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Alexander the Great

[Na] Leader of the Macedonians. Born in 356 bc, Alexander was tutored in his early years by Aristotle before succeeding his father Philip as king of Macedonia and the mainland of ...

Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

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Current Version:
2009
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Archaeology, History
Length:
107 words

... the Great [Na] Leader of the Macedonians . Born in 356 bc , Alexander was tutored in his early years by Aristotle before succeeding his father Philip as king of Macedonia and the mainland of Greece in 336 bc . Early in his reign he set about releasing the Greeks from Persian domination, but continued his campaigns into a programme of imperialist aggrandizement that eventually created a massive, albeit short‐lived, empire from India to Egypt. After his death from fever in 323 bc his hastily constructed dominion fell apart, the most lasting...

Alexandrian Empire

Alexandrian Empire   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

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Current Version:
2011
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Archaeology, History
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3,763 words
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...exhausted the bloodline of Alexander the Great and opened the way for the formation of new royal dynasties in the Near East headed by Ptolemy (Egypt), and Seleucus (Syria). Alexandrian Empire The political unity of the Alexandrian Empire had not long survived the fall of the Achaemenids, as the competition for greatness inspired by Alexander led to an unprecedented period of kingmaking among the Macedonians and, later, the local nobility of the Near East as well. Generally known as the Hellenistic Age, the three centuries following Alexander's death...

Seleucids

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

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Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,190 words

.... The Seleucid kingdom was founded by Seleucus Nicator (Gk., Seleukos Nikator), a general of Alexander the Great. Seleucus was allotted part of the territories that had been under Alexander's control and then partitioned. In 305 bce , Seleucus I was crowned king of the Seleucid Empire. He founded a dynasty that was to become very powerful in the eastern Mediterranean, ruling over the largest kingdom in the ancient Near East for most of the Hellenistic period. Whereas the Seleucid Empire was heterogeneous in its ethnic makeup, its Greek cities were...

Ghirshman, Roman

Ghirshman, Roman (1895–1979)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
467 words

...academies and received many honors. He exhibited great energy and enthusiasm up until his death, in Budapest, during an international congress. Bibliography Ghirshman, Roman. Iran from the Earliest Times to the Islamic Conquest . Harmondsworth, 1954. Ghirshman, Roman. Persian Art, 249 B.C.–A.D. 651: The Parthian and Sassanian Dynasties . New York, 1962. Ghirshman, Roman. Ancient Persia: From the Origins to Alexander the Great . London and New York, 1964. This and the 1962 publication, first published in French, are fully illustrated and include many previously...

Hunting

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

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Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,303 words
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...hunt, on the Lycian sarcophagus, allegorises the virtue of a dead prince; and the Alexander sarcophagus may show, from the point of view of an Asiatic ruler, an incident of a historical lion-hunt in which Alexander the Great ( 336–323 bce ) took part with his generals. Engraved gems often show hunting on horseback or on foot, with bow or spear. The hunters are generally Persian nobles, but Darius I ( 522–486 bce ) is himself conventionally portrayed on an official seal, in the Assyrian manner, hunting lions from a chariot. The hunt is the symbol of the ruler's...

Lycia

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
802 words

...the acropolis at Xanthos, which was to become Lycia's largest and most important city. In about 540 bce , Lycia became a subject state of the Persian Empire. Shortly afterward, a local ruling dynasty was established at Xanthos that exercised authority over much of the country until the early decades of the fourth century bce . In 367 bce , Lycia took part in the abortive satrap rebellion. When the rebellion was crushed, the country was once more forced to submit to Persian overlordship and remained subject to Persia until Alexander the Great invaded the...

Stadiums

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

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Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,285 words

...competition, the gymnikos agon, that included footraces of various lengths, boxing, wrestling, the pankration, and the pentathlon. It is to be distinguished from other facilities that hosted their own competitions: the theater for the mousikos agon and the hippodrome (Roman circus) for the hippikos agon . The former's semicircular shape and the latter's much greater size and the central barrier in the track are the simplest means of differentiating them from the stadium. The stadium came to the Near East with Alexander the Great, whose generals...

Baalbek

Baalbek   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

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Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,630 words

...[ See the biographies of Dussaud, Seyrig, and Schlumberger .] History. Test excavations at Baalbek In 1964–1965 revealed the Bronze Age tell beneath the Great Court of the Jupiter temple. Traces of settlements dating to the Middle Bronze Age ( c. 1700 bce ) were found. Other minor remains were dated to the Early Bronze Age. In the third century bce , when Syria became a possession of the Lagid successors of Alexander the Great who ruled from Alexandria, Baalbek was given the Greek name Heliopolis . The Macedonians must have equated the Baal of the Bekaa...

Historiography

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

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Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
3,911 words

.... In the second and third centuries ce , Appian and Cassius Dio composed their important histories. The beginnings of Christian “historiography” are to be found in the writings of Clement of Alexandria.In the second century ce , while Lucian of Samosata was writing a book called How to Write History (on the historians of the Parthian War), Arrian was a student of the philosopher Epictetus, which influenced his various books. His famous work, the Anabasis , a history of Alexander the Great, was based in particular on the histories of Alexander by...

Ptolemies

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

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Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
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1,147 words
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...Ptolemy, a general of Alexander the Great and the author of a history of Alexander (now lost), received Egypt as his domain as a result of the partitioning of the empire following Alexander's death. Ptolemy was crowned king of Egypt In 304 bce . This date marks the beginning of the Ptolemaic dynasty that ruled Egypt until 30 bce , when the Romans conquered the country. From the outset the Ptolemies were crowned at Memphis, Egypt's traditional capital (although firm evidence exists only for the crowning ceremony of Ptolemy V ). The first four Ptolemies...

Moortgat, Anton

Moortgat, Anton (1897–1977)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
484 words

... Ernst Herzfeld and Henri Frankfort . The field comprises the investigation of material remains in Asia Minor, Syria, the Arabian Peninsula, Mesopotamia, and Iran from the Neolithic period to the time of Alexander the Great . Moortgat left his native city of Antwerp, Belgium, for Germany, where he earned his doctorate in classical archaeology at Berlin University In 1923 . Following a period of activity at the German Archaeological Institute in Rome, he worked under Walter Andrae in the Near Eastern division of the Berlin museums ( 1930–1945 ). As...

Naukratis

Naukratis   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

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Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,007 words

...coming from the Sea of the Greeks” would be used to provide for its upkeep. Although the early period of commercial exclusivity ended when Alexander the Great conquered Egypt ( 332 / 31 bce ) and founded the Mediterranean port city of Alexandria, the town continued to function as an important transshipment point for goods coming from the Mediterranean to the capital at Memphis, or eastward to Pelusium and beyond. Under the Ptolemies, Naukratis continued (with Alexandria and Ptolemais) to be one of the three major Greek cities in Egypt. The situation...

Thaj

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
944 words

...and the Location of Gerrha. ” Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies 14 (1984): 87–91. States the case for the identification of Thaj with the ancient Arabian emporium of Gerrha. Potts, Daniel T. The Arabian Gulf in Antiquity, vol. 2, From Alexander the Great to the Coming of Islam . Oxford, 1990. Surveys the history of scholarship on Thaj, incorporating the results of the Freie Universität Berlin excavations of 1983. Potts, Daniel T. “ Nabatean Finds from Thaj and Qatif. ” Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy 2 (1991): 138–144. Publishes for the first...

Jerash

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

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Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
3,588 words
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...in Gerasa: City of the Decapolis , New Haven, 1938 [hereafter Welles, 1938 ], no. 232). The Hellenistic title Antioch may have been bestowed in honor of Antiochus III ( 223–187 bce ) or IV ( 175 bce ) once Transjordan passed to the Seleucid dynasty ( 200 bce ). One account ( Etymologicon Magnicum , col. 207) offers an etymology of the pre-Hellenistic name for Gerasa based on the tradition that when Alexander the Great captured the city, the younger men were killed and only the elderly (geron) survived. Another account (Stephanus Byzantius, de...

Daliyeh, Wadi Ed-

Daliyeh, Wadi Ed-   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
716 words

...a revolt in the late fourth century bce in which the prefect of Syria, Andromachus, had been burned alive. It is likely that Alexander's forces found the Samaritan refugees in the caves in the Wadi ed-Daliyeh and slaughtered them there. The papyri, which have been extensively treated by Frank M. Cross , support this reconstruction. One mentions “[Yesha]yahû, son of Sanballat, governor of Samaria.” Another was “written in Samaria.” Other documents bear exact date formulae, reckoned from known Persian administrators in the province of Samaria. The range of...

Arwad

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
739 words

...against the Greeks. With Alexander the Great's conquest of Syria, Gerastratos, king of Arwad, surrendered his kingdom to the conqueror. Later, however, the Seleucids offered the Aradian confederation autonomy. Documentation related to Arwad in the Roman period is scarce. Silver coins disappear In 46 / 45 bce , and gradually Arados ceases to be mentioned. The few remaining monuments on the island include a huge rampart built to protect it both from its enemies and from stormy winter seas. This wall dates to the Hellenistic or Roman period. [ See also the...

Cilicia

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

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Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
2,206 words

...documented in Cilicia by the widespread use of imported Greek pottery, the foundation myths of a number of important Cilician cities, and Greek historians (Mutafian, 1988 ). With Alexander's conquest of the Cilician Gates In 312 bce , hellenization intensified. Alexander established the first imperial mint at Tarsus, the region's capital. Both Hellenistic and Roman levels are attested in the excavations at Gözlü Kule in Tarsus but appear to be outside the major settlement. The Seleucids acquired Cilicia in the aftermath of Alexander's death and established...

Priene

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

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Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
913 words

...to have been parts of the original urban design. The Ionic temple of Athena rests on a high terrace that dominates the lower city of Priene. The temple was designed by Pytheos , a celebrated architect, and dedicated by Alexander the Great , probably In 334 ; construction apparently was not finished until the Augustan period ( 27 bce –14 ce ), however, when the temple received a supplementary dedication to the emperor. The agora and associated structures were also built up over several hundred years; the agora reached its final form, in which it was...

Damascus

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

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Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
2,777 words
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...which was captured by the Assyrians In 732 bce and annexed into the Assyrian provincial system. Because of its important position on the major trade routes of the Levant, Damascus remained a significant city through the rest of the Assyrian, Babylonian, and Persian periods. The Hellenistic period brought important changes. Following Alexander's conquest of the Levant ( 333 bce ), the city became the site of a Macedonian colony and was substantially expanded and rebuilt, with new fortifications. In 111 bce , the city became the capital of Phoenicia and...

Gardens

Gardens   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

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Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
5,939 words
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1

...and the Hebrew and Christian Bibles, as well as in the archaeological remains of intensive agriculture practiced by the Nabateans and other cultures in the arid countryside. The writings of Theophrastus outline botanical knowledge gained during Alexander's campaigns, while Pliny the Elder provides important knowledge of gardens and plants of the Roman Empire. Egypt. The basileia of Alexandria, a great built landscape of palaces, theaters, temples, sanctuaries, and tombs interspersed among groves and parks, provided the model of the garden for the entire...

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