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Overview

A20

A cytoplasmic zinc finger protein (790 aa) that inhibits NFκB activity and TNF-mediated programmed cell death. The expression of the A20 mRNA is upregulated by TNFα. It is a dual function ...

HOME OWNERS’ LOAN CORPORATION

HOME OWNERS’ LOAN CORPORATION  

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

...Great Depression, the nation was in the throes of both a banking and a housing crisis. The HOLC was formed to protect homeowners from foreclosure and to protect banks that held mortgages on those homes. The parent organization for the HOLC was the Federal Home Loan Bank Board, created in 1932 . HOLC loans were only available for mortgages that were in default or held by troubled financial institutions. Only nonfarm, owner-occupied structures consisting of no more than four units and worth less than $20,000 were eligible. The HOLC loan could be no more than...

Know-Nothing Party

Know-Nothing Party   Reference library

Thomas J. Curran

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
408 words

...nativist sentiment roused by the influx of Irish Catholics to East Coast cities. The American Republican Party (later simply the American Party) was founded in New York City in 1843 ; in coalition with the Whigs, it elected a nativist mayor of New York in 1844 . Advocating a ban on Catholic and foreign-born officeholders and a 20-year time limit for naturalization, the party made headway in Philadelphia also, sparking anti-Catholic riots. It gained momentum in 1849 when Charles B. Allen founded the secret Order of the Star Spangled Banner in New...

Servicemen’s Readjustment Act

Servicemen’s Readjustment Act   Reference library

William M. Tuttle Jr.

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
306 words

...for its passage, calling it “a bill of rights for GI Joe and GI Jane .” The “ GI Bill of Rights,” or “ GI Bill ,” as it is commonly known, authorized payments for tuition, books, and living expenses for up to four years of college or vocational school, low-interest mortgages for homeowners, loans for veterans to buy farms and start businesses, and a “readjustment allowance” of $20 per week while veterans sought employment. In important ways, the GI Bill shaped the economic and social history of postwar America . More than a million veterans enrolled in...

Confederate States of America

Confederate States of America   Reference library

Daniel E. Sutherland

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
460 words

...States of America When Abraham Lincoln was elected president in November 1861 , many Southern whites feared that their economic security and cultural identity, especially as represented by the institution of slavery, would be threatened by a government dominated by the Republican Party. Between 20 December 1860 and 1 February 1861 , seven Southern states— South Carolina, Mississippi , Florida , Alabama , Georgia , Louisiana , and Texas —seceded from the Union in protest. On 4 February, their rep- resentatives met at Montgomery , Alabama...

Ford, Gerald R.

Ford, Gerald R.   Reference library

John Robert Greene

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
655 words

...’s presidency was highlighted by an 8 September 1974 pardon of Nixon for his Watergate-related offenses, a worsening economy, the final withdrawal of American troops from South Vietnam , and halting attempts to conclude a second strategic arms limitation treaty (SALT II) with the Soviet Union. On 20 November 1975 , former California Governor Ronald Reagan announced that he would challenge Ford for the Republican nomination for president. A grueling primary campaign found Ford eventually winning the Republican nomination on 19 August with 1,187...

Wallace, Henry A.

Wallace, Henry A.   Reference library

John J. Fry

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
581 words

...unless Wallace was his running mate. Wallace was inaugurated vice president on 20 January 1941 . Wallace promoted Roosevelt ’s policies during World War II. He traveled to the Soviet Union in 1944 , where he infamously declared that Siberian miners were well provided for. In fact, they were prisoners, and Wallace had been duped by a counterfeit village. Roosevelt was unwilling to give Wallace the same support at that year’s Democratic National Convention, and as a result Harry S. Truman replaced him on the Democratic ticket. Roosevelt made ...

Dawes Severalty Act

Dawes Severalty Act   Reference library

Donald L. Parman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
471 words

...but led to increased federal control, poverty, and reduced agricultural production. What started as well-intended legislation produced a major disaster. [ see also Homestead Act ; and Indian Law, Federal . ] Bibliography McLaughlin, Michael R. “ The Dawes Act, or Indian General Allotment Act of 1887: The Continuing Burden of Allotment. A Selective Bibliography. ” American Indian Culture and Research Journal 20, no. 2 (1996): 59–105. Otis, D. S. The Dawes Act and the Allotment of Indian Lands , edited by Francis Paul Prucha. Norman: University of...

American Indian Movement

American Indian Movement   Reference library

Andrew K. Frank

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
572 words

...Yellow Thunder (Oglala) in Gordon, Nebraska . By 1972 , the AIM had local chapters across North America , with forty-three in the United States and six in Canada . In October 1972 the organization led a “Trail of Broken Treaties” caravan from the West to Washington, D.C. , occupied the Bureau of Indian Affairs headquarters, and presented the 20-Point Manifesto as demands for their surrender. In it, the AIM demanded that the United States respect Native American treaty rights and address the substandard living standards of Indians, among other things....

Pluralism, Legal

Pluralism, Legal   Reference library

Oren Perez

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
540 words

...Legal Pluralism: Past to Present, Local to Global. ” 30 Sydney Law Review 375 (2008). Teubner, Gunther. “‘Global Bukowina’: Legal Plu-ralism in the World Society.” In Global Law without a State , edited by Gunther Tuebner, pp. 3–28. Aldershot: UK; Brookfield, Vt.: Dartmouth, 1997. Twining, William. “ Normative and Legal Pluralism: A Global Perspective. ” 20 Duke Journal of Comparative and International Law 473 (2010). Oren...

White Citizens’ Councils

White Citizens’ Councils   Reference library

Charles W. Eagles

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
539 words

...Monday” speech, Robert B. Patterson , a plantation manager in Leflore County, rallied more than a dozen white men in nearby Indianola to organize resistance to racial integration. A subsequent, larger public meeting resulted in the formation of the Indianola Citizens’ Council. Other local councils soon emerged, and in October 20 groups publicly formed the Association of Citizens’ Councils in Mississippi with Patterson as executive secretary. Reflecting an emphasis on local autonomy, the state association had a loose structure. Similar organizations soon...

Chinese Exclusion Cases

Chinese Exclusion Cases   Reference library

John R. Wunder

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
896 words

...United States before 1882 and who left the country with plans to return to have a reentry certificate. Six years later, the Scott Act ( 1888 ) became law. This statute prohibited Chinese laborers abroad or who planned future travels from returning. Over 20,000 Chinese were stranded. The Scott Act did allow merchants and teachers to return if they had proper papers. This loophole began the “paper names” industry whereby Chinese created new identities to return. Congress passed a second exclusionary act, known as the Geary Act ( 1892 ). This law continued the...

Homeland Security, Department of

Homeland Security, Department of   Reference library

Patrick S. Roberts

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,042 words

...the creation of a new department after the terrorist attacks of 2001 , but then the following year announced plans for a new department that included many agencies with little or no responsibility for protecting the nation against terrorism. The department consolidated customs, border, transportation security, and emergency preparation and response functions at the federal government level and issued grants to states and localities. A cabinet-level department was not the government’s first organizational response to the infamous attacks. On 20 September 2001 ,...

Naral Pro-Choice America

Naral Pro-Choice America   Reference library

Karen O’Connor and Felicia Fognani

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,080 words

... Senate on the nomination of anti-choice nominee Justice Clarence Thomas for a seat on the Supreme Court. Michelman discussed her personal hardships in trying to obtain a legal abortion in 1969 after her husband abandoned her and her three small children. Despite the effort, the Senate ultimately confirmed Justice Thomas. In 1992 , NARAL began nationwide lobbying for FOCA and endorsed then-governor Bill Clinton ’s campaign to become the first pro-choice president. On the 20th anniversary of Roe , two days after taking the oath of office, President ...

Capital Punishment

Capital Punishment   Reference library

Richard Moran and Paul S. Boyer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
931 words

...Punishment Since George Kendall’s execution in Jamestown in 1608 , about 20,000 people have been legally put to death in America—more than 7,000 of them in the twentieth century. All thirteen colonies mandated public hanging for certain crimes against the state, person, or property. When the Bill of Rights was adopted in 1791 , the Eighth Amendment’s prohibition against “cruel and unusual” punishment was understood to outlaw torture and the intentional infliction of pain, not the death penalty itself. Over the next two centuries, however, the criminal...

Panama Canal

Panama Canal   Reference library

Robert C. Harding

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
847 words

...of defending democracy, combating drug trafficking, and protecting the integrity of the canal treaties, the United States invaded Panama on the morning of 20 December 1989 . Using overwhelming firepower, the United States quickly routed the National Guard and arrested Noriega after a brief standoff at the Papal Nuncio. Following the return of democracy, the American invasion was the catalyst for a dramatic shift in Panama ’s political structure. [ See also Buckley, William F., Jr. ; Ford, Gerald R. ; and Reagan, Ronald . ] Bibliography Clymer,...

Seneca Falls Women’s Rights Convention of 1848

Seneca Falls Women’s Rights Convention of 1848   Reference library

Linda C. Frank

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
557 words

...Falls Women’s Rights Convention of 1848 The Seneca Falls Women’s Rights Convention, held on 19 and 20 July 1848 at the Wesleyan Chapel in Seneca Falls, New York , was the first convention in the United States specifically called to discuss women’s social, civil, and religious rights. Although the published meeting call did not mention women’s political rights, the introduction of a resolution demanding woman suffrage was the convention’s most contentious and most enduring legacy. The village of Seneca Falls, located in central New York State, was at...

Gun Control

Gun Control   Reference library

Alan Lizotte, David McDowall, and Paul S. Boyer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
705 words

...more than 20,000 state and local statutes regulated firearms. Federal gun-control laws were enacted in 1927 , 1934 , and 1938 . These forbade mail-order pistol sales, regulated firearms dealers, and limited possession of “gangster” weapons. The Gun Control Act of 1968 tightened the earlier laws and prohibited some categories of persons from gun ownership. The so-called Brady Law of 1993 imposed a waiting period on handgun purchases and banned sales of some types of semiautomatic weapons. (This act was named for James Brady , a presidential press...

Labor’s Role in Politics

Labor’s Role in Politics   Reference library

David Brian Robertson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
950 words

...for Democratic presidential candidates, but the percentage of voters who live in union households declined from nearly 30 percent in 1976 to about 20 percent in 2008 . By the late 1970 s, the AFL–CIO found that it could not advance some of its top legislative priorities, such as a law allowing “common situs” picketing of an entire worksite because of a dispute with a single contractor. Organized labor had a poor relationship with Jimmy Carter and an adversarial one with Ronald Reagan . Union leaders were unhappy with some initiatives of the Bill...

National Aeronautics and Space Administration

National Aeronautics and Space Administration   Reference library

Roger D. Launius

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
734 words

...landed six teams of astronauts on the moon. The first landing mission, Apollo II, achieved success on 20 July 1969 , when astronaut Neil Armstrong ( 1930 – ) first set foot on the lunar surface, proclaiming to millions of listeners, “That’s one small step for [a] man—one giant leap for mankind.” Subsequent landings, coming at approximately six-month intervals thereafter, spent more time on the moon and conducted more sophisticated experiments. NASA went into a holding pattern after Project Apollo. The reusable space shuttle, its major program of the 1970 s,...

Alcatraz, Occupation of

Alcatraz, Occupation of   Reference library

Troy Johnson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
741 words

... was a Mohawk Indian, Richard Oakes . In September 1969 , he and other Indian students began discussing the possibility of occupying Alcatraz Island as a call for Indian self-determination. In the early morning hours of 20 November 1969 , eighty-nine American Indians landed on Alcatraz Island and claimed the island by right of discovery. The occupiers set the tone of the occupation and the agenda for negotiations during the nineteen-month occupation by demanding title to the island, a center for Native American Studies, a Center of Ecology, and a Native...

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