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A20

A cytoplasmic zinc finger protein (790 aa) that inhibits NFκB activity and TNF-mediated programmed cell death. The expression of the A20 mRNA is upregulated by TNFα. It is a dual function ...

20a The History of the Book in Britain, c.1475–1800

20a The History of the Book in Britain, c.1475–1800   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,011 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...a The History of the Book in Britain, c .1475–1800 Andrew Murphy 1 Origins 2 The Stationers’ Company 3 Beyond London 4 MS circulation and playbooks 5 Religious publishing 6 Copyright and control 7 Conclusion 1 Origins The history of the book in Britain begins, in fact, on the Continent. In 1471 , the Kent-born merchant *Caxton travelled from Bruges to Cologne, where he formed a partnership with the printer and *punchcutter Johannes Veldener . Having mastered the art of printing, Caxton returned to Bruges in the following year, probably accompanied...

20c The History of the Book in Britain from 1914

20c The History of the Book in Britain from 1914   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
3,991 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...a drug habit’ (Leavis, 19). The anxieties displayed by some in the 19 th century about the subversive dangers of a newly literate audience developed in the 20 th century into fears about the deterioration of literary quality in a democratized marketplace. The ambivalence of the book trade, caught between the demands of capitalism and those of culture, would continue to cause consternation throughout the 20 th century. Geoffrey *Faber , publisher of high-modernist authors including Eliot and Pound at his eponymous company, articulated his disdain for a...

43a The History of the Book in Southeast Asia (1): The Islands

43a The History of the Book in Southeast Asia (1): The Islands   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
2,543 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

... *calendars manifest a strong Indian influence. For example, the Batak possess a chronological system imbued with Sanskrit-derived terminology that is used to find auspicious moments. Regional versions of the octaval calendar, a rather simple system based on an eight-year cycle, have enjoyed great popularity among the Muslim communities of maritime Southeast Asia for ages, but nowadays outside Java its workings are forgotten. The modernization process which forcefully set in around the turn of the 20 th century has promoted a globalization of...

43b The History of the Book in Southeast Asia (2): The Mainland

43b The History of the Book in Southeast Asia (2): The Mainland   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
2,488 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...2 Dating systems The traditional Vietnamese calendar followed the Chinese model. Years were recorded using a method of cyclical characters and year designations, marking the divisions into different periods or eras of a ruler’s reign. The years, in turn, were divided into twelve lunar months of 29 or 30 days. Over a period of nineteen years, seven intercalary months were added in order to bring the lunar cycle into accord with the solar cycle. In the 20 th century, the lunar calendar was replaced by the Gregorian calendar and Christian Era (or Common Era) for...

25 The History of the Book in Switzerland

25 The History of the Book in Switzerland   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
1,936 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...century are *Slatkine and *Droz , both based in Geneva, founded in 1918 and 1924 , respectively. In the mid-20 th century, Switzerland became a centre for high-quality colour book production thanks to publishers such as C. J. Bucher , Conzett & Huber, and *Skira . With regards to book preservation, a number of public or private libraries today house important collections, notably the chief university libraries, the Public Library of the University of *Basel , the City and University Library of *Berne , the Cantonal and University Library of Fribourg,...

7 The Book as Symbol

7 The Book as Symbol   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
1,981 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...a book. In Hamlet , the book of memory becomes the symbol of a person’s mortality; Macbeth abounds with metaphors of the book as the repository of time and a figure for death. At iconic moments in the history of the 20 th century, the power of the book as symbolic object has been especially apparent. In 1933 , the Nazis infamously burned ‘degenerate’ books in Berlin’s Opernplatz. Conversely, in China during the Cultural Revolution, Mao’s *Little Red Book was carried on the body or held aloft in staged acts of ideological affirmation. Disseminated on a...

17 Bookbinding

17 Bookbinding   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,252 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
9

...cloth binding in the 19 th century led to a corresponding decline in the making and decoration of leather bindings, although the trade never died out. A reaction against a feeling that artistic standards in bookbinding had fallen was initiated in the 1880s by *Cobden-Sanderson , whose beautifully crafted bindings, produced to his own designs, inspired a revival of interest in handcrafted bookbinding. A tradition of fine bookbinding flourished in many countries during the 20 th century; in England, A 20 th -century binding by Edgar *Mansfield , an...

11 The Technologies of Print

11 The Technologies of Print   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,192 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
8

...widely used, stored cast type and delivered it as unjustified text to a composing stick, where a compositor inserted spaces and justified the line by hand. Such a composing machine, with a keyboard similar to that of a piano, was produced by Young & Delcambre in the late 1840s . More sophisticated machines of this kind were marketed successfully and used well into the 20 th century ( see composing machines ). The second system, which overtook the first, was for a machine that cast a new printing surface. Several machines of this kind were invented and...

12 The Economics of Print

12 The Economics of Print   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,040 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...within the Company. In 1557 , the *Stationers’ Company was granted a Royal Charter giving it corporate legal status and the right to self-regulation. The Company gained powers to regulate *apprentices and apprenticeships and to seize illegal books ( see censorship ), and it prohibited printing by non-members. This largely confined printing to London, centralizing the trade until the end of the 17 th century ( see 20a ). The Company’s custom of recording permission to print a book—a practice inaugurated in part to forestall adverse competition between...

24 The History of the Book in Germany

24 The History of the Book in Germany   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,033 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...Even this ‘Germany’ was not a unity: the ‘Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation’ remained a loose conglomeration of territories and municipalities under the notional direction of the Holy Roman Emperor until its dissolution in 1806 . Austria then became a nation in its own right ( see 30 ). Whereas countries like Britain and France have for centuries had national capitals exerting a powerful cultural influence, it was not until 1871 that Berlin became the capital of the newly established German Reich. The 20 th century saw this unity torn...

30 The History of the Book in Austria

30 The History of the Book in Austria   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
1,528 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...on cash payments led to a boom in cheap reprints in southern Germany and Austria. A prominent figure in this regard was *Trattner , court bookseller and printer in Vienna, who was actively encouraged by Empress Maria Theresa to issue reprints of German books. 3 Modern times Until 1918 , the centres of publishing and literary life in the Austrian empire were Vienna and Prague. Writers associated with Vienna at this time include Hugo von Hofmannsthal and Karl Kraus (founder of the most important critical journal of the early 20 th century, Die Fackel ),...

37 The History of the Book in Sub-Saharan Africa

37 The History of the Book in Sub-Saharan Africa   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,157 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...occur among Cameroon’s population of 20 million). Despite the difficulty of conveying the complexities of some tonal languages in script, most African languages are now written and printed using the roman alphabet. A few languages—notably Egyptian, Berber, and Nubian in North Africa, and Vai in 19 th -century Liberia—developed their own, sometimes short-lived writing systems. The Ge’ez syllabary, developed from a consonantal alphabet, is still the basis for the alphabet in use in many printed works in contemporary Ethiopia—a country unique in sub-Saharan Africa...

26 The History of the Book in the Nordic Countries

26 The History of the Book in the Nordic Countries   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,145 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...were few and far between. In addition to the religious context of reading instruction, this meant that for many Nordic people the world of books was confined to a limited selection of (mainly devotional) literature. Readers interested in a wider range of books had to acquire these in a capital or university city. The populations of Stockholm and Copenhagen grew significantly, from 10,000 and 20,000 inhabitants respectively in 1600 to c .60,000 in 1700 . Dutch booksellers were present in Copenhagen from the 1630s and in Stockholm from 1647 ( Johannes...

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,807 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...Latin American countries; but on the whole the entire region experienced a growth in book production and consumption during the mid-20 th century. It was precisely at this time of the Latin American publishing industry’s expansion that literary production grew and came to be recognized internationally as original and characteristically ‘Latin American’. With a combination of influences from early 20 th -century surrealism, an interest in social topics, and the consciousness of a distinct Latin American cultural identity, poetry and fiction created new...

18 Theories of Text, Editorial Theory, and Textual Criticism

18 Theories of Text, Editorial Theory, and Textual Criticism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,963 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...in the edition. For most of the 20 th century, literary scholarship, particularly in English, privileged the author and used bibliographical and critical processes in order to reach a putative authorial text hidden or corrupted by subsequent error. Historians, by contrast, have generally preferred *diplomatic editions (i.e. a text faithfully transcribed from its appearance in a particular document) or a type- or photographic *facsimile of a particular document. In recent years, some theorists have advocated a more sociological approach to editing,...

28 The History of the Book in Italy

28 The History of the Book in Italy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,068 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...narrative otherwise struggled with a dearth of readers and with the backwardness of the educational system. For Italy as a whole, 75 per cent of the population was unable to read or write in 1870 ; in the rural south, this figure reached 90 per cent. Primary schooling became obligatory in 1877 , but a lack of resources and the opposition of the clergy meant that the law remained a dead letter in many places; in 1911 the number of Italians with inadequate literacy skills still averaged 38 per cent. 8 The 20 th and 21 st centuries: two wars,...

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
13,110 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...lithographed text of 1913 a miniature shows a gramophone of the period. Both kinds of illustration—in typographic and lithographic books—reproduced pictorial elements in a standard, repeatable form for a much wider readership than that of illustrated MSS, and thus helped to transform the visual and artistic awareness of educated Muslims during the 19 th and 20 th centuries. 9 Printing the Qur’ān Apart from short extracts used in medieval block-printed amulets, the Arabic text of the Qur’ān was not printed until the 1530s , when a somewhat inaccurate and...

1 Writing Systems

1 Writing Systems   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,152 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
7

...is that a two-dimensional symbol on a clay *tablet might be thought to be a less, not a more, advanced concept than a three-dimensional clay ‘token’. It seems more likely that ‘tokens’ accompanied the emergence of writing, rather than giving rise to writing. Apart from the ‘tokens’, numerous examples exist of what might be termed ‘proto-writing’. They include the Ice Age symbols found in caves in southern France, which are probably 20,000 years old. A cave at Peche Merle, in the Lot, contains a lively Ice Age graffito showing a stencilled hand and a pattern...

33 The History of the Book in Poland

33 The History of the Book in Poland   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
4,081 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...range of books, including those by previously banned writers or on taboo subjects. In 1999–2003 , the number of book titles published per annum hovered around 20,000. In 2003 , not surprisingly, the largest number of titles ( 500 ) was published by WSiP, a specialist in textbooks, but a further seven firms produced more than 200 titles each. Of the 20,681 book titles appearing in 2003 , just under a quarter were translations. The first decade of the 21 st century has been characterized by common global trends: retail book chains, Internet bookselling, and...

45 The History of the Book in New Zealand

45 The History of the Book in New Zealand   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
3,017 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...He was joined by his nephew A. W. Reed in 1925 ; together, they wrote more than 100 of the approximately 1,000 titles published by the firm. Such local successes dwindled in the face of faster transport and a global media. By the end of the 20 th century, there were no longer any major New Zealand-owned printing companies or bookselling chains. This shift away from local ownership began with the arrival of firms like Collins, *Random House , and *Longman in the 1960s , though the pace of mergers quickened at the end of the 20 th and start of the 21 st ...

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