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Overview

A20

A cytoplasmic zinc finger protein (790 aa) that inhibits NFκB activity and TNF-mediated programmed cell death. The expression of the A20 mRNA is upregulated by TNFα. It is a dual function ...

Injury and Assault

Injury and Assault   Reference library

Klaus-Peter Adam

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
5,927 words

...Assault is a spontaneous or a premeditated voluntary physical attack on an individual or a group, unlike a judicially imposed physical punishment, which may include a defendant’s flogging ( Deut 25:1–3 , cf. 22:18 ), death (√ m-w-ṭ ; Exod 21:12 , 14 ; √ r-ṣ-ḥ ; Num 35:16 ), death by stoning ( Deut 17:5 ; 21:21 ; 22:20 ; 1 Kgs 21:13 ), or death by hanging ( Deut 21:22 ). Injury from an assault could develop into a lethal injury, when the injured person was assaulted but did not die until some time period later but still as a result of the...

Punishment and Restitution

Punishment and Restitution   Reference library

Trevor W. Thompson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
8,280 words

...Lev 20:9 ; cf. Deut 27:16 ); (4) owning of an ox with a goring tendency that kills a human ( Exod 21:28–32 ); (5) theft caught in the night ( Exod 22:2 ; contrast the punishment when caught during the day [ Exod 22:3 ]; cf. LE §§12–13); (6) bestiality ( Exod 22:19 ; cf. Lev 18:23 ; 20:15–16 ; Deut 27:21 ; HL §§187–188, 199); (7) sex with a man as with a woman/sex with a male reserved for a woman ( Lev 18:22 ; 20:13 ; cf. MAL A §20); (8) sex with a married woman ( Lev 20:10 ; cf. Num 5:11–31 ; Deut 22:22 ; LE §28; LH §§129–130, 153; MAL A...

Legal Rhetoric

Legal Rhetoric   Reference library

Dale Patrick

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
8,050 words

...blasphemy is a capital crime. The injunction to observe the sabbath is stated bluntly in 20:8 , then is repeated in 20:9–10 . 20:10b could be classified as a motive clause but the list borders on welfare law protecting those who work at the addressee’s command, affirming the equality of all, even animals and sojourners, in sacred time. Deuteronomy 5:15 supports the list of persons that should rest with a recollection of Yhwh’s deliverance of enslaved Israelites. Exodus 20:11 introduces another type of motive clause, a recollection of a deed of Yhwh...

Book of the Covenant

Book of the Covenant   Reference library

Eckart Otto

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
5,919 words
Illustration(s):
1

...was characterized by laws of a bipartite casuistic scheme of protasis and apodosis “if … then” in Exodus 21:2—22:19 . This pre-Israelite ancient Near Eastern source was distinct from a source of “Israelite mišpāṭîm .” These “mishpatim” were of Israelite origin and form-critically characterized by a participial protasis ( Exod 21:12 , 15–17 , 23b–25 ; 22:18 ). A third source consisted of the ethical-religious prohibitions in Exodus 22:17 , 20 , 27 ; 23:3 , 7a , 8a , 9a . This source was distinct from a source of cultic regulations in ...

Deuteronomic Law

Deuteronomic Law   Reference library

Daniel I. Block

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
9,528 words

... 14 ; 24:17–22 ; 26:12–13 ), as well as particular instructions for charitable treatment of indentured servants ( 15:1–18 ), a foreign wife taken in battle ( 21:10–14 ), the son of the unloved wife in a bigamous household ( 21:15–17 ), domestic animals ( 22:1–4 ), a wife who is wrongfully divorced ( 24:1–5 ), and the widow of a man who has died without an heir ( 25:5–10 ), to name just a few. The instructions on kingship ( 17:14–20 ) are part of this picture. In the ancient world kings were thought to have three primary roles: (1) to ensure the...

Decalogue

Decalogue   Reference library

Edward L. Greenstein

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
6,004 words

...is followed by a similar warrant (cf. Sonsino, 1980 , pp. 86, 230); and compare the juxtaposition in Psalms 81:10–11 . A virtually identical formulation serves as a warrant for the prohibitions of cheating in Leviticus 19:35–36 and for the wearing of fringes in Numbers 15:40–41 . Thus in the first two prohibitions of the Decalogue a chiastic arrangement emerges: warrant-prohibition-prohibition-warrant. The structure serves to create a unit of these two interrelated commands. In this analysis there are 10 commandments in the Exodus 20 version, if...

Justice

Justice   Reference library

Walter J. Houston

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
3,748 words

...for a limited term ( Exod 21:2–6 ; Deut 12:12–18 ), the result of using a person as collateral; and concubinage ( Exod 21:7–11 ; Deut 21:10–14 ). There was later also casual wage labor ( Deut 24:14–15 ). As with laws on credit, there is a concern for the life, dignity, and needs of the slave: injury is to be compensated, and a master who has killed his slave is to be punished ( Exod 21:20–21 , 26–27 ); wages are to be paid promptly ( Lev 19:15 ; Deut 24:14–15 ); the slave is to have the same times of holiday as the free community ( Exod 20:8–11...

Asylum

Asylum   Reference library

John F. Quant

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
3,717 words

...( a ) ḥ until he has stood before the council for judgment (see Septuagint 20:3 ). Joshua 20 also provides the specific locations of the six cities: Kedesh, Shechem, Hebron, Bezer, Ramoth Gilead, and Golan. Restoration era practice. First Chronicles 6:42 , 52 ( ET 6:57 , 67 ) mentions the Cities of Refuge, apparently drawing on Joshua 20 . No further details about the application of the laws are mentioned in the Old Testament. In Nehemiah 6:10–14 , Nehemiah is encouraged to take shelter in the temple, though he later learns that this was a...

Sermon on the Mount

Sermon on the Mount   Reference library

David C. Sim

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
3,390 words

...It is a creation by the evangelist who carefully constructed this discourse from a number of literary sources at his disposal. One of these sources was Q, the hypothetical sayings source believed to have been used by Matthew and Luke. The Gospel of Luke also has a discourse of Jesus that contains some of the material found in the Matthean Sermon on the Mount ( Luke 6:20–49 ), though the Lucan version takes place not on a mountain but on a plain ( Luke 6:17 ). Matthew greatly expanded this Q discourse with material from other sources and edited it into a...

Sexual Legislation

Sexual Legislation   Reference library

Carolyn Pressler

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
9,072 words

...between a married or betrothed woman and a man not her husband. Pentateuchal laws are unconcerned with sex between a married man and an unmarried woman, such as a prostitute or a widow, who is not under another man’s authority. So defined, ancient Israel, like its neighbors, treats adultery more extensively than any other sexual offense. It is a “great sin” ( Gen 20:9 , cf. 39:9 ; for Ugarit and Egypt, see Moran, 1959 , pp. 280–281; Rabinowitz, 1959 , p. 73). Moreover, adultery is the only sexual offense included in Decalogue ( Exod 20:14 ; Deut ...

Law in the Prophets

Law in the Prophets   Reference library

Tova Ganzel

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
4,111 words

...functionaries in his visionary Temple (to be discussed at greater length below). In chapter 20, where these terms also abound ( Ezek 20:12–13 , 16 , 20–21 , 24 ), the prophet describes a pattern by which the Israelites are taught rules or are warned about laws already given and then proceed to break them, inciting God’s anger and concern for His great name. Specific Laws in the Prophetic Literature. Examples of biblical laws are found in prophetic literature in a sporadic, nonsystematic fashion. Notwithstanding our uncertainty on the key issues of the...

Capital Punishment

Capital Punishment   Reference library

Aryeh Amihay

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
2,882 words

...a man who lies with his daughter-in-law (both are put to death); male homosexuality; a man who marries a woman and her mother (all three are put to death); bestiality (the human and the animal are to be killed)—all of the above from Leviticus 20:2–16 ; sorcery or acting as a medium ( Lev 20:27 ); a priest’s daughter who behaves promiscuously ( Lev 21:9 ); blasphemy ( Lev 24:16 ); and striking a person to death ( Lev 24:17–21 ). Several other sexual transgressions are mentioned among the list, such as the man who lies with a menstruant ( Lev 20:18 ),...

Laws of Lipit-Ishtar

Laws of Lipit-Ishtar   Reference library

Claus Wilcke

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
3,693 words

...): Felling a tree in another’s orchard is fined half a pound of silver. §c16( 11 ): Burglary of someone’s house from an adjacent neglected plot despite the contracted obligation to build it up results in restitution of the lost goods. §c17( 12 )-18( 13 ): Keeping a fugitive slave in one’s house for one month earns a duplum fine: “a slave for a slave” but a 15- shekel fine if he has no slave. §c19( 14 ): A slave proving twice that he was freed will be set free. §c20( 15 ): Being a “royal gift,” a miqtum (leper?) may not be taken away. §c21( 16 ): A miqtum ...

Testimony and Witness

Testimony and Witness   Reference library

Bruce Wells

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
5,687 words

...an accuser and by a third-party witness ( Exod 23:1–3 ). Various texts in Proverbs appear to do the same ( Prov 12:17 ; 14:5 ; 19:5 ; 21:28 ). False statements by a defendant are the subject of a text in Leviticus ( Lev 6:1–7 [ MT 5:20–26 ]). The specific issue there is a false statement made in the form of an oath of denial concerning a property dispute. Apart from the required sacrifice of an unblemished ram, the penalty is mild: restoration of the property to its rightful owner plus a fine of 20 percent of the property’s value. A more severe penalty...

Same-Sex Relations

Same-Sex Relations   Reference library

Robert Matthew Calhoun

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
4,480 words

...of the Egyptians and the Canaanites. The largest portion of the chapter deals with incest within the household ( vv. 6–16 ) or beyond it (sex with a woman and her own kin, vv. 17–18 ). The remainder addresses contact with menstrual blood ( v. 19 ), sex with a kinsman’s wife ( v. 20 ), sacrificing (“passing over”) one’s children to Molech ( v. 21 ), same-sex relations (“You shall not lie with a male as with a woman; it is an abomination [ tōʿēbâ ],” v. 22 ), and male and female sex with animals ( v. 23 ). The conclusion stresses the results of such...

Dead Sea Scrolls

Dead Sea Scrolls   Reference library

Alex P. Jassen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
7,945 words

...than 20 years old as a one-time event related to a census taken in the desert. Later Jewish tradition, however, viewed the half-shekel payment as an ongoing requirement to be paid to the Jerusalem temple. This was generally regarded as an annual payment. In contrast, 4Q159 stipulates that the half-shekel be paid as a one-time payment when an individual reaches 20 years old. Another example of reworking of biblical law can be found in 4Q159 2–4 1–3. This passage treats the regulations in Leviticus 5:47–55 related to an impoverished Israelite sold as a slave...

Disability

Disability   Reference library

Jeremy Schipper

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
3,129 words

... 21:23–25 ; Lev 24:19–20 ; Deut 19:21 ). The injuries under discussion range in severity from those that probably would not qualify as disabilities, such as the loss of a tooth or a non-debilitating wound ( Exod 21:25 ; cf. 1 Kgs 20:37 ; Song 5:7 ), to those that resulted in acquired disabilities, such as the loss of an eye or a foot ( Exod 21:24 ; Deut 19:21 ). Holiness legislation classifies both types of injuries as blemishes and specifically mentions fractures, the loss of an eye, and the loss of a tooth ( Lev 24:19–20 ). Yet these texts do not...

Bloodguilt and Blood Feud

Bloodguilt and Blood Feud   Reference library

Assnat Bartor

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
3,700 words

...such as executed offenders who dishonored their parents, committed prohibited sexual acts, or divined by means of ghosts or spirits ( Lev 20:9 , 11–13 , 16 , 27 ; see also Ezek 18:13 ); people who ignored a warning and knowingly exposed themselves to a great danger ( Josh 2:19a ; 1 Kgs 2:37 ; Ezek 33:4–5a ); and people who committed an act that made them subject to a death penalty ( 2 Sam 1:16 ; 3:28–29a ; 1 Kgs 2:32–33 ). Consequences of bloodguilt. Bloodguilt is an arena in which legal and social institutions, on the one hand, and moral and religious...

Law in the Writings

Law in the Writings   Reference library

F. Rachel Magdalene and Bruce Wells

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
7,965 words

... Both Daniel 4 and 5 reflect the covenantal lawsuit genre ( 4:13–17 , 20–33 [MT 4:10–14 , 17–30 ]; 5:18–28 , 30 ) against Nebuchadnezzar and Darius, respectively. They include a report of a verdict ( 4:24–26 [MT 4:21–23 ]), the actual verdict ( 4:13–17 [MT 4:10–14 ]; 5:18–28 ), an admonition ( 4:27 [MT 4:24 ]), execution of the verdict ( 4:28–33 [MT 4:25–30 ]; 5:30 ), and a fulfillment formula ( 4:33 [MT 4:30 ]). Chapter 4 also contains a reprieve schema ( 4:34 , 36 [MT 4:31 , 33 ]). What is most striking about the use...

Debts, Loans, and Surety

Debts, Loans, and Surety   Reference library

Robin J. DeWitt Knauth

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
7,801 words

...(“take a fifth part”; i.e., 20 percent) refers to a portion of the harvest owed in a debt situation, though possibly accounted more as a lease fee in a share-cropping arrangement. Greek prassō can refer to collection of an investment with interest as in Luke 19:23 , or to collection of taxes as possibly in Luke 3:13 . The more specialized or technical terms appear less frequently, but can provide a somewhat more reliable indicator of the kind of loan activity taking place. Specialized terms for interest or usury include Hebrew nešek (literally a...

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