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A20

A cytoplasmic zinc finger protein (790 aa) that inhibits NFκB activity and TNF-mediated programmed cell death. The expression of the A20 mRNA is upregulated by TNFα. It is a dual function ...

Nonproliferation, Nuclear

Nonproliferation, Nuclear   Reference library

Zachary S. Davis

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,497 words

...for Nonproliferation Studies. Inventory of International Nonproliferation Organizations and Regimes . (Monterey, Calif., 2009). Perkovich, George. Universal Compliance: A Strategy for Nuclear Security . (Washington, D.C., 2007). United States Department of Defense. “ Nuclear Posture Review Report .” (April 2010), http://www.defense.gov/npr/docs/2010%20nuclear%20posture%20review%20report.pdf . Zachary S....

de Klerk, Frederik Willem

de Klerk, Frederik Willem (1936– )   Quick reference

A Dictionary of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...Communist Party , and also released many political prisoners, including Nelson Mandela . As a result, de Klerk’s presidency is best remembered for the political openings that he presided over and the negotiations that introduced a democratic political system. After the 1994 elections, which were dominated by the African National Congress and in which the National Party secured just 20.39 per cent of the vote, de Klerk initially served as deputy president in a government of national unity . However, disagreement over the new constitution led him to resign...

Gukurahundi

Gukurahundi   Quick reference

A Dictionary of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...said had been established to ‘combat malcontents’—began a crackdown against supposed ‘dissidents’ in Matebeleland. However, many of the attacks and massacres that occurred targeted young Ndebele men in general rather than those with known ZIPRA connections or anti-government sympathies. The total number that died during this period remains contested, but in 2005 the International Association of Genocide Scholars unanimously adopted a resolution that put the death toll at 20,000. Gukurahundi is a Shona term that is usually translated as ‘the early rain...

genocide

genocide   Quick reference

A Dictionary of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...genocide The deliberate attempt to eradicate a people (often a national, ethnic , or religious group). Only three genocides are widely agreed to have occurred in Africa. The first was the campaign of collective punishment that the German Empire carried out against the Herero and Nama people following their rebellion against colonial rule in what is now Namibia. It is estimated that between 20,000 and 100,000 Herero and around 10,000 Nama died between 1904 and 1907 , in many cases from starvation and dehydration due to the decision of German forces to...

Mau Mau

Mau Mau   Quick reference

A Dictionary of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...of how many Kenyans died during Mau Mau, and just how repressive the strategies of the colonial government were, has been the subject of heated debate among historians. In 2013 , following a series of lawsuits and many years of denial, the British government recognized that many of those detained during this period had been tortured and apologized, pledging £20 million in compensation for the...

transatlantic slave trade

transatlantic slave trade   Quick reference

A Dictionary of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...roughly 1440 to 1870 . The majority of the people who were transported by slave traders, in more than 20,000 voyages across the Atlantic, came from Central and West Africa. In some cases, but by no means all, African leaders and intermediaries played an important role in the trade by either providing or facilitating the entrapment of slaves. Portugal and Spain led the way at the start of the slave trade, having been the first European nations to establish a presence in both Africa and what was then called the New World. Enslaved African labour became the basis...

Inequalities of Wealth and Income

Inequalities of Wealth and Income   Reference library

Edward N. Wolff

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,981 words

...the corresponding wealth shares. Income inequality, in contrast to wealth inequality, showed a sharp rise from 1983 to 1989 , and an equally large increase from 1989 to 2007 . Between 1983 and 1989 , the Gini coefficient rose from 0.48 to 0.52, and the share of the top 5 percent rose from 26 percent to 30 percent. There was then a further increase of the Gini index by 0.043 points from 1989 to 2007 , and of the shares of the top 5 percent and 20 percent (see Wolff , March 2010 , for further details). Causes of Rising Inequality. With regard to...

Yemen

Yemen   Reference library

Sarah Phillips

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,621 words

...in a Middle Eastern state. [ See also Al-Qaeda ; and Middle East–United States Relations . ] Bibliography Bodine, Barbara. “ Beware of False Analogies: Why Yemen Is Not Iraq, Afghanistan or Somalia… It’s Yemen ” Testimony before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. (20 January 2010), http://foreign.senate.gov/imo/media/doc/BodineTestimony100120a2.pdf . Boucek, Christopher, and Marina Ottaway, eds. Yemen on the Brink . (Washington, D. C., 2010). Clark, Victoria. Yemen: Dancing on the Heads of Snakes . (New Haven, Conn., 2010). Dresch, Paul. A...

Kabila, Joseph

Kabila, Joseph (1971– )   Quick reference

A Dictionary of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...However, the high levels of corruption within Joseph Kabila’s government and his refusal to follow through with a planned process of political decentralization upset regional leaders and their supporters. Partly as a result, his rule has been characterized by political instability, with a number of failed coup attempts and ongoing insurgencies. Having served the constitutional limit of two terms in office, Joseph Kabila was due to step down on 20 December 2016 , but he has effectively prolonged his stay in office by continually postponing elections, claiming...

Climate Change

Climate Change   Reference library

David Coates

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
5,696 words

...percent cut in CO2 emission by European car makers by 2012 . It had initially wanted a 25 percent cut, and eventually settled for 2015 as its deadline. The Merkel government also pressed in 2007 for an EU commitment to another 20 percent target by 2020: this one for the percentage of European fuel use coming from renewable energy sources. The European Union remains committed from its March 2007 summit to its so-called 20/20/20 goals: a 20 percent cut in emissions and 20 percent of primary energy to be delivered by renewable fuel sources by 2020. Moving...

Mugabe, Robert

Mugabe, Robert (1924–2019)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...and imagined—including the Gukurahundi operation in Matabeleland that led to around 20,000 deaths—and ultimately forcing the Zimbabwe African Peoples Union ( ZAPU ) to merge with his own party. This led to the formation of the ZANU–PF , Zimbabwe’s transformation into a one-party state , and constitutional changes that turned Mugabe into an executive president. However, his domestic popularity and reputation for sound economic management were subsequently eroded by a period of pronounced economic decline that included an episode of hyperinflation and...

Media and Politics

Media and Politics   Reference library

Kathleen Hall Jamieson

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
4,881 words

...Topic and Top Storylines .” Pew Research Center. (December 2008), http://www.journalism.org/sites/journalism.org/files/Topline%20for%20campaign%20sub%20and%20campaign%20topic.pdf . Project for Excellence in Journalism. “ Six Things to Know about Health Care Coverage: A Study of the Media and the Health Care Debate .” Pew Research Center. (June 2010). http://www.journalism.org/sites/journalism.org/files/health%20care%20report_Final.pdf . Waldman, Paul, and Kathleen Hall Jamieson. “ Rhetorical Convergence and Issue Knowledge in the 2000 Presidential...

Bush, George Herbert Walker

Bush, George Herbert Walker   Reference library

Phillip G. Henderson

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,160 words

...neighboring states. As a consequence of the war, Saddam Hussein’s army was estimated to stand at less than 20 percent of the capacity it had possessed in 1990 . President Bush, Secretary of State James Baker , National Security Advisor Brent Scowcroft, and General Colin Powell , Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, agreed that venturing into Baghdad and removing Hussein from power would not only shatter the US-led coalition, but would exact a huge cost in American lives, with no assurances that the result would produce a democratic regime in Iraq ....

Public Spending

Public Spending   Reference library

Patrick Fisher

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,657 words

...have averaged 18.2 percent of the GDP, with a high of 20.9 percent in 2000 and a low of 14.8 percent in 2009 . Expenditures, on the other hand, have averaged 20.1 percent of national income since 1965 , reaching a high of 24.7 percent in 2009 and a low of 17.2 percent in 1965 . Historically, the belief that the federal government should balance its budget has been a dominating conviction in American politics, and the concept of balancing the federal budget has always had a stable majority constituency. From a historical perspective, the deficits that the...

Mnangagwa, Emmerson Dambudzo

Mnangagwa, Emmerson Dambudzo (1942– )   Quick reference

A Dictionary of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...these efforts. Most notably, Mnangagwa’s tenure as minister of state security coincided with a controversial military operation known as Gukurahundi , in which a series of massacres resulted in the deaths of an estimated 20,000 people , which led to demands for an independent inquiry and an apology. Similarly, while Mnangagwa received considerable praise for inviting international election observers to monitor the 2018 general elections, major questions over the conduct of the polls, combined with the violent suppression of opposition protestors in...

Darfur

Darfur   Reference library

Mark Naftalin

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,162 words

....” Review of African Political Economy 33, no. 109 (2006): 467–482. Murphy, Theodore, and Jérôme Tubiana. “ Civil Society in Darfur: The Missing Peace .” United States Institute of Peace. (2010), http://www.usip.org/files/resources/Civil%20Society%20in%20Darfur%20-%20Sept.%202010.pdf . Prunier, Gerald. Darfur: A 21st Century Genocide . 3d ed. (Ithaca, N.Y., 2008). The Sudan Human Security Baseline Assessment (HSBA) Project , http://www.smallarmssurveysudan.org . Research and analysis on state and non-state armed groups in Sudan and South Sudan,...

Jihad

Jihad   Reference library

Michael Gilsenan

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...than about the behavior of Muslims, and is false. [ See also Islam ; Middle East–United States Relations ; and Religion and Politics . ] Bibliography Peters, Rudolph. Islam and Colonialism: The Doctrine of Jihad in Modern History . Mouton Religion and Society Series, no. 20. (The Hague, 1979). Michael...

Disability and Politics

Disability and Politics   Reference library

Jonathan Young

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
7,477 words

...and Douglas Kruse. “ Disability, Voter Turnout, and Polling Place Accessibility .” (7 June 2011), http://www.eac.gov/assets/1/Documents/Rutger’s%20-%20Disability,%20Voter%20Turnout,%20and%20Polling%20Place%20Accessibility.pdf . Scotch, Richard. From Good Will to Civil Rights: Transforming Federal Disability Policy . 2d ed. (Philadelphia, 2001). Shapiro, Joseph P. No Pity: People with Disabilities Forging a New Civil Rights Movement . (New York, 1994). United States Government Accountability Office. “ Voters with Disabilities: Additional Monitoring of...

Poverty, Scale and Nature of

Poverty, Scale and Nature of   Reference library

Sylvia A. Allegretto

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,844 words

...eds. Measuring Poverty: A New Approach . (Washington, D.C., 1995). Mishel, Lawrence, Jared Bernstein, and Heidi Shierholz. The State of Working America: 2008–2009 . (Ithaca, N.Y., 2009). Meyer, Bruce D., and James X. Sullivan. “ Further Results on Measuring the Well-Being of the Poor Using Income and Consumption .” National Bureau of Economic Research. (2007), http://www.nber.org/papers/w13413 . Pearce, Diana. “ The Self-Sufficiency Standard for New York State 2010 .” http://www.selfsufficiencystandard.org/docs/New%20York%20State%202010.pdf . Sen,...

Creative Class

Creative Class   Reference library

Richard Florida

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,284 words

...class numbers around 38 million American workers. Creative class occupations include: science, engineering and technology; business and management; health care, law and education; and arts, culture, design, entertainment and media. About a third of all Americans are members of the creative class, compared to about 20 percent who are blue-collar or working class. The remainder, more than 45 percent, are members of the service class, performing routine, low-paid work like food preparation and retail sales. The creative class rose from just 5 percent of all workers...

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