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A20

A cytoplasmic zinc finger protein (790 aa) that inhibits NFκB activity and TNF-mediated programmed cell death. The expression of the A20 mRNA is upregulated by TNFα. It is a dual function ...

Azzam, Abdullah Yusuf al-

Azzam, Abdullah Yusuf al- (1941–1989)   Reference library

Nahed Artoul Zehr

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
816 words

...and fracturing. This rupture came to a head in November 1989, when a roadside bomb in Peshawar killed al-Azzam and his two sons—ultimately opening the way for the most radical elements within al-Qaʿida to impose their vision of jihād. Bibliography Azzam, Abdullah Yusuf . Defence of the Muslim Lands: The First Obligation after Imam . Circa 1979. http://www.religioscope.com/info/doc/jihad/azzam_defence_1_table.htm. Azzam, Abdullah Yusuf . Join the Caravan . Circa 1987. http://www.hoor-al-ayn.com/Books/Join%20the%20Caravan.pdf. Wright, Lawrence . The Looming...

International Institute of Islamic Thought

International Institute of Islamic Thought   Reference library

Deina Abdelkader

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
639 words

...losing both its academic momentum and its financial resources in the face of legal allegations of involvement with “terrorism.” As a result, IIIT is slowly recovering, like other Islamic organizations, and is struggling to restore its academic and scholarly vigor. Bibliography “Center for the Study of Islam and Democracy.” https://www.csidonline.org/about-csid/board-of-directors/past-directors/24 . “History Commons.” March 20, 2002. www.historycommons.org . “Islamic Epistemology.” http://i-epistemology.net/tahar-jabir-al-alwani.html . “International Institute...

Religion and Political Conflict: “No Religious Affiliation” in the United States

Religion and Political Conflict: “No Religious Affiliation” in the United States   Reference library

Kristi Winters

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
7,166 words

...the phrase “God bless the United States of America,” being a person of faith—especially of Protestant Christian faith—was almost synonymous with being a patriot. The 21st century is proving to be very different from the 20th in that regard, however. After years of exceptionally high levels of religious adherence and identity, the latter part of the 20th century saw the start of a trend: increasing numbers of Americans reported they had no religious affiliation when asked by pollsters. Those without a religious identification are now the second largest...

Arslān, Shakīb

Arslān, Shakīb (1869–1946)   Reference library

Joseph A. Kéchichian

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
795 words

...the current scion of the family, was the product of that union. Arslān died in 1946, a few months after returning to his native Lebanon. Bibliography Arslān, Shakīb . Our Decline: Its Causes and Remedies . Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Islamic Book Trust, 2004. Cleveland, William L. Islam against the West: Shakib Arslan and the Campaign for Islamic Nationalism . Austin: University of Texas Press, 1985. Kéchichian, Joseph A. “The Prince of Eloquence.” Gulf News , 20 May 2011. Available online: ...

Nabhānī, Taqī al-Dīn al-

Nabhānī, Taqī al-Dīn al- (1905–1977)   Reference library

Ovamir Anjum

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
944 words

...Taqī al-Dīn al- . Muḥammad Taqī al-Dīn bin Ibrahīm al-Nabhānī ( 1905–1977 ) , was born in Ijzim, a village near Haifa, and died 20 December 1977 in Beirut. He was the founder of the Islamic Liberation Party (Ḥizb al-Taḥrīr al-Islāmī), a small but durable political movement that embodied the conjuncture of Islamist activism and Palestinian yearning for a homeland and reversing the outcome of the 1948 war. After a religious education, he served as a judge in the sharīʿah court of Haifa during the British Mandate. During the early 1940s he went to...

Ghannūshī, Rāshid al-

Ghannūshī, Rāshid al- (b. 1941)   Reference library

Emad El-Din Shahin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
804 words

...Rāshid al- . “We Don’t Have a Religious Problem.” Interview. Middle East 203 (September 1991): 19–20. Ghannūshī, Rāshid al- , and Ḥamīdah al-Nayfar . Mā huwa al-gharb (What Is the West?). Tunis, n.d. Ghannūshī, Rāshid al- , and Ḥasan al-Turābī . Al-Ḥarakah al-islāmīyah wa-al-taḥdīth (The Islamic Movement and Modernization). Beirut: Dar al-Jeel, 1984. Shahin, Emad Eldin . Political Ascent: Contemporary Islamic Movements in North Africa . Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1997. Tamimi, Azzam S. Rachid Ghannouchi: A Democrat within Islamism . New...

Mahathir bin Mohamed

Mahathir bin Mohamed   Reference library

Abdul Rashid Moten

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
778 words

...bin Mohamed . Mahathir bin Mohamed ( 1925–  ) was born 20 December 1925 in Alor Setar, Kedah, Malaysia. As the prime minister of Malaysia from 1981 to 2003, he is credited with engineering Malaysia's rapid modernization symbolized, among others things, by a multimedia super corridor, Kuala Lumpur International Airport and its adjacent Sepang International Race Circuit, and the Petronas Twin Towers, which was, until 2003, the tallest building in the world. He embraced an export-oriented market strategy that propelled Malaysia into the world's top...

Secularism and Religion

Secularism and Religion   Reference library

Steven Kettell

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
7,362 words

...held up as an example of the way in which religion can thrive in a technologically advanced society, has been a significant growth in the religiously unaffiliated (the so-called nones) since the late 20th century ( Voas & Chaves, 2016 ). From this perspective, the notion of a “return of religion” and the growing assertiveness of religion in public life is seen as something of a rear-guard action by religious groups feeling the pressure of sustained decline and is not therefore interpreted as a sign that the institutional architecture of secularism is...

Wizāra

Wizāra   Reference library

Luke Yarbrough

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
860 words

...period (after 750 ce ). Qurʾān verses 20:29 and 25:35 give wazīr in the sense of “helper”—Hārūn is wazīr to Mūsā. Other words based on the root w-z-r in the Qurʾān refer to a burden of responsibility, often moral, or its bearer (e.g., 6:31). Certain supporting participants in seventh-century sectarian revolts (e.g., al-Mukhtār in Kufa, d. 687) were called wazīrs . The first ʿAbbāsid caliphs seem to have called associates by this title, but not until the time of the caliph al-Mahdī (r. 775–785) was there a formal office or institution called the ...

Secularization, Secularity, and Secularism in the New Millennium: Macro-theories and Research

Secularization, Secularity, and Secularism in the New Millennium: Macro-theories and Research   Reference library

Jörg Stolz and Pascal Tanner

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
8,268 words

...transition and intergenerational decline, a theory that depicts a very gradual long-term decline that began at the turn of the 20th century (and possibly earlier). The authors’ view is that the 1960s were a religious tipping point that happened over a longer period of time (the long 1960s), but that a cultural revolution occurred at that time, a revolution whose underlying causes of modernization had much greater longevity. While modernization had occurred all through the 19th and 20th centuries , the 1960s were a time when an older cultural regime that no...

Islamic Constitutional Movement

Islamic Constitutional Movement   Reference library

Chrystie Swiney and Joseph A. Kéchichian

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
974 words

...Movement.” http://www.icmkw.org/ . In Arabic. “Muslim Brotherhood.” http://www.ikhwanweb.com/tagBView.php?id=Islamic%20Constitutional%20Movement . The Muslim Brotherhood's official English web page provides detailed reportage on the ICM in Kuwait. Valenti, Peter C. “The New Shape of Kuwait's Elections.” Washington Report on Middle East Affairs 25, no. 6 (August 2006): 40–41. Chrystie Swiney Updated by Joseph A....

Masyumi Party

Masyumi Party   Reference library

Fred R. von der Mehden

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
722 words

...Masyumi and Nahdlatul Ulama split the great majority of the Islamic vote with the former receiving 20.9 percent and the latter 18.4 percent of the electorate. This gave the Masyumi 57 seats in a legislature totaling 257. The other two major parties were the Partai Nasional Indonesia (PNI or National Party of Indonesia) with 22.2 percent and the Partai Kommunis Indonesia (PKI or Communist Party of Indonesia) with 16.4 percent. The unstable political pattern that followed the elections led to stalemate and open rebellion against the government, particularly...

Electoral Choice and Religion: Israel

Electoral Choice and Religion: Israel   Reference library

Asher Cohen and Menachem Lazar

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
10,436 words

...pattern in 2009 , with a high percentage of ultra-Orthodox voters (57.1%) and a lower percentage of religious voters (20%) than in 2013 . The pattern of voting for the ultra-Orthodox parties over the past three elections can thus be summarized as follows: a high percentage of ultra-Orthodox voters in 2009 , a decline and dispersion of religious and traditional voters in 2013 , and a return to the regular pattern of voting in 2015 , based on a core constituency of ultra-Orthodox voters. The third party, Jewish Home, underwent a dramatic change during this...

Human Trafficking and Religious Movements

Human Trafficking and Religious Movements   Reference library

Yvonne C. Zimmerman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
10,384 words

...out of which it emerged. The 18th – 19th-century abolition movement, the 19th – 20th-century anti-white slavery campaigns of the social purity movement, and the mid-late 1990s religious freedom movement are three social movements that have indelibly shaped the contemporary movement to end human trafficking. A closer examination of these movements and the role of religion within them not only contributes to a full understanding of the movement to end human trafficking as a social movement, but specifically clarifies the religious dimensions within it....

Religious Regulation: Discrimination Against Religious Minorities

Religious Regulation: Discrimination Against Religious Minorities   Reference library

Jonathan Fox

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
8,370 words

...on a scale of 0 to 3, creating a measure that can potentially range from 0 to 108. 2 Table 3. Religious Discrimination, 1990 and 2014 Type of Restriction N Mean Restrictions Proportion of Countries Whose Policies Changed 1990 2014 Decreased Stable Increased All Cases 183 11.1913 14.2678 c 12.6% 21.9% 65.6% By Majority Religion Catholic 44 4.8182 6.2045 b 18.2% 29.6% 52.2% Orthodox Christian 13 18.0000 24.9231 a 7.7% 0.0% 92.3% Other Christian 46 3.7391 5.8478 b 10.8% 23.9% 65.2% Muslim 50 20.8800 25.1200 c 8.0% 16.0% 76.0% Other 30 12.8667 16.3000 a 16.7%...

Haron, Imam Abdullah

Haron, Imam Abdullah (1923–1969)   Reference library

Abdin Chande

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,442 words

...wayside. As has been pointed out, the creation of the Haron myth reflects a historical transfiguration that served to maintain an image of the Muslim commitment to the struggle against apartheid. The perception of the Muslim contribution to liberation being out of proportion to their numbers (less than 2 percent of the population) is still contested. Bibliography Davids, Achmat . “Imam Haron: Legend and Myth in the Making of History.” Boorhaanol 31, no. 1 (February 1996): 15–20. Desai, Barney , and Cardiff Marney . The Killing of the Imam . London and...

Khuṭbah

Khuṭbah   Reference library

Hadia Mubarak and Joseph A. Kéchichian

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,356 words

...transformed into an arm of the government and was often used as an instrument for the legitimization of its programs. Bibliography Alkhairo, Wael . Speaking for Change: A Guide to Making Effective Friday Sermons (Khutbahs) . Beltsville, Md.: Amana, 1998. Fathi, Asghar . “The Islamic Pulpit as a Medium of Political Communication.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 20, no. 2 (1981): 163–172. Ibn al-Jawzī, Abū al-Faraj ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ibn ʿAlī . Ibn al-Jawzī's Kitāb al-Quṣṣās wa’l-Mudhakkirīn . Translated and edited by Merlin L. Swartz . Beirut:...

Religious Regulation in Ireland

Religious Regulation in Ireland   Reference library

Vesna Malešević

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
14,423 words

...became a welcome possibility. Inglis ( 2007 ) contends that “the religious transformation taking place is best understood as a process of de-institutionalisation … [and] an increasing number of Irish Catholics are becoming spiritually and morally detached from the institutional church.” Even the Archbishop of Dublin, Diarmuid Martin stated in 2012 that secularization of Irish society “is not entirely a bad thing,” as very few people would want to return to a society “where the Church dominated so much of Irish culture.” Throughout the 20th century ...

Brazil’s Evangelical Caucus

Brazil’s Evangelical Caucus   Reference library

Pedro A. G. dos Santos and Linsey Moddelmog

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
8,203 words

...Asia, and Africa: (a) conversionism, or the belief that lives must be transformed through a born-again experience; (b) activism, or the demonstration of the gospel through missionary works and social programs; (c) biblicism, or the understanding that the Bible is the source of ultimate authority; and (d) crucicentrism, or the focus on Jesus Christ’s death on the cross as crucial in salvation. The Rise of Evangelicalism in Brazil Historically a Catholic nation as a result of Portuguese colonialism, evangelicalism in Brazil increased in the 20th century while...

Religious Traditions in Politics: Islam, Sunni, and Shi’a

Religious Traditions in Politics: Islam, Sunni, and Shi’a   Reference library

Halil Ibrahim Yenigun

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
13,420 words

...principle at the time, Muslims had to emigrate to Medina in 622 (the Hijrah ). This led to the formation of a political community, a “super-tribe of believers” ( Crone, 2004 , p. 13). Muhammad’s role in this new political setting was, at the very least, as adjudicator and military commander ( Watt, 1968 , pp. 20–22), and arguably the leader of a city-state with powers to sign treaties and send diplomatic letters. Some time later in Medina, a constitution was drawn up and signed between Muslims of Mecca (the Quraysh tribe), Yathrib (Medina), and “those...

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