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A20

A cytoplasmic zinc finger protein (790 aa) that inhibits NFκB activity and TNF-mediated programmed cell death. The expression of the A20 mRNA is upregulated by TNFα. It is a dual function ...

GLAUBE

GLAUBE (GERMAN)   Reference library

Philippe Büttgen

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
1,540 words

...to the Second Edition.” In Critique of Pure Reason , edited by Paul Guyer and A. Wood , 106–24. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997. Luther, Martin . D. Martin Luthers Werke, Weimar 1883–1929 (Weimarer Ausgabe—WA). Online at http://www.lutherdansk.dk/WA/D.%20Martin%20Luthers%20Werke,%20Weimarer%20Ausgabe%20-%20WA.htm . Luther, Martin . Luther’s Works . Edited by Helmut T. Lehmann and Jaroslav Pelikan . 55 vols. St. Louis, MO: Concordia, 1955. Luther, Martin . Werke : Kritische Gesamtausgabe . Weimar: Böhlar, 1883–. Tavoillot,...

BERĪT

BERĪT (HEBREW)   Reference library

Rémi Brague

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
475 words

...humans, such as a soldier’s obligation to serve his leader (2 Kgs 11:4). At first, this contract is unequal: a superior imposes duties (Jgs 2:20; Ps 111:9). Later it becomes an agreement among equals (Gn 14:13), brothers (Am 1:9), friends (1 Sm 23:18), or spouses (Mal 2:14). The idea of a covenant may include, as it does in contemporary French, international treaties. Such treaties, beginning with the most ancient, between Egyptians and Hittites ( 1280 BCE), appeal to the gods as guarantors. In this way, every people that enters into a contract recognizes...

SORGE

SORGE (GERMAN)   Reference library

Pascal David

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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Current Version:
2017
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Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
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777 words

...passages of Seneca [ Letters to Lucilius , 121, 17 and 124, 14] that it becomes a concept. For more details on the historic origin ofthe concept of Sorge , cf. Heidegger, Prolegomena zur Geschichte des Zeitbegriffs ( GA , 20), 418–20. Heidegger’s error appears to come from an article by K. Burdach , which he cites in a note on p. 47. Brague, Aristote et la question du monde The question of determining whether “Heidegger sought, with the concept of ‘care,’ to bring to light a hidden source of Aristotle’s thought” (Brague, Aristote et la question du monde...

BERUF

BERUF (SPANISH)   Reference library

Philippe Büttgen

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
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...sense, “purely secular”: in a remarkable way, Luther is supposed to have secularized the term. According to Weber, the pivotal text that marks the term’s transition to its modern use is found in Luther’s translation of a passage in Sirach (Ecclesiasticus), 11:20–21, which recommends: 20 Stand by your task, and attend to it, and grow old in your work. 21 Do not wonder at the works of a sinner, but trust in the Lord and keep at your toil; for it is easy in the sight of the Lord to enrich a poor man quickly and suddenly. The stakes involved in translation seem...

HOMONYM

HOMONYM   Reference library

Barbara Cassin and Irène Rosier-Catach

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
10,869 words

...meaning that do not come from a new, imposed meaning, and they only appear in a given context. 3. The rediscovery of the Sophistical Refutations around 1130 allows for a comparison of these conditions with those given by Aristotle as the conditions for a true refutation (167a20ff.). The term “synonym,” which appears in the Latin translation of the Sophistical Refutations (167a20), is preserved in this form (“Elenchus est contradictio eiusdem et unius, non nominis sed rei, et nominis non sinonimi sed eiusdem” [Refutation is a contradiction that is of one...

WORD ORDER

WORD ORDER   Reference library

Françoise Kerleroux and Jean-Marie Marandin

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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2017
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Length:
6,576 words
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2

...construction (20a) from what it is in the topicalized construction (20b). The prephrastic constituent of left dislocation introduces a referent that must already be identified (in particular, the information contributed by the sentence cannot serve to identify it) and that necessarily functions as a theme. This constraint has an impact on the type of NG that can appear in this prephrastic field. It can be neither an NG reduced to a bare quantifier (22a) nor an indefinite NG with a specific or existential interpretation (22b): (22) (a) *Beaucoup, je les...

MÊTIS

MÊTIS (GREEK)   Reference library

Pietro Pucci

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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Current Version:
2017
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Length:
1,760 words

...ϰαὶ μῆτις ἀμύμων ‎]) (414). And he uses the word again in book 20, exhorting his heart to be patient: “How courageous you were, in waiting until the mêtis released me from this den where I thought I would die!” (20–21). One can understand why the mêtis of Odysseus, like that of Homer, as an effective mastery of speech, and of the very grammar and syntax of language, and as a play on being and non-being, were the heroic models for Sophistic rhetoric, which philosophers considered to be such a deceptive and scandalous art. Bibliography Bérard, Victor ,...

VORHANDEN

VORHANDEN (GERMAN)   Reference library

Jean-François Courtine

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
7,886 words

...Verfügbaren ,” Gesamtausgabe , 20: 262). It is, then, in the very midst of “availability” that it becomes important to take note of a difference: the difference between the wood in the woodworker’s shop, for instance, and the tools that are ready to hand. Thus the Werkwelt is not self-contained but open to nature as being available. In its very constitution working always refers back to “ das Werk selbst hat eine Seinsart des Angewiesenseins auf, der Schuh auf Leder, Faden, Nagel, Leder aus Haüten [The work itself has a way of being-dependent-on , the...

STILL

STILL (GERMAN)   Reference library

Élisabeth Décultot

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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2017
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Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
1,141 words

...(without noise, without a word), or finally, by metaphorical extension, to that of secrecy and mystery (what is hidden, contained, concealed). Of those three senses it appears that the second is the most frequent. To those various meanings a mystical sense was already added in the medieval era. Still designates a state of serenity confident in the divine presence, a kind of unio mystica . Popularized by Luther through the expression “ die Stillen im Lande [them that are quiet in the land]” (Ps. 35:20), the word still became a traditional motif of...

PLUDSELIGHED

PLUDSELIGHED (DANISH)   Reference library

Jacques Colette

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
711 words

...5 vols. Paris: Gallimard, 1942–61. Vol. 1, rev. and expanded ed., 1963. Kierkegaard, Søren . Kierkegaard’s Writings . 26 vols. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1978–2000. Kierkegaard, Søren . Œuvres complètes . Translated by P. H. Tisseau and E. M. Jacquet-Tisseau . 20 vols. Paris: L’Orante, 1966–86. ...

TALAṬṬUF

TALAṬṬUF (ARABIC)   Reference library

Rémi Brague

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
858 words

...Fr. trans. S. Munk , 249–54; cf. S. Pinès , La Liberté de philosopher: De Maimonide à Spinoza , [The freedom to philosophize: From Maimonides to Spinoza], 115–20). The notion of God’s concessions to the weakness of human beings can be found in several of the Church Fathers: in relation to adaptation in Tertullian and later in Augustine, and in relation to condescension ( sugkatabasis [ συγϰατάϐασις ‎]) in Justinian, John Chrysostomos , etc. If these refer to a basis, to a grace, the idea of ruse is nonetheless not explicitly addressed. The texts of the...

OMNITUDO REALITATIS

OMNITUDO REALITATIS   Reference library

Jean-François Courtine

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
2,645 words

...Wolff: Text and Transitions.” In History of Philosophy in the Making , edited by Linus J. Thro , 113–20. Washington, D.C.: University Press of America, 1982. Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich . Enzyklopädie der philosophischen Wissenschaften im Grundrisse . §1-244. In Die Wissenschaft der Logik , edited by Wolfgang Bonsiepen and Hans-Christian Lucas . Gesammelte Werke . Vol. 20. Hamburg: Meiner, 1992. First published in 1830. Translation by A. V. Miller : The Science of Logic . London: Allen and Unwin, 1976. Heidegger, Martin . “Kants These über das...

JETZTZEIT

JETZTZEIT (GERMAN)   Reference library

Jeanne-Marie Gagnebin

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
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Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
1,317 words

...Aisthesis, 2008. Mosès, Stéphane . The Angel of History: Rosenzweig, Benjamin, Scholem . Translated by Barbara Harshav . Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2009. Piep, Karsten H. “‘A Tiger’s Leap Into the Past’: On the ‘Unhistorical,’ the ‘Historical,’ and the ‘Suprahistorical’ in Walter Benjamin’s ‘Theses on the Philosophy of History.’” New German Review 20 (2004–5): 41–59. Steinberg, Michael P. , ed. Walter Benjamin and the Demands of History . Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1996. Tiedemann, Rolf . “Historical Materialism or Political...

AUFHEBEN

AUFHEBEN (GERMAN)   Reference library

Philippe Büttgen

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
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Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
4,724 words

...is twofold: French has no word that means “both ‘abolish’ and ‘preserve’” ( J. Wahl ), and aufheben is a word that is, if not exactly everyday, at least perfectly ordinary in the German vocabulary. But we must also ask: what does it mean to say that this German word means “both ‘abolish’ and ‘preserve’”? The comparison Hegel makes with the Latin tollere on the basis of a pun ( Witz , see INGENIUM ) made by Cicero ( Ad familiares , XI, 20) allows us to illustrate this. Tollere means either “raise” (to the highest office) or “eliminate, abolish):...

VIRTÙ

VIRTÙ (ITALIAN)   Reference library

Alessandro Fontana

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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2017
Subject:
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Length:
6,166 words

...ἡδονή ‎], etc.), it is because every value as such is essentially the enactment of a telos [ τέλος ‎], of an end, of a proper aim, as in the notion of perfecting an art: hê aretê teleiôsis tis [ ἡ ἀϱετὴ τελείωσίς τις ‎] (Aristotle, Metaphysics ∆.16, 1021b20, trans. Tredennick), “goodness is a kind of perfection” such that one can speak of a “perfect doctor” and, as even he points out, a “perfect thief.” In order to illustrate some of the difficulties of translation into a modern moral idiom, let us look at two classical texts whose intent is to define...

ACEDIA

ACEDIA (SPANISH)   Reference library

José Miguel Marinas

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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2017
Subject:
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Length:
1,378 words

..., 3.3.21). Akêdês [ ἀϰηδής ‎] qualifies in an active sense, in a positive way, someone who is exempt from care and anxiety (Hesiod, Theogony , 5.489, apropos of the “invincible and impassive” Zeus, but also, negatively, the serving woman or negligent man; Homer, Odyssey , 17.319; Plato, Laws , 913c); in the passive sense, it designates a person who is neglected ( Odyssey , 20.130) or abandoned without burial (like Hector, Iliad , 24.554). How can the lack of care, akêdeia , become a virtue of the reflexive type? The twofold sense of the term...

INTELLECTUS

INTELLECTUS (LATIN)   Reference library

Alain de Libera

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
7,675 words

...been received from a master,” which we know “by simply knowing the terms that compose it,” with the “acquired” ( acquisitus ) intellect, meaning the possession of “principles that one acquires in contact with a master through teaching and studying.” Since the “acquired” intellect can also refer to the intellect “acquired externally” ( adeptus , Greek thurathen [ θύϱαθεν ‎]), in the more or less mystical sense, extrapolated by Alexander ( see Box 4 ) from a passage in the Parva naturalia ( De generatione animalium , 736b20–29), there is a considerable amount...

TALENT

TALENT   Reference library

Charles Baladier and Bernard Sésé

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
1,159 words

...(somewhere between 20 and 27 kilos). Over time, the term was applied not only to decisions that rouse the will out of indifference and cause it to express a specific choice, but also to an attraction toward a person or a pleasure associated with an object choice. In the course of its semantic evolution, talent took on the meaning of “inclination” ( penchant ); both in the sense of a “feeling of love or sympathy for someone” and in the (older) sense of “decline” ( être sur son penchant ), with the latter containing a moralizing connotation, as in...

TO BE

TO BE   Reference library

Daniel Heller-Roazen

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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2017
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Length:
988 words

...or a tautology” ( Potentialities , 20). But another reading is possible. If impotentiality is understood as a structural condition of potentiality, then the sense of the affirmation changes greatly. “What Aristotle then says is, ‘if a potentiality not to be originally belongs to all potentiality, then there is potentiality only where the potentiality not to (be or do) does not lag behind actuality but, rather, passes wholly into it as such ’” (ibid., 21). Impotentiality is not effaced in the passage into actuality. On the contrary, actuality is itself nothing...

GLÜCK

GLÜCK (GERMAN)   Reference library

Christian Helmreich

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
4,903 words

... and its antonym Unglück (bad luck or unhappiness). The union within a single German word of the idea of a happy accident, luck, and that of happiness strictly speaking, is to some extent inconvenient for philosophers. For it is impossible to speak of happiness in the absence of a certain duration or stability: “For one swallow does not make a summer, nor does one day; and so too one day, or a short time, does not make a man blessed and happy” ( Nicomachean Ethics , 1.7.1098a 18–20; Barnes trans.). The extremely strong influence of Aristotelian reflection...

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