sacked and the palaces burned by Alexander the Great...

proskynesis

proskynesis   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Classical studies
Length:
29 words

...The Persian custom of prostrating oneself before the king, which implied submission but not worship. Alexander the Great's attempt to make his entourage adopt this custom was...

Alexander, Itinerary of

Alexander, Itinerary of   Reference library

Robert Shorrock

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

..., Itinerary of ( Itinerarium Alexandri ) Anonymous Latin work, written in or soon after ad 340, which summarized the Eastern campaigns of Alexander the Great and Trajan. Only the part about Alexander survives (emphasizing not only his great achievements but also his personal flaws). The work is dedicated to Constantius II on the eve of his own campaign against the Persians, as an encouragement for him to surpass his famous predecessors. It takes inspiration from a work of Varro (written in 77 bc for Pompey, before his Spanish campaign) and...

Pe'rdiccas

Pe'rdiccas   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Classical studies
Length:
54 words

...Name of several notable Macedonians. The king Perdiccas II was active in the Peloponnesian War, changing allegiance several times in his own interest. Another Perdiccas was second-in-command to Alexander the Great and became in effect regent of the empire after Alexander's death; soon after that he was killed in a mutiny. See Macedon...

Alexander Romance

Alexander Romance   Reference library

Theo van Lint, Leslie MacCoull, Ruth Webb, Robert Shorrock, and John Watt

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... Romance A fictionalized biography of Alexander the Great purporting to be written by his own historian, Callisthenes (so sometimes referred to as Ps.-Callisthenes). The Romance exists in many languages; the Greek version itself has several different recensions. Alexander Romance , Armenian Translation of the Greek version of Pseudo-Callisthenes, transmitted in various redactions and elaborations. Probably first translated in the 5th century, the Armenian version has had relevance for the reconstruction of the lost original Greek text. The addition...

Phō'cion

Phō'cion (402–318 bc) (‘the Good’   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Classical studies
Length:
124 words

... (‘the Good’ , 402–318 bc ) Athenian general and statesman during the time of Philip II of Macedon and his son Alexander the Great. He commanded universal respect and was elected strategos forty-five times. In politics he was an advocate of peace with Macedon, being convinced that Athens was no longer a match for her in military strength. After Athens' defeat at Chaeronea in 338 he assisted Demades in preserving peace with Philip and Alexander, and sought to prevent Athens from joining in the Lamian War . When democratic rule was (briefly)...

Praxagoras of Athens

Praxagoras of Athens (330)   Reference library

Oliver Nicholson

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...in the Bibliotheca of Photius (62), emphasizing Constantine’s successive victories over a lion set upon him by Galerius , over Maxentius , and Licinius . The most recent event mentioned is Constantine’s foundation of Constantinople . A pagan from an old Athenian family, Praxagoras earlier wrote two books on the ancient kings of Athens , and in his 30th year a history of Alexander the Great. Oliver Nicholson Text: FGrHist Jacoby, no. 219. ET and discussion: Barnes , Constantine , 195–7. Rowland Smith , ‘A Lost Historian of Alexander...

Theopo'mpus

Theopo'mpus (378–after 320 bc)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Classical studies
Length:
141 words

...of Isocrates , friend of Philip II and Alexander the Great of Macedon. He was exiled from Chios for having Spartan sympathies, restored by Alexander, and fled to Egypt at the latter's death in 323 . Little remains of his numerous books except for fragments of his two most important works, the Hellenica and Philippica . The former was a continuation of Thucydides, a history of Greece from 411 to the battle of Cnidus in 394 ; the latter, a vast work in fifty-eight books, used the life of Philip as the connecting thread in what was virtually a world...

phalanx

phalanx   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Classical studies
Length:
223 words

...In Homer, in the plural, the ‘ranks’ of the army; in general, the Greek heavy infantry ( see ARMY [GREEK] ) arranged in battle formation. However, the name is specifically applied to the Macedonian infantry formation developed by Philip II of Macedon and his son Alexander the Great in the fourth century bc . It owed part of its great success to the fact that Macedonia could produce as many as 25,000 men to serve in such formations. In contrast with the fifth-century hoplite battle-line of four to eight rows deep and hundreds of men long, the Theban phalanx...

Pto'lemies

Pto'lemies   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Classical studies
Length:
371 words

...Greek dynasty which ruled Egypt from the death of Alexander the Great in 323 bc until the Roman conquest in 30 bc , the so-called Ptolemaic period; all the kings were called Ptolemy. The first of the dynasty was Ptolemy I Soter , ‘Saviour’, (b. 367 , ruled 323–283 bc ) one of Alexander's generals, who received Egypt in the division of Alexander's empire after his death ( see Diadochi ). He moved the Egyptian capital from Memphis to Alexandria . He himself wrote a notable history of Alexander the Great (now lost) based on his own recollections...

Pelo'pidas

Pelo'pidas (c.410–364 bc)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Classical studies
Length:
135 words

...colleague Epaminondas brought Thebes to the zenith of her power. In 379 bc , with six confederates dressed as women, he killed the pro-Spartan generals who, with the support of a Spartan garrison, were tyrannizing Thebes. At the battle of Leuctra in 371 bc Thebes drove the Spartans out of central Greece. Pelopidas won great fame for his leadership of the Sacred Band both at this battle and at his earlier defeat of the Spartans at Tegyra ( 375 bc ). He accompanied Epaminondas on his first invasion of the Peloponnese ( 370 / 69 ), but after that...

George Monachus Hamartolus

George Monachus Hamartolus (9th cent)   Reference library

Brian Croke

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...George the Monk and ‘sinner’, author of a Byzantine chronicle extending from Creation to 842 and written in the 860s/870s. His compilation drew mainly on the chronicle of George the Syncellus , as well as utilizing for Late Antiquity Eusebius of Caesarea , Theodoret , John Malalas , and Theophanes . The Chronicle divides into four books: the first covers the period from Adam to Alexander the Great, the second the historical period covered by the Old Testament, the third Roman history from Julius Caesar to Constantine I ; and the fourth from the 330s to...

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