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Overview

A20

A cytoplasmic zinc finger protein (790 aa) that inhibits NFκB activity and TNF-mediated programmed cell death. The expression of the A20 mRNA is upregulated by TNFα. It is a dual function ...

Temporary Assistance to Needy Families

Temporary Assistance to Needy Families   Reference library

Alicia Alvarez

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
1,244 words

...2001): 359–385. Pollack, Wendy . “An Introduction to the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Program.” In Poverty Law Manual for the New Lawyer . National Center on Poverty Law, http://povertylaw.pbworks.com/w/page/17976070/An%20Introduction%20to%20the%20Temporary%20Assistance%20for%20Needy%20Families%20Program . Vélez, William . “Welfare Dependency among Chicanos and Puerto Ricans: The Milwaukee Case.” Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences 14 (February 1992): 91–106. Alicia Alvarez...

HOME OWNERS’ LOAN CORPORATION

HOME OWNERS’ LOAN CORPORATION  

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

...Great Depression, the nation was in the throes of both a banking and a housing crisis. The HOLC was formed to protect homeowners from foreclosure and to protect banks that held mortgages on those homes. The parent organization for the HOLC was the Federal Home Loan Bank Board, created in 1932 . HOLC loans were only available for mortgages that were in default or held by troubled financial institutions. Only nonfarm, owner-occupied structures consisting of no more than four units and worth less than $20,000 were eligible. The HOLC loan could be no more than...

Afro-Latino/as

Afro-Latino/as   Reference library

Tanya Katerí Hernández

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
2,333 words

...American Society and Culture, 3. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995. Grillo, Evelio . Black Cuban, Black American: A Memoir . Houston, Tex.: Arte Público Press, 2000. Inter-Agency Consultation on Race in Latin America (IAC) . “Inter-American Dialogue Race Report.” Inter-American Dialogue, 2003. https://www.thedialogue.org/PublicationFiles/Race%20Report%202003%20-%20Afro-Descendents%20in%20Latin%20America,%20How%20Many_.pdf . Jiménez Román, Miriam , and Juan Flores , eds. The Afro-Latin@ Reader: History and Culture in the United States . Durham...

Know-Nothing Party

Know-Nothing Party   Reference library

Thomas J. Curran

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
408 words

...nativist sentiment roused by the influx of Irish Catholics to East Coast cities. The American Republican Party (later simply the American Party) was founded in New York City in 1843 ; in coalition with the Whigs, it elected a nativist mayor of New York in 1844 . Advocating a ban on Catholic and foreign-born officeholders and a 20-year time limit for naturalization, the party made headway in Philadelphia also, sparking anti-Catholic riots. It gained momentum in 1849 when Charles B. Allen founded the secret Order of the Star Spangled Banner in New...

Militarization of the Border in the Late twentieth Century

Militarization of the Border in the Late twentieth Century   Reference library

Timothy Dunn and José Palafox

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
4,110 words

...Border Patrol, 2013. http://www.cbp.gov/sites/default/files/documents/U.S.%20Border%20Patrol%20Fiscal%20Year%20Staffing%20Statistics%201992-2013.pdf . US Border Patrol . Border Patrol Strategic Plan: 1994 and Beyond, National Strategy . Washington, D.C.: US Border Patrol, 1994. US Border Patrol . Sector Profile—Fiscal Year 2012 . Washington, D.C.: US Border Patrol, 2012. http://www.cbp.gov/sites/default/files/documents/U.S.%20Border%20Patrol%20Fiscal%20Year%202012%20Sector%20Profile.pdf . US Border Patrol . Sector Profile—Fiscal Year 2013 . Washington...

Servicemen’s Readjustment Act

Servicemen’s Readjustment Act   Reference library

William M. Tuttle Jr.

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
306 words

...for its passage, calling it “a bill of rights for GI Joe and GI Jane .” The “ GI Bill of Rights,” or “ GI Bill ,” as it is commonly known, authorized payments for tuition, books, and living expenses for up to four years of college or vocational school, low-interest mortgages for homeowners, loans for veterans to buy farms and start businesses, and a “readjustment allowance” of $20 per week while veterans sought employment. In important ways, the GI Bill shaped the economic and social history of postwar America . More than a million veterans enrolled in...

Birth Defects

Birth Defects   Reference library

Adela de la Torre and Terence Valenzuela

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
2,109 words

...a community of about two thousand people in a canyon below an industrial park near Tijuana, there were reported to be nine anencephaly births (newborns having a partial or total absence of a brain) in 1993 and fourteen in 1994 . A study conducted by the Pew Environmental Health Commission at the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health indicated that causes are known for only about 20 percent of birth defects. Research has established that the consumption of alcohol, caffeine, and tobacco by a pregnant woman can have detrimental effects on a baby’s...

Confederate States of America

Confederate States of America   Reference library

Daniel E. Sutherland

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
460 words

...States of America When Abraham Lincoln was elected president in November 1861 , many Southern whites feared that their economic security and cultural identity, especially as represented by the institution of slavery, would be threatened by a government dominated by the Republican Party. Between 20 December 1860 and 1 February 1861 , seven Southern states— South Carolina, Mississippi , Florida , Alabama , Georgia , Louisiana , and Texas —seceded from the Union in protest. On 4 February, their rep- resentatives met at Montgomery , Alabama...

West, The

West, The   Reference library

Deena J. González

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
2,132 words
Illustration(s):
2

...121,000 Latino/as, including 11 percent who are foreign-born and a total of 96.1 percent who are either native or naturalized Latino/a-origin citizens. Far younger than the 44.5 median age for white Hawaiians, over one-third of Latino/as living in Hawaii either held an associate’s degree or had some college attendance. Although the median income of Latino/as in Hawaii is nearly $20,000 a year less than that of white households, Latino/a households held an owner-occupied residence nearly equal to that of whites. Latino/as in Hawaii face some particular challenges...

Terrorism and Migration

Terrorism and Migration   Reference library

Gilberto Rosas

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
701 words

...entails navigating a militarized Border Patrol as well as exposure to racist vigilantes and to the “killing deserts” of the southwestern United States and northern Mexico ( Rosas 2012 ). There are echoes here of the murderous Texas Rangers, minions of the US settler colonialist state and more recently of the 1986 US Cabinet-level Task Force on Combatting Terrorism, chaired by then-vice-president George Herbert Walker Bush, that profiled “terrorists” in the following manner: “Fully 60 percent of the Third World’s population is under 20 years of age; half...

Secure Communities

Secure Communities   Reference library

Ronald L. Mize

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
2,311 words

...315 66 1,158 ME 5/30/2012 5,484 22 40 62 0 0 0 1 1 1 3 MI 10/27/2009 740,106 2,372 8,371 10,743 287 281 426 66 340 65 1,465 MN 2/7/2012 116,496 1,650 3,171 4,821 128 109 144 16 89 24 510 MO 9/21/2010 413,442 977 4,577 5,554 113 114 198 74 185 50 734 MS 7/20/2010 160,569 325 1,937 2,262 47 103 193 18 127 20 508 MT 7/27/2010 28,135 49 110 159 2 4 3 0 2 0 11 NC 11/12/2008 695,441 4,519 25,883 30,402 1,315 1,166 2,020 281 1,413 512 6,707 ND 4/10/2012 12,247 84 200 284 0 2 1 0 0 0 3 NE 8/17/2010 76,362 540 3,328 3,868 134 141 182 10 43 18 528 NH 5/8/2012 12,522...

Hernández, Antonia

Hernández, Antonia (1948)   Reference library

Marc-Tizoc González

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
652 words

...David . “Lessons Learned: California Community Foundation CEO Antonia Hernandez Was a School Teacher before Turning to the Law to Effect Social Change.” Los Angeles Business Journal , 19 January 2009. “MALDEF Board Announces the Departure of Longtime President Antonia Hernandez,” La Prensa San Diego , 5 December 2003. http://laprensa-sandiego.org/archieve/december05-03/maldef.htm . Rockwell, Paul , “Affirmative Action Triumphs: The Untold Stories.” In Motion Magazine , 20 December 1995. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/rocktr.html . Stewart, Jocelyn Y....

Postville Raid

Postville Raid   Reference library

Erik Camayd-Freixas

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
667 words

...Raid . On 12 May 2008 , Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) conducted a raid at Agriprocessors, the nation’s largest kosher slaughterhouse, in Postville, Iowa. Officials called it the largest single-site raid thus far in US history. The joint Department of Justice (DOJ) and Homeland Security (DHS) operation pursued 697 civil and criminal warrants; 389 early-shift workers were arrested (290 Guatemalans, 93 Mexicans, 3 Israelis, and 3 Ukrainians; 313 men and 76 women, including 20 minors). Forty percent of the Guatemalans were ethnic Mayans. Fifty-six...

Ford, Gerald R.

Ford, Gerald R.   Reference library

John Robert Greene

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
655 words

...’s presidency was highlighted by an 8 September 1974 pardon of Nixon for his Watergate-related offenses, a worsening economy, the final withdrawal of American troops from South Vietnam , and halting attempts to conclude a second strategic arms limitation treaty (SALT II) with the Soviet Union. On 20 November 1975 , former California Governor Ronald Reagan announced that he would challenge Ford for the Republican nomination for president. A grueling primary campaign found Ford eventually winning the Republican nomination on 19 August with 1,187...

Wallace, Henry A.

Wallace, Henry A.   Reference library

John J. Fry

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
581 words

...unless Wallace was his running mate. Wallace was inaugurated vice president on 20 January 1941 . Wallace promoted Roosevelt ’s policies during World War II. He traveled to the Soviet Union in 1944 , where he infamously declared that Siberian miners were well provided for. In fact, they were prisoners, and Wallace had been duped by a counterfeit village. Roosevelt was unwilling to give Wallace the same support at that year’s Democratic National Convention, and as a result Harry S. Truman replaced him on the Democratic ticket. Roosevelt made ...

Dawes Severalty Act

Dawes Severalty Act   Reference library

Donald L. Parman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
471 words

...but led to increased federal control, poverty, and reduced agricultural production. What started as well-intended legislation produced a major disaster. [ see also Homestead Act ; and Indian Law, Federal . ] Bibliography McLaughlin, Michael R. “ The Dawes Act, or Indian General Allotment Act of 1887: The Continuing Burden of Allotment. A Selective Bibliography. ” American Indian Culture and Research Journal 20, no. 2 (1996): 59–105. Otis, D. S. The Dawes Act and the Allotment of Indian Lands , edited by Francis Paul Prucha. Norman: University of...

Levi Strauss Strike

Levi Strauss Strike   Reference library

D. Emily Hicks

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
602 words

... http://www.commondreams.org/headlines05/0416-01.htm , accessed 11 July 2011. Louie, Miriam Chin Yoon . Sweatshop Warriors: Immigrant Women Workers Take On the Global Factory . Boston: South End Press, 2001. Martinez, Elizabeth . “In Pursuit of Latina Liberation.” Signs 20, no. 4 (1995): 1019–1028. Zugman, Kara . “Political Consciousness and New Social Movement Theory: The Case of Fuerza Unida.” Social Justice 30, no. 1 (2003): 153–171. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb3427/is_1_30/ai_n29029363/ . D. Emily Hicks...

Puerto Rican Revolutionary Organizations

Puerto Rican Revolutionary Organizations   Reference library

Pedro Cabán

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
2,330 words

...July 1998). “Puerto Rico’s Fight for Independence,” http://revcom.us/a/v20/960-69/966/prhist.htm . Sater, William F. “Puerto Rican Terrorists: A Possible Threat to US Energy Installations?” Rand Corporation, October 1981. http://www.rand.org/publications/N/N1764 . Suarez, Manuel . “F.B.I. Discerns Big Gains on Puerto Rican Terrorists.” New York Times , 8 September 1985, 38. Thomas, Jo . “Armed Puerto Rican Groups Focus Attacks on Military.” New York Times , 16 January 1981, A13. United Press International . “F.B.I. Round-Up Nets 10 Puerto Rican Reds...

Lozano, Rudy

Lozano, Rudy (1951–1983)   Reference library

Teresa Puente

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
1,035 words

...Say You Can Kill the Man but Not His Ideas.” Chicago Tribune , 8 June 2003, 4. Bachtell, John . “Tributo a un luchador: Rudy Lozano.” Mundo Popular , 14 June 2003. http://www.mundopopular.org/tributo-a-un-luchador-rudy-lozano/ . “Chicago Tribute Markers of Distinction.” http://www.chicagotribute.org/Markers/Lozano.htm . Schepers, Emile . “Rudy Lozano, 20 Years Later.” People’s World , 14 June 2003. http://peoplesworld.org/rudy-lozano-20-years-later/ Taller de Estudios Comunitarios . Rudy Lozano: His Life, His People . Chicago: Taller de Estudios...

National Association of Hispanic Journalists

National Association of Hispanic Journalists   Reference library

Maggie Rivas-Rodriguez

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
1,414 words

...which may lead to better jobs and other opportunities. One such professional was Steve Malavé, who led the student television project for three years. “It was a taste of what management was going to be like,” Malavé said in a booklet published by NAHJ in honor of its twentieth anniversary. “A lot of people I know today were contacts I made then” ( National Association of Hispanic Journalists 20 Years: A Retrospective , p. 42). The NAHJ is governed by an eighteen-member board of directors that consists of executive officers and regional directors who represent...

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