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A20

A cytoplasmic zinc finger protein (790 aa) that inhibits NFκB activity and TNF-mediated programmed cell death. The expression of the A20 mRNA is upregulated by TNFα. It is a dual function ...

Third World Organization for Women in Science

Third World Organization for Women in Science   Reference library

Ayad al- Qazzaz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
661 words

...meeting focused on women scientists in a changing world. More than six hundred female scientists from thirty-five third world countries attended these meetings. During the meeting in China, a decision was made to change the official name of the organization to Organization for Women in Science for the Developing World (OWSDW). Bibliography Chinese Committee for Third World Organization for Women in Science, Retrieved February 20, 2013, from http://owsdw.ictp.it/ . CTA Knowledge for Development, Retrieved February 20, 2013, from http://knowledge.cta.int/ . ...

Commission on International Religious Freedom

Commission on International Religious Freedom   Reference library

Dominic T. Bocci

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
651 words

...Stahnke, Tad , and Robert C. Blitt . The Religion-State Relationship and the Right to Freedom of Religion or Belief: A Comparative Textual Analysis of the Constitutions of Predominantly Muslim Countries . Washington, D.C.: United States Commission on International Religious Freedom, 2005. United States Commission on International Religious Freedom . “Annual Report 2012.” http://www.uscirf.gov/images/Annual%20Report%20of%20USCIRF%202012(2).pdf . Dominic T....

Fatima bint Mubarak, Sheikha

Fatima bint Mubarak, Sheikha (bce 1940)   Reference library

Wanda Krause

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
627 words

...Builders of World Civilization and Culture . London: Oneworld, 2006. See especially page 95. Emirates Centre for Strategic Studies and Research . “Second AWO Conference and UAE Efforts in Support of Arab Women's Issues.” http://www.ecssr.ac.ae/ECSSR/print/ft.jsp?lang=.%20Family%20Development%20Foundation . “Sheikha Fatima Bint Mubarak: Mother of Nation.” http://motherofnation.ae/ . Sultan Bin Ali Al Owais Cultural Foundation . “Sheikha Fatima Bint Mubarak.” http://www.alowaisnet.org/en/winnersbio/abijgjfcfjedfhgejj.aspx . Swaroop, Sangeetha . “Her Highness...

Mubarak, Massouma al-

Mubarak, Massouma al- (b. 1947)   Reference library

Dina El Sharnouby and Helen Mary Rizzo

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
607 words

...only woman to hold a cabinet post with fifteen men. On 20 June 2005 she was sworn in as the Minister of Planning and Administrative Development. According to the political science professor Abdullah Alshayeji , her appointment as a liberal Shīʿī woman served several purposes. First, it addressed one of the longstanding goals of the Kuwaiti women's movement. Second, it appeased the Shīʿī minority in Kuwait, who had lost the only Shīʿī cabinet minister through resignation in January 2005 . Third, the government hoped that appointing a veiled woman to the...

Balkan States

Balkan States   Reference library

Đermana Šeta

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
1,420 words

...European Muslims, are living in a framework guaranteeing them gender equality. At the same time, they are re-examining and reinterpreting the position of women in Islam, proving that civic and religious identities are not mutually exclusive, but complementary. Bibliography Blagojević, Marina . Položajžena u zemljamaBalkana: Komparativnipregled (Position of Women in the Balkans: A Comparative Overview), 2003: http://www.vladars.net/sr-SP-Cyrl/Vlada/centri/gendercentarrs/AKTI/Documents/Polozaj%20zena%20u%20zemljama%20Balkana.pdf (Accessed on 8 July...

ḤammĀm

ḤammĀm   Reference library

Catherine Cartwright-Jones

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
628 words

...wellness: a fleshly companionable reality, rather than one imagined through clothing. Bibliography Aksit, Elif Ekin . “The Women's Quarters in the Historical Hammam.” Gender, Place and Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography 18, no. 2 (2011): 277–293. Academic Search Complete , EBSCo host (accessed February 17, 2012). Cichocki, Nina . “Continuity and Change in Turkish Bathing Culture in Istanbul: The Life Story of the Çemberlitaş Hamam.” Turkish Studies 6, no. 1 (2005): 93–112. Academic Search Complete , EBSCO host (accessed February 20, 2012)....

Esack, Farid

Esack, Farid (b. 1959)   Reference library

Eren Tatari

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
510 words

...& Mary. At Ohio's Xavier University he was recognized as the Best Professor in Ethics, Religion, and Society. Bibliography Primary Works On Being a Muslim: Finding a Religious Path in the World Today . Oxford: Oneworld, 1999. The Qurʾan: A Short Introduction . Oxford: Oneworld. 2002. Secondary Works Helen Suzman Foundation . “Profile of Farid Esack.” http://www.hsf.org.za/resource-centre/focus/issues-11-20/issue-17-first-quarter-2000/profile-of-farid-esack/ . University of Johannesburg. Faculty profile of Farid Esack. ...

Muslim Women's League

Muslim Women's League   Reference library

Saba Senses Ozyurt

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
782 words

...2008. Ozyurt, Saba . “Ecological and Organizational Determinants of NGO Performance: A Comparative Analysis of Muslim Women's Organizations in the United States and the Netherlands.” Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations (under review). Rehman, Aamir . “The Human Capital Deficit in the Islamic Nonprofit Sector.” Report Published by the Institute for Social Policy and Understanding , 2004. http://ispu.org/files/PDFs/human%20capital%20deficit.pdf/ . “The Muslim Women's League, Center Profile.” The Pluralism Project,...

Same-Sex Relations

Same-Sex Relations   Reference library

David Tabb Stewart, Thomas K. Hubbard, Anthony Corbeill, Lynn R. Huber, David Brodsky, and Valerie Abrahamsen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
23,413 words

...a passive or feminized role. Tempting as it is to read passive/active sexual roles into the Bible, are they really indigenous to Israel or the ancient Near East? The Middle Assyrian Laws (ca. 1076 b.c.e. ) require, “If a man sodomizes [lit. ‘fornicates with’] his comrade and they prove the charges against him and find him guilty, they shall sodomize him and they shall turn him into a eunuch” ( Roth, 1997 , p. 160; Mal A20). Here the “comrade” is a social equal (not a slave or half-free) and implicitly is raped (cf. Mal A19). The punishment includes a...

Prophethood

Prophethood   Reference library

David A. Kerr and Halim Calis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
838 words

...for the people's rejection of their message; their task is only to preach, warn, and remind ( 3:20 ; 5:99 ; 11:12 ; 16:35 ; 88:21 ). They will be accepted on Judgment Day as witnesses ( shahīd and shāhid ) for or against the people to whom they were sent ( 4:41 ; 16:84 , 89 ; 28:75 ; 33:45 ; 48:8 ). According to the Qurʾān, God has sent his messengers to every human community throughout history ( 16:36 ; 17:15 ; 35:24 ), although the Qurʾān names only a number of them, most of whom are the biblical patriarchs and prophets. The universal message of...

Sexual Transgression

Sexual Transgression   Reference library

Diana M. Swancutt, Hilary Lipka, Rosanna S. Omitowoju, Heather Vincent, Benjamin H. Dunning, Laliv Clenman, and Taylor G. Petrey

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
30,174 words

...and the Hasmonean court ( b. Sanh. 82a ). Sexual Exclusivity and Access. Various rabbinic texts limit sexual access, both within and beyond the bounds of marriage. Adultery. Adultery in both biblical and rabbinic law is understood as the violation of the exclusive sexual access of a man to his wife ( Lev 18:20 ; Deut 22:22 ; Exod 20:14 ). A sexual act between a man and a married woman is thus adulterous and, likewise, a married woman with any man other than her husband is deemed adulterous, whereas a married man with a single woman (or married to more than...

Houris

Houris   Reference library

Alan Jones

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
555 words

...next world, as is not infrequently the case: al-jannah (“the garden”—heaven), al-nār (“the fire”— hell), niʿmah (“well-being”—heavenly bliss). All the passages are Meccan and quite early. Three ( 44:54 , 52:20 , and 56:22 ) have ḥūr followed by another adjective, ʿīn . This may be translated as “maidens with dark, lustrous eyes.” There is a more complex passage in 55:70–76 : In which are good and beautiful women, With lustrous eyes, confined in tents, Untouched before by either men or Jinn , Who recline on green cushions and fine carpets. Three...

Legal Status

Legal Status   Reference library

Julye Bidmead, F. Rachel Magdalene, Lauren Caldwell, Robert N. Stegmann, Judith Hauptman, and David M. Reis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
24,375 words

...disgrace the householder by being a nabal , one who willfully ignores general rules of propriety ( Prov 15:20 ), or a drunkard and glutton ( Deut 21:20 ; Bellefontaine, 1979 ). Daughters born to free parents were generally free, but they could lose that status by being taken into captivity during war (e.g., Lev 25:44 ; Num 31:9–18 ; Deut 20:14 ; 1 Kgs 9:20–21 ) or given over to debt slavery ( Exod 21:7 ; Lev 25:47 ; Neh 5:5 , 8 ; cf. Deut 28:68 ; cf. Lev 25:39–43 ). Free women were rarely emancipated from a male potestas . Women who never...

Wan Azizah Wan Ismail

Wan Azizah Wan Ismail   Reference library

Justin Corfield and Natana J. DeLong-Bas

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
559 words

...to volunteer work in support of her politician husband. Ibrahim began his political career as a cabinet minister in 1983. In 1993, he was appointed deputy prime minister of Malaysia. As his wife, Wan Azizah became patron of the Majlis Kanser Nasional (National Cancer Council). The arrest of her husband on September 20, 1998, on apparently trumped up charges owing to the perception that he posed a political threat to then prime minister, Mahathir bin Mohamad, led to a large number of demonstrations throughout the country and the emergence of the Reformasi...

Fitnah

Fitnah   Reference library

John Alden Williams and Matthew Long

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
683 words

.... The Arabic root f-t-n means “burn.” It is used also for the purpose of testing or refining a metal, such as gold, fitnah is usually understood as a “temptation” or “trial.” The term appears over thirty times in the Qurʾān, most frequently referring to trials faced by people. God tested Moses ( 20:40 ), David ( 38:24 ), and every soul with good and evil as an ordeal ( 21:35 ), according to the Qurʾān. The Qurʾānic use of the term focuses upon external struggles, as opposed to internal struggles of faith or commitment. The major ḥadīth collections,...

Shafīq, Durrīyah

Shafīq, Durrīyah   Reference library

Eleanor Abdella Doumato

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
898 words

...Journal of Comparative Politics 20 (2000): 109–139. Sullivan, Earl L. Women in Egyptian Public Life . Syracuse, N.Y., 1986. Eleanor Abdella...

Imagery, Gendered

Imagery, Gendered   Reference library

Elizabeth W. Goldstein, Ken Stone, Julia M. O’Brien, Carole R. Fontaine, Greg Carey, Michal Beth Dinkler, and Susan Grove Eastman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
26,610 words

...Luke 6:48–49 ). Jesus describes discipleship using a mix of gendered images. In John 16:20–22 , Jesus likens the disciples’ suffering at the crucifixion to a woman in labor: both experiences entail suffering but end in joy. Elsewhere, Jesus teaches his followers to reveal the truth and wait expectantly for his return by comparing them to the master of a house ( Matt 13:52 ; 24:43 // Luke 12:39 ). To illustrate the cost of discipleship, Jesus employs the images of a tower builder planning his work and a king preparing for battle—both stereotypically male...

Guilds

Guilds   Reference library

Sabahat F. Adil

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
990 words

...protests in the late nineteenth century in Egypt based on two documents the coal heavers wrote. Those interested in the history of guilds ought to consult the article to understand the organizational nuances of a professional group from the nineteenth century. Lewis, Bernard . “The Islamic Guilds.” Economic History Review 8 (1937): 20–37. This is a classic articulation of the origins of guilds based on Massignon's explorations of the Ismāʿīlī roots of guilds. Massignon, Louis . “Les corps de métier et la cité islamique.” Revue Internationale de Sociologie ...

Israel

Israel   Reference library

Naysan Rafati

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
1,023 words

...countries, not least in comparison to states within the Middle East, others contend that the state's policies vis-a-vis the Arab population, and, by extension, the female Muslim population, do not sufficiently address, and may even compound, existing problems. Although there has been a decline in birth rates among Muslim women in recent years, from 4.7 in 2000 to 3.5 in 2011 , this remains higher than other religious communities, both Arab (2.0 among Christians and 2.3 among Druze) and Jewish (3.0). At the legal level, Israel's judicial system has secular as...

Male-Female Sexuality

Male-Female Sexuality   Reference library

Rhiannon Graybill, Giulia Sissa, Bradford A. Kirkegaard, Yii-Jan Lin, Tirzah Meacham, and Kathy L. Gaca

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
24,472 words

...Lot’s story also points to a second important thematics of sexuality as boundary: the issue of incest. Most forms of incest are explicitly prohibited by biblical law ( Lev 18 , 20 ), with incest between a brother and a full sister or between a father and a daughter forming the notable exceptions. However, there are also significant narrative moments of incest, including not only Lot and his daughters ( Gen 19:8 ) and Tamar and Amnon ( 2 Sam 13 ), but also Judah and Tamar ( Gen 38 ) and perhaps Noah and Ham ( Gen 9:20–27 ; see further Rashkow, 2000...

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