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A20

A cytoplasmic zinc finger protein (790 aa) that inhibits NFκB activity and TNF-mediated programmed cell death. The expression of the A20 mRNA is upregulated by TNFα. It is a dual function ...

Guénon, René

Guénon, René (1886–1951)   Reference library

Ibrahim Kalin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
688 words

...mysticism. Bibliography Alleau, René , and M. Scriabine . René Guénon et l’Actualité de la Penseé Traditionnelle: Actes du Colloque International de Cérisy-La-Salle; 13–20 Julliet 1973 . Paris: Dervy Livres, 1981. Robin, Jean . Réne Guénon: Temoin de la Tradition . Paris: G. Tredaniel, 1986. Waterfield, Robin . Réne Guénon and the Future of the West: The Life and Writings of a 20th-Century Metaphysician . Wellingborough, U.K.: Crucible, 1987. Ibrahim...

Murādī, al-

Murādī, al-   Reference library

Julio Samsó

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
598 words

...sources, the Kitāb al-asrār uses powerful moving forces and a certain roughness in the mechanisms (thick ropes instead of strings, wheels with a diameter of three spans, weights reaching six and a half pounds (three kilograms). This tradition was later followed in the Maghrib and in Europe. The book describes five mechanical toys (machines 1–5), eighteen clocks moved by water (machines 6–15, 17–20, 27–30), four war machines (machines 21–24), two water-lifting devices (machines 25–26), and a sundial (machine 31), followed by four appendices. Machine 16 is...

ʿIrāqī, Abu al-Qāsim al-

ʿIrāqī, Abu al-Qāsim al-   Reference library

Hadi Jorati

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

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Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
867 words

...To that end he chose to write a commentary on al-Muktasab , which he regarded as rich but too concise and complicated. Bibliography Abuʾl-Qāsim Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-ʿIrāqī . Kitāb al-ʿIlm al-Muktasab fī Zirāʿat adh-dhahab = Book of Knowledge Acquired Concerning the Cultivation of Gold , The Arabic text edited with a translation and introduction by E. J. Holmyard . Paris: Paul Geuthner, 1923. Al-Jaladakī, Aydamir ibn Abd Allah . Nihāyat al-ṭalab fī sharḥ al-Muktasab fī zirāʿat al-dhahab . [17—?], Arabic MSS Suppl. 20. New Haven, Conn.: Beinecke Rare...

Compass

Compass   Reference library

Petra G. Schmidl

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

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Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
1,325 words

...1. On the Directive Property of a Magnet in the Earth’s Field and the Origin of the Nautical Compass.” Terrestrial Magnetism and Atmospherical Electricity 37 (1932): 105–146. A detailed overview of the Chinese, Antique, Arabic, Persian, and European sources on the directive power of the magnet and of the magnetic compass. Schmidl, Petra G. “Medieval Arabic Sources on the Magnetic Compass.” In Science and Technology in the Islamic World. Proceedings of the XXth International Congress of History of Science (Liège, 20–26 July 1997), vol. 21. Edited by S....

Ibn al-ʿAwwām

Ibn al-ʿAwwām   Reference library

Salah E. Zaimeche

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

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Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
955 words

...J. Medieval Gardens . London: B.T. Batsford, 1981. Hyams, E. A History of Gardens and Gardening . London: J.M. Dent, 1971. “Ibn al-ʿAwwām.” In Biographie Universelle , new ed., by J. F. Michaud and L. G. Michaud , Vol. 20, pp. 267–268. Paris: Madame C. Desplaces, 1857. Ibn al-ʿAwwām . Le livre de l’agriculture d’Ibn al-Awwam . 2 vols. Translated from the Arabic by J. J. Clement-Mullet . Paris: A. Franck, 1864–1867. Ibn al-ʿAwwām . Libro de agricultura . Edited by J. A. Banqueri . Madrid: Imprenta Real, 1802. Leclerc, L. Histoire de la médecine...

Jābir ibn Aflaḥ

Jābir ibn Aflaḥ   Reference library

Julio Samsó

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
712 words

...of Poland toward the end of the thirteenth century. Bibliography Bellver, José . “On Jābir b. Aflaḥ’s Criticisms of Ptolemy’s Almagest .” In A Shared Legacy: Islamic Science East and West , edited by E. Calvo , M. Comes , R. Puig , and M. Rius , pp. 181–189. Barcelona: Universitat de Barcelona, 2008. Lorch, Richard . “The Astronomical Instruments of Jābir ibn Aflaḥ and the Torquetum.” Centaurus 20, no. 1 (1976): 11–35. Lorch, Richard . “The Astronomy of Jābir ibn Aflaḥ.” Centaurus 19, no. 2 (1975): 85–107. Swerdlow, N. M. “Jābir ibn Aflaḥ’s...

Ṣūfī, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, al-

Ṣūfī, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, al- (903–986)   Reference library

R. H. van Gent

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
881 words

...Al-Ṣūfī‘s work closely follows Ptolemy’s descriptions of the constellations for which he largely depended on Isḥāq ibn Ḥunayn’s translation (c. 890 ) of the Almagest . The stellar coordinates, as given in the Almagest (Books 7 and 8) for the epoch 885 Nabonassar [= 20 July 137 ], were corrected for the effect of precession to the epoch 1276 Alexander [= 1 October 964 ] by adding 12º 42' to the ecliptic longitudes. Although Ptolemy’s stellar positions were otherwise left unchanged, al-Ṣūfī systematically reobserved the brightness (magnitude) of...

Khwārizmī, al-

Khwārizmī, al-   Reference library

Jeffrey A. Oaks

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

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Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
4,714 words

...He then explains how to add and subtract expressions with diminished terms (i.e., apotomes, both numerical and algebraic). The examples are: add 200 − 10 to 20 − 200 ; subtract 200 − 10 from 20 − 200 ; add 100 + x 2 − 20 x to 50 + 10 x − 2 x 2 ; subtract 50 + 10 x − 2 x 2 from 100 + x 2 − 20 x . Al-Khwārizmī gives geometric proofs for the answers to the second and third examples only after a detour on operations with square roots. For the last example he remarks that “there is no suitable figure for it since it is of three different species” (...

Environment

Environment   Reference library

İbrahim Özdemir

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
2,287 words

...universe, despite all its natural causes, would be nothing, as suggested by Annemarie Schimmel ( 1994 ). Nature, then, is an arena wherein God’s beautiful names are manifested as His signs. In this way, the Qurʾān invites humans to read the universe as signs of God ( 41:53 ; 51:20–21 ). In the Qurʾānic perception of nature, God shows signs at every moment, āyah after āyah , to those who have the intelligence to grasp them as signs. What are usually called natural phenomena such as rain, snow, the structure of the heavens and the earth, alternation of day...

Deduction and Induction

Deduction and Induction   Reference library

Parviz Morewedge

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
2,575 words

...) is “a deduction that produces knowledge”; deduction is a logos (speech) that “produces a result of necessity from the things supposed just because of their being so” ( Prior Analytics , I.2, 24b18–20). By “each of the things supposed” is meant a premise ( protasis ) of an argument, and “what results of necessity” is the conclusion ( sumperasma ). The propositions in a syllogism are expressed by meaningful sentences; a typical simple sentence is a true or false assertion ( apophansis ) about a subject ( hupokeimenon, mawḍūʿ ) designated by a name (...

Abdus Salam

Abdus Salam (1926–1996)   Reference library

Pervez Hoodbhoy

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
1,111 words

...scheme for scientific advancement with a projected endowment of $1 billion collected from oil-rich countries, came to naught after he was banned from entering Saudi Arabia. Kuwait and Iran gave only small amounts of money for supporting their scientists at the ICTP. Salam died in Oxford at age seventy on 20 November 1996 after a debilitating illness and was buried in Rabwah, Pakistan. He is uncelebrated in the country today because of his religious affiliation; the world “Muslim” was scratched away from his tombstone by a court order. Bibliography Fraser, Gordon...

Transmission of Indian Science and Philosophy

Transmission of Indian Science and Philosophy   Reference library

Alok Kumar

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
1,849 words

...mentioned the availability of an Arabic translation of Caraka-Saṁhitā in the Middle East. Al-Kindī (c. 800–870 ) wrote a medical formulary, called Aqrābādhīn , which was translated by Martin Levey into English ( Kindī, 1966 ). According to Levey, about 13 percent of materia medica in the book is from the Indian region. In his view, “many of the Persian materia medica may more properly be considered to be Indian” ( Kindī, 1966 , p. 20). In that case, the Indian materia medica in al-Kindi’s work increases to about 31 percent. Philosophy. After the Muslim conquest...

Psychology

Psychology   Reference library

Jari Kaukua

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
2,277 words

...the soul’s nature and its properties ( De anima I.1, 402a6–8). Later on, he defines the soul in terms of the hylomorphic concept of form; the soul is “an actuality of the first kind of a natural organized body” and a “substance in the sense which corresponds to the account of a thing” (II.1, 412b4–11), or in brief, the essence and form of living bodies (II.2, 413a20–23) and thereby the cause of their animate functions (II.4, 415b9–28). Sensitive to the variety of those functions, Aristotle then develops a theory of three types of souls. The vegetative soul is...

Observatories

Observatories   Reference library

Yavuz Unat and Salim Ayduz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
3,408 words

...to develop a real-time automated seismic data-processing system to enable the rapid location of earthquakes. Bibliography Demir, Remzi . Takiyüddīn’de matematik ve astronomi . Ankara: Atatürk Kültür Merkezi, 2000. Taqi al-Dīn’s mathematics and astronomy. Kaçar, Mustafa , M. Ṣinasi Acar , and Atilla Bir . Takiyüddin’in gözlem araçları . Istanbul: Türkiye İş Bankası, 2011. The observations and equipment of Taqī al-Dīn. Kennedy, E. S. “Al-Kāshī’s Treatise on Astronomical Observational Instruments.” Journal of Near Eastern Studies 20, no. 2 (1961):...

Design Argument

Design Argument   Reference library

Nidhal Guessoum

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

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Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
3,131 words

... 78:6–16 , the second idea can be found in 86:5–6 and 88:17–20 , while many other verses contain a combination of the two, for example, 2:20–22 and 23:12–21 . Abū al-Ḥasan al-Ashʿarī presented DA arguments in Kitāb al-Lumaʿ fīal-radd ʿala ahl al-zaygh wa-al-bidaʿ (The Sparks: A Refutation of Heretics and Innovators; 1955 ) ; basing his work on the Qurʾān, he argued that it is human transformations from one stage to another, which we can neither impart nor resist, that show the need for a creator, planner, and transformer. The analogy he gave is that...

Sexuality

Sexuality   Reference library

Yasmin Amin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
1,044 words

...imagery in the Qurʾān extends to the afterlife as a reward for the believers in paradise, where they will be given beautiful ḥūr (houris) with huge eyes who are untouched by man or jinn (verses 37:48–49 , 38:52 , 55:56 , 55:72 , 44:54 , 52:20 , 56:22 ), while others will be served by beautiful boys ( ghilmān, wildān ; verses 52:24 ; 76:19 ; 56:17 ). Mutʿah. Mutʿah (lit. "enjoyment" or "pleasure") is a term for a temporary marriage, contracted for a fixed period ranging from a few hours to a century and is somewhat controversial, as the...

Muʿtazilah

Muʿtazilah   Reference library

Racha el Omari and M. Sait Özervarlı

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

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Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
1,878 words

...On the other hand this principle implies God’s transcendence ( tanzīh ) so that verses describing God in human terms or as having a body, such as His “having a hand” ( 10:48 ) or “sitting on the throne,” ( 5:20 ) also must be understood metaphorically. The Mu‘tazilah stress God’s absolute transcendence, refusing to attribute to Him any of the properties of a body, such as being localized, being in motion, or having a form. The double implications of their first principle—namely that God’s Attributes are none other than His Essence and that any...

Mechanics and Engineering

Mechanics and Engineering   Reference library

Josep Casulleras

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
3,384 words

...of his book is to recover a science that was falling into disuse; in it, he presents thirty-one models. Numbers 1–5 are very large clocklike machines with moving automata but without precise timing. Models 6–20 and 27–30 are clocks that record the passage of seasonal hours, also with moving automata. Models 21–24 are moving war machines in the form of towers. Models 25 and 26 are machines for raising water from wells, and Model 31 is presented as a universal sundial; this last model is an astronomical instrument rather than a mechanical one, but it serves...

Women in Science

Women in Science   Reference library

Ayad Al-Qazzaz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
1,261 words

...Afkhami, Mahnaz . Faith and Freedom: Women’s Human Rights in the Muslim World . Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 1995. Bachelet, Michelle . “Women in Science and Technology in Muslim Countries.” United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women . 20 September 2011. http://unwomen.org . Beck, Lois , and Nikki Keddie , eds. Women in the Muslim World . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1978. Fernea, Elizabeth Warnock , and Basima Qattan Bezirgan , eds. Middle Eastern Muslim Women Speak . Austin: University of Texas...

Transmission of the Modern Exact Science to the Muslim World

Transmission of the Modern Exact Science to the Muslim World   Reference library

S. M. Razaullah Ansari

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

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Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
5,589 words

...al-tawḥīd (The Culmination of the [Divine] Unity); ms. in Aligarh (MAL), scribed in 1806 with 10 folios (in the codex 18/2, f. 20a -f. 29a) (See Abū Ṭālib, 1797 ). This tract of Abū Ṭālib is, in fact, a prose commentary on his own poem of sixty-five couplets. In his preface (fol. 20a) he refers to the sayings of modern scholars ( aqwāl-i ḥukamāʾ-i jadīd ), by which he understands knowledge about fixed stars, planets, their satellites ( aqmār ), planetary heliocentric distances, their axial and orbital periods, diameters and speeds, theory of solar and...

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