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A20

A cytoplasmic zinc finger protein (790 aa) that inhibits NFκB activity and TNF-mediated programmed cell death. The expression of the A20 mRNA is upregulated by TNFα. It is a dual function ...

Èshù

Èshù   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
950 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Many-Colored Cap? Transformations of Eshu in Old and New World Mythologies .” Journal of American Folklore 100 (1987): 261–275. Owomoyela, Oyekan . “ Tortoise Tales and Yoruba Ethos .” Research in African Literatures 20, no. 2 (1989): 165–180. Pemberton, John . “ Eshu-Elegba: The Yoruba Trickster God .” African Arts 9, no. 1 (1975): 20–27, 66–70, 90–92. Phillips Stevens...

Boulaga, Fabien Eboussi

Boulaga, Fabien Eboussi   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,172 words

...Africans to appropriate philosophy with that bias, and formulation of a method for conceptual emergence in (the service of) Africa. Boulaga argues that, insofar as the Bantu (or Africans) cannot “expose in an adequate vocabulary” the philosophy underlying their being, behaviors and anthropological objects (art, oral literature, etc.), and “it is we who are able to tell them in a precise manner what their intimate conception of beings is” as claimed by Tempels ( La Philosophie bantoue , pp. 20–21), this whole ontology is an incoherent “description” of an...

Robeson, Paul

Robeson, Paul   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,009 words
Illustration(s):
1

...passed during World War I “during the existence of a national emergency” to prevent the entry and departure of American citizens. In an act of defiance against the travel ban, labor unions in the United States and Canada organized a concert at the International Peace Arch on the border between Washington State and British Columbia on 18 May 1952 . Robeson stood on the back of a flatbed truck on the American side of the border and performed a concert for a crowd on the Canadian side estimated between 20,000 and 40,000 people. During three years that...

Clarke, John Henrik

Clarke, John Henrik   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...History , edited by Joseph E. Harris . Washington D.C.: Howard University Press, 1974. Schomburg, Arthur . “The Negro Digs Up His Past.” In The New Negro: An Interpretation , edited by Alain Locke . New York: A. and C. Boni, 1925. Thomas, Robert McG . “John Henrik Clarke, Black Studies Advocate, Dies at 83.” New York Times (July 20, 1998): A13. Wells, H. G . The Outline of History . London: Cassell, 1920. Justin J....

Mazrui, Ali

Mazrui, Ali   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,320 words

...18 March 2006, p.7; 4 March 2006, p.7. Sunday Nation (Nairobi, Kenya), 19, February 2006, p.12; 7, October 2001, p.19; 28, January 2001, p.17; 24, September 2000, p.8; September 26, 1999, p.10; 13, December 1998, “Lifestyle”, p. 4; 6, September 1998, p.14; 6, October 1991, p.7; 20, November 1994, p.12. Kenneth S. Ombongi and Marcel...

Mandela, Nelson

Mandela, Nelson   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,031 words

...slow to perceive the pandemic. Nelson Mandela is today perhaps the most widely known and respected African, an exemplar of the vitality of African culture and thought, and a shining example of the power of democracy and negotiation. [See also Lutuli, Albert John; and Slovo, Joe .] Bibliography Primary Works Mandela, Nelson . “I Am Prepared to Die.” Speech at Pretoria Supreme Court, 20 April 1964. www.anc.org.za/ancdocs/history/mandela/1960s/rivonia.html Mandela, Nelson . In His Own Words , edited by Kader Asmal , David Chidester , and Wilmot James ....

Pan-Africanism

Pan-Africanism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,198 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Esedebe, P . Pan-Africanism: The Idea and Movement, 1776–1991 . 2d ed. Washington, D.C.: Howard University Press, 1994. Protocol Relating to the Establishment of the Peace and Security Council of the African Union, http://www.africa-union.org/root/AU/organs/psc/Protocol_peace%20and%20security.pdf , 2002. Jeffrey...

Cabral, Amilcar

Cabral, Amilcar   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,127 words

...Council in February 1972 to report on the abuses of Portuguese colonialism in Africa. At 3:00 a.m. on 20 January 1973 , in Conakry, Inocêncio Kani, a guerrilla war veteran and former PAIGC navy commander from Guinea-Bissau, led a group that assassinated Cabral. At the same time, PAIGC party members, many from the Cape Verde Islands, were arrested in Conakry by members of the group that supported Cabral’s assassination. The party leaders were placed on a boat to take them back to Guinea-Bissau. Later that same morning, the assassins presented themselves...

Ibeji

Ibeji   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,103 words
Illustration(s):
1

...cases they are dressed in garments that mirror honorific adult attire. They are tucked into wrappers and taken to market. They are danced with a mixture of devoted tenderness and bowed reverence. Carved from the anointed wood of the ire tree, ere ibeji range in height from 20 to 30 centimeters. In form, they are typically stocky and frontally oriented, with their arms carved at their sides and their feet attached to a rounded base. Their proportions, consistent with other kinds of Yoruba sculpture, emphasize the head as the locus of the soul and the helm of...

Art History and Criticism

Art History and Criticism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,378 words

...that the artist saw during a 1906 visit to the Trocadero Museum of Ethnology. Although both artists were inspired by non-Western cultures, Picasso did not have the interpersonal contact with the indigenous people that Gauguin did. This is apparent in Gauguin’s emphasis on the Tahitian body and landscapes, as opposed to Picasso’s fascination with “magical” African artifacts. William Rubin wrote extensively on Picasso and the Primitivism movement in the two-volume catalogue for his major 1984–1985 exhibition Primitivism in 20th Century Art: Affinity of the...

Sacrifice

Sacrifice   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,196 words

...whereas larger communities sacrifice to their God alone or through intermediary spirits. There is common agreement, however, that one’s God is the ultimate recipient of sacrificial offerings. [ See also Divination .] Bibliography Adewale, S. A. “ Sacrifice in African Traditional Religion .” Ibadan 20, no. 2 (1988): 91–106. “ God and Sacrifice in the Traditional Religion of the Kasena and Dagaba of Northern Ghana .” Journal of Religion in Africa 11, no. 3 (1980): 172–187. Idowu, E. Bolagi . Olodumare: God in Yoruba Belief . London: Longmans,...

Gordimer, Nadine

Gordimer, Nadine   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,064 words

...style of Nadine Gordimer’s writings. Nadine Gordimer was born to Isidore and Nan Gordimer 20 November 1923 in Springs, South Africa. She was schooled at the Convent of Our Lady of Mercy and studied for a year at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. Among her earliest writings are Face to Face , a collection of short stories that was published in 1949 , just a year after the coming to power of the National Party that institutionalized apartheid, and The Soft Voice of the Serpent ( 1952 ). Her writing career, which spans more than fifty...

Harris, William Wadé

Harris, William Wadé   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,354 words

...a receptive audience. Within a year, he baptized 100,000 to 120,000 people, whereas the Catholic mission, despite official sponsorship, was only able to baptize 400 Africans in 20 years. Many Africans, who resented Govenor Angoulant’s pacification methods and were bewildered by the social and economic changes introduced by the imposition of French rule, embraced Harris’s message to abandon the gods that had failed them and the fetishes and charms of their former traditional religion and worship only the one Christian God. Harris walked barefoot, wearing a...

Cruse, Harold

Cruse, Harold   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,381 words

...Harold Harold Cruse (8 March 1916 –20 March 2005 ), an iconoclastic social critic and a largely self-educated cultural historian, achieved distinction as the preeminent African American dissident public intellectual of the 1960 s. Although he authored several books, his reputation rests largely on his monumental work The Crisis of the Negro Intellectual ( 1967 ), a flawed yet brilliant, imaginative, sweeping, and provocative polemic. A thematically united collection of essays, Crisis presents a withering assessment of the black intelligentsia for...

Democracy

Democracy   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
3,620 words

...such as Omar Bongo (41 years in power), Muammar Gaddafi (39), Gnassingbe Eyadema (38), Eduardo Dos Santos (28), Robert Mugabe (28), Hosni Mubarak (27), Yoweri Museveni (22), Paul Biya (25), Denis Sassou Nguesso (20), Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali (21), King Makhosetive Mswati (21), Lansana Conte (20), Milton Obote (15), Idi Amin , Kibaki , and Nunjoma , among others. Despite the shortcomings of democracy in Africa, it is characterized by constitutional rule and periodic elections. This means that the constitution must be the...

Walker, Alice

Walker, Alice   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,994 words

.... “ Sound Advice from a Friend: Words and Thought from the Higher Ground of Alice Walker .” Callaloo 18 (1983): 123–129. Christian, Barbara . “De-Visioning Spielberg and Walker: The Color Purple, the Novel and the Film.” Center for the Study of Woman and Society, University of Oregon, Eugene, 20 May 1986. Guillory, Elizabeth Brown . “Alice Walker.” In Black Women in America: An Historical Encyclopedia , edited by DarleneClark Hine , pp. 1205–1208. New York: Carlson, 1993. Harris, Trudier . “ Folklore in the Fiction of Alice Walker: A Perpetuation of...

Creole, Créolité

Creole, Créolité   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,014 words

...and Sally Price , pp. 155–180. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1985. Arnold, A. James . “ Créolité : Power, Mimicry and Dependence.” Review: Literature and Arts of the Americas 37, no. 1 (2004): 19–26. Bernabé, Jean , Patrick Chamoiseau, and Raphaël Confiant . “ In Praise of Creoleness ” ( Eloge de la Créolité ). Callaloo 13, no. 4 (1990): 886–909. Jourdan, C . “ Pidgins and Creoles: The Blurring of Categories .” Annual Review of Anthropology 20 (1991): 187–209. Stoddard, Eve , and Grant H. Carrwell . “Cosmopolitan or Mongrel? Créolité...

Eurocentrism

Eurocentrism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,281 words

...in Africa: The Nigerian Experience . Aldershot, U.K.; Burlington, Vt.: Ashgate, 2006. Pierterse, J. N . White on Black: Images of Africa in Western Popular Culture . New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1992. van Lave, T . The World Revolution in Westernization: The 20th Century in Global Perspective . New York: Oxford University Press, 1987. Jeremiah I....

Autocracy and Authoritarianism

Autocracy and Authoritarianism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,415 words

...Series; Pretoria, S.A.: University of South Africa Press; London and New York: Zed Books, 2005. Mentan, Tetah . Held Together by Pins: Liberal Democracy under Siege in Africa . Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press, 2007. Omotola, Shola J . “ Constitutional Review and the Third Term Agenda: Nigeria’s Democracy at the Crossroads .” The Constitution: A Journal of Constitutional Development 6, no. 3 (2006): 57–77. Omotola, Shola J . “ Explaining Succession and Legitimacy Crisis in Africa: Colonialism Revisited .” Research for Development 20, no. 2 (2004):...

Tribe

Tribe   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,062 words

.... New York: Humanities Press, 1973. Dubow, Saul . “ Ethnic Euphemisms and Racial Echoes .” Journal of Southern African Studies 20, no. 3 (1994): 355–370. Ekeh, Peter . “ Social Anthropology and Two Contrasting Uses of Tribalism in Africa .” Comparative Studies in Society and History 32, no. 4 (1990): 660–700. Evans-Pritchard, Edward . The Nuer: A Description of the Modes of Livelihood and Political Institutions of a Nilotic People . New York: Oxford University Press, 1969. Gordon, Robert . “Apartheid’s Anthropologists: The Geneaology of Afrikaaner...

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