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A20

A cytoplasmic zinc finger protein (790 aa) that inhibits NFκB activity and TNF-mediated programmed cell death. The expression of the A20 mRNA is upregulated by TNFα. It is a dual function ...

Sarah

Sarah   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

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...Abraham might have a son and later driving Hagar and her son Ishmael away from the family group. Sarah's beauty plays an important role in Abraham's story as well: Twice she is taken as a wife by another man (the Pharaoh of Egypt; Abimelech, King of Gerar) on account of her beauty and is rescued from this threat to her sexual purity by God. In both stories ( Gn. 12.10–20 , 20 ), Abraham passes Sarah off as his sister in order to save himself; Genesis 20.12 explains that she is indeed his half-sister, sharing a father but not a mother. Sarah ...

Q Source

Q Source   Reference library

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...ruling in the Damascus Document (CD iv.20–v.5) and in Temple Scroll a (11Q19 lvii.17–19). However, such a ban is not peculiar to Q in the Gospels ( cf. Mk. 10.1–12 ). Thus, any link with Qumran is not specific to Q. Both Q and Qumran show a positive attitude to poverty and a disregard for family and possessions ( Lk. 6.20–21 , 9.59–10.16 , 12.33–34 pars.; cf. the self-reference of the Qumran community to themselves as the “poor” (for example, Pesher Habakkuk [1QpHab xii.3, 6, 10] or in Pesher Psalms a on Psalm 37 [4Q171 2.8–9, 3.9–10] as well as...

Biblical Chronology

Biblical Chronology   Reference library

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...Biblical Chronology quotes its chronology from the biblical tradition. An Aramaic Targum (cf. frg. 1.1 with Gn. 25.20 ; frg. 2.3 with Gn. 29.18–20 ) should probably not be presupposed as the literary base of the manuscripts even though there is an obvious dependence on a Hebrew Bible tradition (the Hebraism mi-mits [ rayin ], and the geographical terminology for Land of Israel Yardena᾽ and Gilgela᾽ ), perhaps stemming from a branch of the proto-Septuagint (cf. Cush-rishathaim frgs. 4, 6 and Septuagint Jgs. 3.8–10 ). In addition to the...

Miriam

Miriam   Reference library

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..., the sister of Moses and Aaron, one of the leaders of the Israelites in the wilderness. In Exodus 15.20–21 she is described as a female prophet who leads the Israelite women in a victory song after the defeat of the Egyptians at the Sea of Reeds. Unfortunately, the text of Miriam's song is not given. In Numbers 12 she is stricken with leprosy after she and her brother Aaron challenge the supremacy of Moses, and Numbers 20.1 describes her death and burial. Miriam is also traditionally identified as the unnamed sister ( Ex. 2.4–10 ), who...

Philo Judaeus

Philo Judaeus (c.25/20 bce–c.50)   Reference library

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...cf. 30–31 1QS vii.17 Hymns 80 Meal 73–74, 81–82 Cf. 1QS vi.4–6; 1Q28a ii.17–22 No wine 73–74 (1QS vi.4–6; 1Q28a ii.17–22) Vegetarian (8.11.8–9) 73 1QS vi.4–6; 1Q28a ii.17–22 Choral Singing 83–89 Morning Prayers 89, cf. 27 128 Ideals 83–87 139 Love of God 84, 75 139 1QS i.1–10 No oaths 84 135 (139–42) (1QS v.8, CD xv.5–13; CD ix.8–10, xvi.6–12; 11QT liii.9–liv.5) Love of Virtue 84 141–42 20 Love of Humanity 84–87 8.11.1 139–40 Cf. CD vi.20–vii.1 Common Property 85–86 8.11.4–5, 10–13 122, 127 20 1QS i.11–13; v.1–2; vi.13–23 (1QS vii.6–8; CD ix.10–16; xiv.12–13)...

Amman Museum

Amman Museum   Reference library

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...C 1Q17 Jubilees a 1 No number assigned 1Q18 Jubilees b 1–5 No number assigned 1Q19 Noah 1, 3 No number assigned 1Q20 Genesis Apocryphon 1–8 No number assigned 1Q22 Words of Moses 1–28, 31, 33–37, 41–45, 47–49 J 5928 1Q23 Enoch Giants a 1–22, 24–31 J 5928 1Q27 Mysteries 1–17 J 5928 1Q28a Rule of the Congregation Cols i-ii No number assigned 1QM War Scroll 1–2 J 5928 1Q34 Liturgical Prayer 1 J 5928 1Q35 Hodayot b 1–2 J 5928 (Numbered 1Q33 on the museum plate) 1Q36 Hymns 1–18, 20–25 J 5928 1Q37 Hymnic Compositions? 1–6 J 5928 1Q70 Unclassified fragment 1–32 J...

Kings, First and Second Books of

Kings, First and Second Books of   Reference library

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...and 2 Kings 5.26 ; 6.32 ; 7.8–10 , 20 ; 8.1–5 ; 9.1–2 ; 10.19–21 fragments 18–94 are unidentified. The text of 2 Kings 7.20–8.5 in 6QKings is sometimes shorter than the Masoretic Text ( Baillet , 1962 ). Furthermore, three fragments of the Book of the Kings (4Q235) in the Nabatean script have been preserved. [See Nabatean .] The Isaiah scrolls also have a bearing on the text of Kings in the passages they have in common ( Is. 36.1–39.8 , 2 Kgs. 18.13–20.19 ). Isaiah a from Cave 1 at Qumran (1QIsa a ) preserves the entire parallel text,...

Ben Sira, Book of

Ben Sira, Book of   Reference library

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...(written in stichometric form and including a subscription), 30.11–33.3 ; 35.11–38.27b ; 39.15c–51.30 MS C (a compilation of citations), 3.14–18 ; 3.21–22 ; 4.21–23 ; 4.30 ; 4.31 ; 5.4–7 ; 5.9–13 ; 6.18b ; 6.19 ; 6.28 ; 6.35 ; 7.1 ; 7.2 ; 7.4 ; 7.6 ; 7.17 ; 7.20 ; 7.21 ; 7.23–25 ; 18.31b–19.3b ; 20.5–7 ; 20.13 ; 20.22–23 ; 25.8 ; 25.13 ; 25.17–24 ; 26.1–3 ; 26.13 ; 26.15–17 ; 25.8 ; 25.20–21 ; 36.27–31 ; 37.19 ; 37.22 ; 37.24 ; 37.26 ; 41.16 MS D, 36.29–38.1a MS E, 32.16–34.1 MS F, 31.24–32.7 ; 32.12–33.8 More...

῾Ein-El-Turabeh

῾Ein-El-Turabeh   Reference library

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...parts: a nearly square structure, 15 by 13 meters (49 by 42 feet), and a courtyard, 19 by 20 meters (62 by 66 feet), which adjoins the structure's northern side. The entrance to the courtyard was also on the northern side, and guard rooms were erected adjacent to the courtyard gate. On the northern side of the courtyard and on the southern side, rows of pillar foundations that parallel the walls of the courtyard were discovered. The pillars were made of wood and are well preserved. The entrance to the square structure was from within the courtyard. A ramp...

Job, Book of

Job, Book of   Reference library

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...4QJob b preserve parts of Job 8.15–17 , 9.27 , 13.4 , 14.4–6 , 31.20–21 . The text of 4QJob a is written stichometrically, each line usually containing two cola. In several instances Job a differs from the Masoretic Text, including divergences in orthography, grammatical forms, and readings. Although these manuscripts contain relatively little of the text of the book of Job , they provide evidence that the Elihu speeches ( Job 32–37 ), which many scholars consider to be a secondary part of the composition, were part of the book by the turn of the...

Sin

Sin   Reference library

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...age (Hodayot a from Qumran Cave 1, hereafter, 1QHodayot a , 1QH a xii.20 [iv.19]; 1QM i.8–10). In some texts there is a strong emphasis on predestination. According to 1QHodayot a : Nor can a human being establish his steps. I know that every spirit is fashioned by your hand. … For him [the righteous], from the womb, you determined the period of approval, so that he will keep your covenant. … But the wicked you have created for the time of wrath, from the womb you have predestined them for the day of annihilation. (1QH a vii.17–21 [xv.4–8]) The...

Genesis, Commentary on

Genesis, Commentary on   Reference library

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...phrasing of Genesis 9.1 , 9.27 and 2 Chronicles 20.7 , the descendants of Ham and Japheth are excluded from divine favor. It is likely that this reflects a political wish at the time the commentary was composed for the exclusion of foreigners from the land of Israel (cf. 1QM i.6, xviii.2). A second section with chronological concerns treats the entry of Abram into the Land; ii.8–10 attempts to solve the textual problems of Genesis 11–12 by rewriting the narrative of Genesis 11.31 with a precise dating system. The commentary is thus interested...

James, Letter Of

James, Letter Of   Reference library

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...of lights” ( Jas. 1.17 ), a title which relates God to the stars and which has no sure precedent in Judaism (cf. T. Abr. B 7.5), can be compared to the angelic “Prince of lights” in the Rule of the Community (1QS iii.20; CD v.18). The technical idiom “cycle of becoming” ( Jas. 3.6 ) may be such a cycle as is described, though not labeled as such, in 1QH a xx.5–8. Some similarities are based in a common representation of exegetical traditions. For example, the letter is addressed to the twelve tribes ( Jas. 1.1 ), a scriptural image also probably...

Solomon

Solomon   Reference library

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...a , Pseudo-Daniel c , and Apocryphal Psalms a should be considered nonsectarian in origin; the Apocalypse of Weeks? is too damaged to speculate about its origin. Solomon is mentioned in the sectarian texts of Qumran only once. Miqtsat Ma῾asei ha-Torah ( MMT ) section C from Cave 4, 18 (MMT e , 4Q398 11–13.1) argues that the blessings promised in the books of Moses and the Prophets started to come true for Israel in the days of Solomon, while the fulfillment of the corresponding curses started in the time of Jeroboam I (MMT section C 17–20). This...

Luke, Gospel Of

Luke, Gospel Of   Reference library

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...where it means “people whom God favors” (1QH a iv.32–33 [xvii.20–21], xi.9 [iii.8]) has settled the debate. Another section of the narrative that is redolent of Qumran is the presentation of John the Baptist ( e.g., 3.1–20 ; cf. Lk. 3.4 and 1QS viii.12–16; Lk. 3.16 and 1QS iv.20–21). However, we must not overdraw this portrait since Luke , like the Jewish Antiquities of Josephus ( 18.116–19 ), presents John more as a Hellenistic moral reformer ( cf. 3.10–14 ) than as an apocalyptic prophet. A second area is the interpretation of scripture....

Berakhot

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...4.1) and a law referring to the muster of the members of the community (4Q286 17ab), indicate an annual covenantal ceremony of the yaḥad (cf. Rule of the Community [hereafter 1QRule of the Community] 1QS i.16–iii.12). [See Rule of the Community .] The sequence of the covenantal ceremony may have been as follows: a communal confession (4Q286 1.i.7–8 [and frg. 9?]); a series of blessings addressed to God (4Q286 1.ii–7.i and 4Q287 1–5); a series of curses against Belial and his lot (4Q286 7.ii [= 4Q287 6] and 4Q287 7–10); a series of laws (4Q286 20ab [= 4Q288...

Abraham

Abraham   Reference library

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...One is found in the Commentary on Genesis A (4Q252), a fragmentary Hebrew scroll; another is in the Genesis Apocryphon (1QapGen, 1Q20), a poorly preserved Aramaic scroll; and the third is found in Pseudo-Jubilees a (4Q225), a paraphrase of portions of Genesis and Exodus . All three scrolls are similar to Jubilees in that they are dependent on Genesis , yet they take certain liberties with the text. This is especially so in the Genesis Apocryphon. Commentary on Genesis A. According to the Commentary on Genesis A (4Q252), God “gave the land to Abraham, his...

High Priests

High Priests   Reference library

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...172–162 bce ), a non-Zadokite priest who arranged the murder of Onias III. The Zadokite Onias IV fled to Egypt and initiated a rival temple there. Menelaus's successor, Alcimus ( 162–159 bce ), being at least an Aaronide, won the support of the Hasideans until he betrayed their trust and executed a group. All three of these high priests actively promoted the Hellenization of Jews, bringing the high priesthood into disrepute in the eyes of pious Jews. Josephus knew of no high priest during the seven years following Alcimus ( Antiquities 20.237), but some...

Samuel, First and Second Books of

Samuel, First and Second Books of   Reference library

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...by means of a condensed quotation of verses 11b–14a, in which verses 13a and 14b are not represented: this text deals not with the human temple (verses 13a) but with the divine one; not with a fallible king (verse 14b) but with a divinely inspired messiah. [See Florilegium .] [See also Septuagint .] Bibliography the critical discussion Bar-Efrat, Shim᾽on . Narrative Art in the Bible . Journal for the Study of the Old Testament Supplement Series, 70. Sheffield, 1989. A systematic treatise, based on the narrative of 2 Samuel 9–20 and 1 Kings 1–2....

Testimonia

Testimonia   Reference library

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...which are directly linked to each other, that is, without any explicit quotation formulas or interpretations. Quoted are a text, which follows Exodus 20.21 in the Samaritan Pentateuch (which equals Masoretic Text Dt. 5.28–29 and Dt. 18.18–19 ) in lines 1–8, Numbers 24.15–17 in lines 9–13, Deuteronomy 33.8–11 in lines 14–20, and at the end there is a passage also found in the Apocryphon of Joshua b , previously called Psalms of Joshua ( Jos. 6.26 , 4Q379 22.ii.7–14) in lines 21–30. The sequence of the quotations seems to be given by the...

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