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A20

A cytoplasmic zinc finger protein (790 aa) that inhibits NFκB activity and TNF-mediated programmed cell death. The expression of the A20 mRNA is upregulated by TNFα. It is a dual function ...

Neoliberalism and Its Critics

Neoliberalism and Its Critics   Reference library

Patrick Bond

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
8,067 words

...from the cancer of international financial speculation was simply not advanced by Stiglitz’s group. A few weeks later, Stiglitz’s Commission proposed a UN Global Economic Council (with 20–25 members) with similar status to the UN Security Council, a potential codification of the G20. On the other hand, the Commission also proposed a new currency and reserve system that would suffer relatively less veto power from the wealthy countries, plus a 1 percent GDP levy to redistribute from North to South. ( Morris, 2009 ) Unfortunately, what is critical to...

International Organization and Environmental Governance

International Organization and Environmental Governance   Reference library

Joshua William Busby

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
17,083 words

...20, 2009. Goldsmith, J. , and Posner, E. (2003–4) International Agreements: A Rational Choice Approach. Virginia Journal of International Law 44 (1), 113–43. Goldsmith, J.L. , and Posner, E.A. (2005) The Limits of International Law . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Gore, A. Jr ., (1992) Earth in the Balance: Ecology and the Human Spirit . Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Grubb, M.L , with Vrolijk, C. , and Brack, D. (1999) The Kyoto Protocol: A Guide and Assessment . London: Royal Institute of International Affairs. Gutner, T. (2005a)...

The Political Economy of Intellectual Property

The Political Economy of Intellectual Property   Reference library

Debora Halbert and Ashley Lukens

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
12,158 words

...(formerly CPTech). At www.keionline.org/a2k/ , accessed May 20, 2011. A key resource dealing with international debates over access to knowledge. The organization seeks to help foster a development round at WIPO by pushing for a more concerted focus on the intersect between IP and access to knowledge. Open Source Initiative. At www.opensource.org/ , accessed May 20, 2011. Dedicated to extending the idea of open source globally. World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). At www.wipo.org/ , accessed May 20, 2011. The gateway to all information on...

The Interaction of Theory and Data

The Interaction of Theory and Data   Reference library

James D. Morrow

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
5,746 words

...Political Science Review (97) (4), 633–41. Sarkees, M.R. n.d. The COW Typology of War: Defining and Categorizing Wars (Version 4 of the Data) . At www.correlatesofwar.org/COW2%20Data/WarData_NEW/COW%20Website%20-%20Typology%20of%20war.pdf , accessed September 2011. Sarkees, M.R. and Wayman, F. 2010. Resort to War: 1816–2007 . Washington, DC: CQ Press. Schultz, K.A. 2001. Democracy and Coercive Diplomacy . New York: Cambridge University Press. Signorino, C.S. 1999. Strategic Interaction and the Statistical Analysis of International Conflict. ...

Women and Academic Organizations in International Studies

Women and Academic Organizations in International Studies   Reference library

Karen Erickson and Elisabeth Prügl

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,661 words

...30 years of organizational history, only one woman, in fact, served as the president, suggesting a thorough gendering of leadership in the organization as masculine. Arguably, the association saw a cultural change in the 1990s. Indeed, since 1990 , the ISA membership has elected four female presidents (in addition to Helga Haftendorn, there were Susan Strange , Margaret Hermann , and J. Ann Tickner ), accounting for 20 percent of all presidents in the 20-year period from 1990 to 2009 . This is still lower than female membership in the association which,...

Incorporating Women into International Studies: Working Their Way In

Incorporating Women into International Studies: Working Their Way In   Reference library

Meredith Reid Sarkees and Marijke Breuning

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
9,308 words

... www.apsanet.org/∼wcps , accessed July 20, 2009. Describes the Caucus and makes the Caucus newsletters available. Women in International Security ( WIIS ). At http:/wiis.georgetown.edu/ , accessed July 20, 2009. A nonprofit organization that brings together women academics and practitioners working in the area of international relations. WIIS is also conducting a study of women in a variety of international security positions. About the Authors Meredith Reid Sarkees currently holds an honorary appointment as a Faculty Fellow at the Women & Politics...

Public Goods in International Politics

Public Goods in International Politics   Reference library

Brian Urlacher

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
9,701 words

...Coussy, J. (2005) The Adventures of a Concept: Is Neo-classical Theory Suitable for Defining Global Public Goods? Review of International Political Economy (12) (1), 177–94. Desai, M. (2003) Public Goods: A Historical Perspective. In I. Kaul , P. Conceição , K. Le Goulven , and R.U. Mendoza (eds.) Providing Global Public Goods: Managing Globalization . New York: Oxford University Press. Fröhlich, N. , and Oppenheimer, J.A. (1970) I Get By with a Little Help from My Friends. World Politics (23) (1), 104–20. Fröhlich, N. , Hunt T. , Oppenheimer...

The Past and Future of the Scientific Study of International Processes

The Past and Future of the Scientific Study of International Processes   Reference library

Zeev Maoz

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,472 words

... The Epistemological Revolution There are three aspects to the epistemological revolution in SSIP over the past 20 years. The first concerns the shift from a “revolutionary science” epistemology to a “normal science” practice. A “revolutionary science” epistemology ( Kuhn 1970 ) reflects a struggle within a scientific community among competing paradigms. One characteristic of revolutionary science is that most studies attempt to build a new paradigm or to discredit others. Consequently, very little replication happens. Much of the research in the 1960s,...

Russian Security and Nuclear Policies: Successor to the Superpower Arsenal?

Russian Security and Nuclear Policies: Successor to the Superpower Arsenal?   Reference library

Mariya Y. Omelicheva

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,024 words

...19). At www.policyarchive.org/handle/10207/bitstreams/13046.pdf , accessed May 20, 2011. De Haas, M. (2003) The Development of Russian Security Policy 1992–2002. In A. Aldis and R. McDermott (eds.) Russian Military Reform, 1992–2002 . Portland: Frank Cass, pp. 3–22. De Haas, M. (2004) Russian Security and Air Power 1992–2002 . New York: Frank Cass. Dimitrakopoulou, S. , and Liaropoulos, A. (2010) Russia's National Security Strategy to 2020: A Great Power in the Making? Caucasian Review of International Affairs (4) (1), 35-42. Erickson...

Progress in the Democratic Peace Research Agenda

Progress in the Democratic Peace Research Agenda   Reference library

Steve Chan

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,839 words

... Journal of Conflict Resolution 38 (1), 24–42. Raymond, G.A. (1996) Demosthenes and Democracies: Regime Types and Arbitration Outcomes. International Interactions 22 (1), 1–20. Reed, W. (2000) A Unified Statistical Model of Conflict Onset and Escalation. American Journal of Political Science 44 (1), 84–93. Reiter, D. , and Stam, A.C., III (1998a) Democracy, War Initiation, and Victory. American Political Science Review 92 (2), 377–89. Reiter, D. , and Stam, A.C., III (1998b) Democracy and Battlefield Military Effectiveness. ...

International Organizations and Economic Governance

International Organizations and Economic Governance   Reference library

Wesley W. Widmaier

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
7,849 words

...IPE research has been shaped in a number of already-apparent ways, marked by concerns for the influence of the Global Financial Crisis as a material and intersubjective “critical juncture,” as a more specific paradigmatic shock to policy practices, and as a source of ongoing institutional and policy reforms in settings like the Group of 20 (G20) and Financial Stability Board (FSB). First, in the post–Global Financial Crisis context, US hegemony – both in its material and social leanings – has come under increasing pressure. In a basic material sense, the...

What is Theory?

What is Theory?   Reference library

Patrick Thaddeus Jackson

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
13,099 words
Illustration(s):
2

... References Abbott, A. (2001) Chaos of Disciplines . Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Abella, A. (2008) Soldiers of Reason: The RAND Corporation and the Rise of the American Empire , 1st edn. Orlando, FL: Harcourt. Ashley, R.K. (1984) The Poverty of Neorealism. International Organization 38 (2), 225–86. Ball, T. (1976) From Paradigms to Research Programs: Toward a Post-Kuhnian Political Science. American Journal of Political Science 20 (1), 151–77. Banks, M. (1985) The Inter-Paradigm Debate. In M. Light and A. J. R. Groom (eds.) ...

Indigenous Rights in International Law

Indigenous Rights in International Law   Reference library

Cher Weixia Chen

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
9,265 words

...regarded as an indigenous person. The ILO Convention 169 of 1989 (Art. I) provides a much broader definition but makes a distinction between tribal and indigenous peoples due to the pressures from different Asiatic countries ( Nesti 2001 ). The World Bank (operational 4.20, 1991 ) does not define the term but offers a more operational one. The Draft UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples of 1993 includes neither a definition of indigenous peoples nor even a provision that would specify the scope of application of the instrument. This...

Labor Migrations and the Global Political Economy

Labor Migrations and the Global Political Economy   Reference library

M. Scott Solomon

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,723 words

...the%20Uniited%20States%20%20Revisiting%20the%20Bhagwati%20Tax.pdf , accessed July 29, 2009. Mountford, A. (1997) Can a Brain Drain be Good for Growth in the Source Economy? Journal of Development Economics 53 (2) 287–303. Ottaviano, G. , and Peri, G. (2008) Immigration and National Wages: Clarifying the Theory and the Empirics. National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper No. 14188. At www.nber.org/papers/w14188 , accessed July 28, 2009. Pastor, M. , and Alva, S. (2004) Guest Workers and the New Transnationalism: Possibilities and Realities in...

Land Reform and Landless Movements

Land Reform and Landless Movements   Reference library

Wendy W. Wolford and Timothy Gorman

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
12,208 words

...Press. De Janvry, A. (1981) The Agrarian Question and Reformism in Latin America . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. De Janvry, A. , and Sadoulet, E. (1989) A Study in Resistance to Institutional Change: The Lost Game of Latin American Land Reform. World Development (17) (9), 1397–407. De Janvry, A. , and Sadoulet, E. (2002) Land Reforms in Latin America: Ten Lessons Toward a Contemporary Agenda. At http://are.berkeley.edu/~sadou...s/Land_Reform_in_LA_10_lesson.pdf , accessed Sept. 20, 2010. De Janvry, A. , Sadoulet, E. , and ...

Immigrant Integration, Naturalization, and Citizenship

Immigrant Integration, Naturalization, and Citizenship   Reference library

Martin A. Schain

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
9,132 words

...Mar. 20, 2009. This site, owned by the German Federal Ministry of the Interior, is a rich source of information on the evolving policies of integration in Germany. INSEE. At www.insee.fr/en/insee-statistique-publique/default.asp , accessed Mar. 20, 2009. The official source of statistics and census information for France. It also has links to other European sources. It is a rich source of statistics and census information on immigration and integration. Migration Information Source. At www.migrationinformation.org , accessed Mar. 20, 2009. A site of...

International Communication in Social Movements and Interest Groups

International Communication in Social Movements and Interest Groups   Reference library

Kenneth Rogerson

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
6,891 words

...potential of wireless activity as a tool for political mobilization is worth exploring. In addition, the internet permits information to be posted and disseminated quickly and then taken down just as quickly. During the 2000 US presidential election, a group of activists followed the three presidential debates around the country, mobilizing protestors through quickly created websites whose URLs were www.(the%20day%20of%20the%20debate).org . Though the protests did not result in a large number of protestors, some believe that the participation was increased...

Women and Publishing in International Studies

Women and Publishing in International Studies   Reference library

Marijke Breuning

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,163 words

...and in all types of disciplines have never published a single journal article. That’s true of only 23 per cent of their male counterparts. At universities, the gap narrows, but only slightly: 20 per cent of women have never published, compared with 7 per cent of men. (1998:A14; see also Mathews and Andersen 2001 ) In a more recent study, Maliniak et al. (2008:128) observe that “the differences are narrower than they once were” but “men still outpublish women in political science journals by a ratio of two to one.” One reason for this disparity in publishing...

Sovereignty as a Problematic Conceptual Core

Sovereignty as a Problematic Conceptual Core   Reference library

Rosemary E. Shinko

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,792 words

...of mutual recognition among international units; and finally Westphalian sovereignty ( Krasner 1999 ; 2001a ). “[T]he Westphalian Model […] is based on two principles territoriality and the exclusion of external actors from domestic authority structures” ( Krasner 1999 :20). Krasner divides sovereignty into four component parts in order to isolate the idea of control and to undergird his claim that the Westphalian state is merely an approximation, a convenient reference point, and that violations of Westphalian sovereignty are inevitable within the...

Technology and Development in International Communication

Technology and Development in International Communication   Reference library

Nanette S. Levinson

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
7,630 words

...Finally, it highlights two very recent developments. The first links environmental studies research to communication and development research and the second treats cyberinfrastructure initiatives, social media and web 2.0 research. This paves the way for a discussion of implications for additional research with a focus on co-creation processes as a new knowledge niche with great potential for contributing to the field of communication and development. Linking co-creation processes to communication and development, together with emerging technologies (such as CI...

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