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A20

A cytoplasmic zinc finger protein (790 aa) that inhibits NFκB activity and TNF-mediated programmed cell death. The expression of the A20 mRNA is upregulated by TNFα. It is a dual function ...

Judaism and Sustainability

Judaism and Sustainability   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
1,214 words

... 112b). Several rabbinical texts encourage the planting of trees, which will benefit future generations (BT Ta'anit 23a; Leviticus Rabbah 25:3; Yalkut Shim'oni on Kedoshim 615). Maintaining biodiversity, another important element of the modern sustainability discourse, is a frequently recurring motif in Jewish sources. Such a concern may be indicated by God's bringing all animals to the man in paradise to be given a name (Gen. 2:19–20). Through this “due diligence” action of taking an inventory of all creatures and giving them names their identity and...

Tikkun Olam – A Jewish Imperative

Tikkun Olam – A Jewish Imperative   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
673 words

...(Ps. 24:1) – we are to be partners and co-workers with God in protecting the environment (Talmud: Shabbat 10a). • Bal tashchit – based on a torah teaching that we are not to destroy fruit-bearing trees, even in times of war (Deut. 20:19–20), the talmudic sages made a general ruling that we are not to waste or unnecessarily destroy anything of value. • We are to imitate God in his attributes of compassion, justice, and mercy (Talmud: Sotah 14a) – since God is concerned about the Earth and its creatures, we should be as well. • We are to “work the land...

Christianity (3) – New Testament

Christianity (3) – New Testament   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
4,086 words

...and could eat fish (John 20:17, 20–28; 21:9–14). Yet his body was transformed to transcend normal human limits so he could pass through closed doors (John 20:26). Jesus' resurrected body is a foretaste of the resurrection bodies of believers, whom Jesus will raise physically to eternal life, yet without disease or death (John 5:28–29; 6:40; 11:24–25). This implies a physical dimension to the eternal life of the righteous. The eternal divine Word of God created all material and spiritual things (John 1:3; 17:24). The Gospel's prologue (1:1–14) echoes the...

Jesus and Empire

Jesus and Empire   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
1,885 words

... Antiquities 20.168; Acts 5:36–37). Many of these styled themselves after Moses, presumably in fulfillment of prophetic expectation (thus Deut. 18:18), and consequently were active in sacredly charged geographies. Thus, one led his followers to Mt. Gerizim, to initiate a Moses-inspired revolt against Roman overlords ( Antiquities 18.85–87). Another, Theudas (Acts 5:36; Josephus, Antiquities 20.97–98), led a crowd across the Jordan River, imagining himself as Moses leading his people to liberation. Josephus ( Jewish War 2.261–63; also Ant . 20.169–71) names...

Creation Story in the Hebrew Bible

Creation Story in the Hebrew Bible   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
1,087 words

...trees a personal threat to Israel (Ezek. 20:46–47; Isa. 10:33–34; Jer. 7:20). And wilderness becomes hostile to human existence as well (Gen. 21:15–16; Ex. 23:28–30; Joshua 5:6). Genesis' second creation story gives a contrary view. The story opens with creation thirsting for water to realize its potential (Gen. 2:4–5). God allies with rain, mixing with soil to make mud, into which he breathes divine breath. From this tripartite mix human farmers are pulled to till the land as well as animals to alleviate human loneliness (Gen. 2:5). God mandates a...

Rainbow Family

Rainbow Family   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
902 words

...Family In the summer of 1972 , while hippie back-to-nature idealism was still in full bloom, a crowd of some 20,000, mainly young counterculturists, gathered near Granby, Colorado, for a several-days-long “gathering of the tribes” inspired by some of the legendary hip music festivals (especially the Vortex Festival near Portland, Oregon, in 1970 ), the San Francisco “Be-In” of 1967 , rural hip communes, and other such countercultural phenomena. The gathering would have no central stage, no paid or featured entertainers, and no fee for admission. It...

Castaneda, Carlos

Castaneda, Carlos (1925/31?–1998)   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
696 words

... in a Nogales, Arizona Greyhound bus station in the early 1960s, Castaneda described him as a nagual or master sorcerer (a “man of knowledge”) of mixed lineage: a Yuma Indian mother and a Yaqui Indian father from Sonora, Mexico. When he was ten, Don Juan was taken to Mexico by his parents who were subsequently killed in the Yaqui-Mexican wars. He then grew up with relatives in southern Mexico. According to Castaneda, at the age of 20, Don Juan met Julian Osorio , a son of European immigrants, who had himself been initiated by nagual Elias Ulloa into a...

Hebrew Bible

Hebrew Bible   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
3,421 words

...normal cycle of life: there is a time for planting and a time for uprooting what has been planted (Eccl. 3:2ff.). The Hebrew Bible also contains detailed perceptions on various elements of nature (e.g., water and trees). It sees in water, inter alia , a vitalizing agent of the Earth (Gen. 2:5); a natural resource most essential for the survival of living beings (Neh. 9:20); a tool of destruction (Ex. 14:27–28); having religious functions (Lev. 16:4); a tool for testing people (Gen. 24:13–14); a natural barrier (Ex. 14:29); a means of identity, particularly...

Christianity (7a) – Theology and Ecology (Contemporary Introduction)

Christianity (7a) – Theology and Ecology (Contemporary Introduction)   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
1,214 words

... The Covenant . A main theme in Christian eco-theology is God's promise that the entire creation will be liberated from its environmental and social suffering. Inspired by biblical covenant traditions (e.g., Gen. 9:8–17; Ex. 20:1–17), this promise provides a basis for hope amidst widespread destruction. In response, the faithful are expected to uphold newly interpreted covenant obligations. For example, they should not steal from future generations (sustainability; cf. Ex. 20:15), nor covet unnecessary material goods (sufficiency; cf. Ex. 20:17). Also, as in...

Eco-magic

Eco-magic   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
544 words

...Eco-magic is an evolving practice that blurs into a whole ideology of change. Starhawk, a witch and political activist, “offers the principles of magic not as a belief system … but as an alternative descriptive system that can help develop a psychology of liberation” ( 1987 : 20). Because eco-magic is a strategy that a conventional opponent will find hard to counter, it has been perceived as a tool of the oppressed. Any magical tradition or technique can be adapted to eco-magic and practitioners work with a wide variety of deities. Rituals can be public or...

Jackson, S. Wesley “Wes”

Jackson, S. Wesley “Wes” (1936)   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
636 words

...views – particularly Christian views – that uphold an instrumental view of nature as an object to be exploited for short-term human gain, he draws regularly upon biblical and theological imagery in advocating a biocentric worldview. For example, the title of an early collection of essays, Altars of Unhewn Stone ( 1987 ) recalls the Exodus 20:25 injunction that Moses build an altar of unhewn stone “for if thou lift up thy tool upon it, thou has polluted it” (in Jackson 1987 : 9). In other words, the imposition of human technology upon nature is...

Creation's Fate in the New Testament

Creation's Fate in the New Testament   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
841 words

...are removed (Matt. 21:18–22; Mk. 11:12–14, 20–26). Jesus' miracles in nature reveal nature's divine character previously hidden, thus reestablishing nature's abundant fertility by which it expresses divine creation. The incarnation of God in human form is more than the creator's passion for creation, it argues for God's embeddedness in it. Water is no longer just water and bread is no longer just bread but they are aspects of the divine (Jn. 4:10–14, 6:51). The agricultural setting of Jesus' parables is more than a reminder of his rural upbringing. The thorns,...

Christianity (2) – Jesus

Christianity (2) – Jesus   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
1,965 words

...Matt. 13; Luke 13:6–9; 21:29–30). Varied results from sowing seed in different kinds of soils illustrate diverse responses to Jesus' message (Mark 4:1–8, 13–20). Jesus used natural objects to illustrate moral and spiritual lessons. Bread and wine were sacramental symbols of the new covenant instituted through Jesus' redeeming death on the cross (Mark 14:22–25). He made an unfruitful fig tree wither as a visual parable of judgment on people unresponsive to God (Mark 11:14; cf. Luke 13:6–9). Jesus was comfortable with the material world (Mark 2:16), yet he was...

Anarcho-Primitivism and the Bible

Anarcho-Primitivism and the Bible   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
2,771 words

...The other reflects a primal suspicion of tools as instruments of domination in relation to nature: “If you make an altar of stones for Me, do not construct it from hewn stone; if you use a tool on it you will defile it” (Ex. 20:25). Scripture has plenty to say about the danger of manufactured objects, particularly in the well-known prohibitions on image-making. But this taboo is more anti-fetishistic than anti-iconic, recognizing that “made objects” inevitably become mystified and sacralized, thus taking on more value than their makers (a classic statement is...

Sierra Treks

Sierra Treks   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
679 words

...value of wilderness with an all-creation theology. This theology proclaims hope in a Creator/Redeemer God whose faithfulness to humanity is inseparable from faithfulness to all creation. Lois Ann Lorentzen Further Reading Abbey, Edward . Desert Solitaire: A Season in the Wilderness . New York: Ballantine, 1968. The Bible . Genesis 1–9, Job 38–42, Psalm 24, John 1:1–18, Romans 8:18–25, Colossians 1:15–20. Leopold, Aldo . A Sand County Almanac . Oxford University Press, 1949. Lorentzen, Lois Ann . “ Paradise Paved. ” Sojourners 29:6 (2000), 28–36. Nash,...

Rock Art – Hadzabe/Sandawe (Eastern Africa)

Rock Art – Hadzabe/Sandawe (Eastern Africa)   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
681 words

... 13 (2003), 1–20. Leakey, Mary . Africa's Vanishing Art: The Rock Paintings of Tanzania . London: Hamish Hamilton, 1983. Lewis-Williams, J. David . “Beyond Style and Portrait: A Comparison of Tanzanian and Southern African Rock Art.” In Rainer Vossen and Klaus Keuthmann , eds. Contemporary Studies on Khoisan 2. Hamburg: Helmut Buske, 1987, 93–139. Masao, Fidelis . The Later Stone Age and the Rock Paintings of Central Tanzania . Wiesbaden: Frans Steiner, 1979. Ten Raa, Eric . “ Dead Art Living Society: A Study of Rock Paintings in a Social Context. ”...

Rock Art – Australian Aboriginal

Rock Art – Australian Aboriginal   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
1,311 words

...Aboriginal people of Australia have a rich heritage of carving and painting on rocks, extending back well more than 20,000 years. Rock art, Australia's oldest surviving art form, expresses the Aborigines' social, economic and religious concerns through the centuries. In the form of petroglyphs (carvings) and pictographs (paintings), rock art is found across the continent. It served a variety of functions, and provides the earliest illustration of Aboriginal beliefs, technologies and activities. Australia is a particularly rich region for rock-art...

Aztec Religion – Pre-Columbian

Aztec Religion – Pre-Columbian   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
3,643 words

...to the vigesimal (based on the number 20) system of the tonalpohualli (“day count”) calendar, one had to be careful, for example, that the baptismal ritual of a newborn child would not fall into one of the “bad” days: the “sprinkling of the head with water” ( nequatequilitztli ) was postponed, accordingly, until a good combination of one of the 20 day-signs and numbers (1–13) was at hand. Based on their astronomic tradition, the Aztecs knew the solar year of 365 days ( xihuitl ), but the logical combination of 20 day-signs and 13 numbers led to an...

Christianity (7i) – An Evangelical Perspective on Faith and Nature

Christianity (7i) – An Evangelical Perspective on Faith and Nature   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
1,541 words

...before our eyes as a most elegant book, wherein all creatures, great and small, are as so many characters leading us to see clearly the invisible things of God, even his everlasting power and divinity, as the apostle Paul says (Romans 1:20) … Second, He makes Himself more clearly and fully known to us by his Holy and divine Word, that is to say, as far as is necessary for us to know in this life, to His glory and our salvation. The consequences of learning both from the Word and the world means that an evangelical perspective on locating a city and its...

Yamuna

Yamuna   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
1,630 words

...The Yamuna is a river that flows from its source of Yamunotri high in the central Himalayas for about 826 miles to its confluence with the Ganges on the plains at Allahabad. It has long been considered one of the holiest rivers of northern India, and for centuries has been worshipped as an aquatic goddess. Today, however, much of the river has become polluted, causing a variety of responses from the religious community that is associated with the worship of the Yamuna. The Yamuna originates from the Yamunotri glacier at an elevation near 20,000 feet above...

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