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A20

A cytoplasmic zinc finger protein (790 aa) that inhibits NFκB activity and TNF-mediated programmed cell death. The expression of the A20 mRNA is upregulated by TNFα. It is a dual function ...

‘Clever Hans’

‘Clever Hans’   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
153 words

...Hans’ . A famous horse once thought to possess powers of telepathy. The horse (of a Russian trotting-horse breed), which lived in Berlin at the beginning of the 20th century, could apparently perform arithmetic in the presence of its owner by tapping a hoof on the ground to count out the answer. Fraud seemed unlikely since the owner and trainer, Herr von Osten, would allow people (free of charge) to watch the animal perform and even to question it themselves. The phenomenon was investigated in 1904 by O. Pfungst , a student of the psychologist C....

Hebb, Donald Olding

Hebb, Donald Olding (1904–85)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
184 words

...Olding ( 1904–85 ). A lifelong loyal Canadian, Hebb's theory that the brain is a multitude of nets reconciled the mass action ideas of Lashley and the holistic phenomena beloved of Gestalt psychologists with specific functional locations. He gave learning a physical basis in modified conductivities with use of synapses, and generally promoted a strongly physiology-based empiricist theorizing. His book The Organisation of Behaviour ( 1949 ) was among the most influential books on brain and mind in the 20th century. It is both a clear account of the...

a priori

a priori   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
307 words

..., are accorded a priori status without dispute. Kant held that in addition truths of arithmetic and geometry, and such statements about the natural world as ‘Every event has a cause’, were not analytic but nevertheless had the hallmarks of being a priori. The central question that his philosophy addressed was how such synthetic a priori truths were possible, whereas the strategy of his 20th-century empiricist critics was to argue that there are no a priori truths that are not analytic. (Published 1987) J. E. Tiles Frege, G. (1959). The Foundations of...

information rate of vision

information rate of vision   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
973 words

...must be made for unutilized spare capacity—for instance, when a subject makes a vernier acuity judgement on whether two lines are correctly aligned he could simultaneously make judgements on the width, length, and colour of the lines. When considerations like this are taken into account, the information used may rise to between 10 and 20 bits in a single judgement and the rate to about 200 bits per second, but even these values are very small compared with a capacity of 10 4 bits for a single judgement or 6 × 10 5 bits per second for the rate. Ditchburn...

doubting

doubting   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
349 words

...to only a handful of very simple and relatively unexciting propositions, such as (perhaps) ‘two and two make four’, or Descartes's famous ‘cogito’ (‘I am thinking’), and it does not seem possible to construct any worthwhile system of knowledge on such meagre foundations. The difficulty of seriously maintaining a position of philosophical scepticism was highlighted by G. E. Moore in the 20th century, and earlier by David Hume . Hume observed that ‘Nature is always too strong for principle, and though a Pyrrhonian may throw himself and others into a momentary...

Driesch, Hans Adolf Eduard

Driesch, Hans Adolf Eduard (1867–1941)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
293 words

...in 1907–8 , Driesch was appointed professor of philosophy at Heidelberg ( 1911–20 ), and subsequently at Cologne and Leipzig. Driesch's early interest in biology was gradually overshadowed by his involvement in philosophy. The discovery, in sea urchins, that a portion of an early embryo could develop into a complete, though smaller than normal, organism contradicted then-current mechanistic theories and led Driesch to develop a theory of vitalism that life is directed by a unique principle and cannot be explained solely in terms of chemical and physical...

religious experience

religious experience   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,175 words

...about, at least in part, by the effects of the elimination or intervention of sensory nerve impulses (deafferentation). Throughout the 20th century and today there are leading defenders of the cognitive value of religious experience. Early proponents of a non‐naturalist account of religious experiences include Rudolf Otto ( 1869–1937 ), Evelyn Underhill ( 1875–1941 ), and W. T. Stace ( 1886–1967 ). Since the mid‐20th century, the prominent defenders of the view that religious experience counts as evidence against naturalism and in favour of some...

migraine

migraine   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
989 words

...acute attack may result in a permanent neurological disturbance, for example a defect of vision. Attacks can be precipitated in a number of ways. Perhaps the most common cause is stress of a non-specific kind, as in the case of loss of sleep or overwork, and in some people attacks tend to occur in the period of relaxation that immediately follows the stress. There are many visual triggers, such as glare, flashing lights, and striped patterns. Attacks may also occur in relation to the menstrual cycle and sexual activity. In about 20 per cent of sufferers...

conscious resting state

conscious resting state   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
509 words

...brain accounts for 20% of the oxygen consumption of the body, despite the fact that it represents only 2% of body weight. Relative to this high rate of ongoing or basal metabolism, the amount of dedicated task‐related activity is relatively small. These findings led to the concept of a ‘default mode’ of brain function or conscious resting state . The functions of this baseline brain activity are spontaneous and virtually continuous, being attenuated only when we engage in goal‐directed actions. This is consistent with the continuity of a stable, unified...

facial expressions: origins

facial expressions: origins   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
809 words

...he was the kindest of men and most deeply attached to his family. In the 20th century it became fashionable to deny any genetic influence on human behaviour and it was claimed that all behaviour patterns, including facial expressions, were purely the result of cultural learning. Darwin's earlier ideas were rejected and in the 1930s psychologist Otto Klineberg's conclusions were summarized by the phrase: ‘what is shown on the face is written there by culture’. In the second half of the 20th century this school of thought was discredited and new research...

intelligence differences

intelligence differences   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,455 words

...tasks, apply them to a group of people, and employ statistical techniques like factor analysis to find how many underlying traits are needed to account for the associations among the test scores. Over the 20th century the suggestions ranged as follows: one (Spearman), a huge number ( Thomson ), about seven unrelated intelligences ( Thurstone ), perhaps 120 distinct abilities ( Guilford ), seven to nine-and-a-half ( Gardner ) (Neisser et al. 1996 ). The answer that most researchers accept today was available in the first half of the 20th century, from the...

after‐effects, perceptual

after‐effects, perceptual   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,772 words
Illustration(s):
2

...stimulus conditions. Viewed in this light, perceptual after‐effects are useful tools for examining the nature of perceptual coding schemes employed by the human brain ( Leopold et al. 2001 ). Fig. A4. Opponent visual after‐effects. (a) Colour afterimages. The three concentric circles on the left are identical in colour. To colour these circles, stare for 20 s at the small black dot in the middle of the three coloured circles on the right, holding your fixation as steady as possible. At the end of this adaptation period, shift your gaze to the black dot in...

Gage, Phineas

Gage, Phineas (1813–60)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
644 words

...sparing movement and language (Harlow 1868 ). The appearance of this report within a few years of the discoveries of Broca , Wernicke , Ferrier , Fritsch , and Hitzig undoubtedly contributed to the renewal of interest in functional localization in the second half of the 19th century. A detailed theory of the functions of the frontal cortex in terms of its role in attention, planning, decision making, socialization and the control of emotional expression had to await the 20th century, for the behavioural effects of frontal lobotomy and the advent of...

Burton, Richard Francis

Burton, Richard Francis (1821–90)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
561 words

...His final post was in Trieste ( 1872–90 ), where he continued to write extensively. Burton died in Trieste on 20 October 1890 . Following his death, Isabel, his wife, burned his diaries and current manuscripts, providing her own whitewashed version of his life, depicting him as a good Catholic, faithful husband, and wronged and misunderstood adventurer. His books and translations include the Kama Sutra ( 1883 ), The Book of a Thousand Nights and a Night ( 1885 ), the Ananga Ranga ( 1885 ), and The Perfumed Garden ( 1886 ). He also published remarkable...

artificial life

artificial life   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
670 words

...automata that aroused admiration for their lifelike properties. In the late 20th century, technological developments in computing allowed people to attempt to recreate different aspects of the properties of living organisms in simulations. The field of artificial life became identified under that name from a workshop organized by Chris Langton in Los Alamos in 1987 , bringing together physicists, computer scientists, complexity theorists, and biologists with a common interest in trying to understand the abstract principles behind the properties of...

attention, neural basis

attention, neural basis   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
3,590 words
Illustration(s):
5

...2005. Fig. A20. Frontoparietal network for spatial attention. Axial slice through frontal and parietal cortex. (a) When the subject directed attention to a peripheral target location and performed a discrimination task, a distributed frontoparietal network was activated including the SEF, the FEF, and the SPL. (b) The same network of frontal and parietal areas was activated when the subject directed attention to the peripheral target location in expectation of the stimulus onset. (c) Time series of fMRI signals in V4. Directing attention to a peripheral...

hair cells

hair cells   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
587 words
Illustration(s):
1

...cell membrane. Charged ions entering through the pores create a potential within the hair cell. The potential controls the release of neurotransmitter from the hair cell and this influences the rate at which action potentials are sent along the (post-synaptic) afferent nerve fibre to higher brain centres. Although hair cell stereocilia are deflected at acoustic frequencies (up to 20 kHz in humans), the electrical properties of the hair cell membrane smooth the rapidly changing potential to a slower rate which can be transmitted by the nerve axons to the...

Russell, Bertrand Arthur William

Russell, Bertrand Arthur William (1872–1970)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
666 words

..., third Earl Russell Bertrand Arthur William ( 1872–1970 ). By general consent the most distinguished philosopher of the 20th century, Bertrand Russell made fundamental contributions to logic, and influenced equally academic and popular philosophy, as well as appreciation of psychological issues and social questions. Starting from a broadly idealist philosophical position ( The Problems of Philosophy , 1912 ), he became a thoroughgoing empiricist, after the manner of John Locke , in later books such as Human Knowledge: Its Scope and Limits ( 1948...

subnormality

subnormality   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,714 words

...by early and continuous educational attention. Whether this can be said with certainty or not, a great deal of research has shown that above IQ 55 ability to survive in the community is not very closely related to intelligence. Below this IQ level a relatively small proportion of people will be found to be socially independent, possibly between 10 and 20 per cent. The prevalence of subnormality The prevalence of subnormality At the beginning of the 20th century, the prevalence of subnormality was thought to be increasing, because the views of Francis...

physicalism

physicalism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,723 words

...In the 20th century analytic philosophy the idea achieved considerable prominence again, finding support in such figures as Quine ( 1960 ) and Lewis ( 1994 ). Indeed, it not unreasonable to say that, just as idealism was the metaphysics du jour for the philosophers of the late 19th century, so physicalism has become the metaphysics du jour for the 20th. It may also be that physicalism (or something like it) is implicitly a common part of 20th and 21st century intellectual culture, though this is somewhat speculative. Even if physicalism is a very...

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