You are looking at 1-20 of 155 entries  for:

  • Archaeology x
clear all

View:

Overview

A20

A cytoplasmic zinc finger protein (790 aa) that inhibits NFκB activity and TNF-mediated programmed cell death. The expression of the A20 mRNA is upregulated by TNFα. It is a dual function ...

Puberty, Marriage, Sex, Reproduction, and Divorce, Bronze and Iron Age

Puberty, Marriage, Sex, Reproduction, and Divorce, Bronze and Iron Age   Reference library

Jennie Ebeling

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
8,817 words

...the value of an adult; between ages 20 and 60, a man’s value is that of an adult. The census in Numbers 1:3 indicates that men could take part in military activities at age 20, further supporting the idea that a male was considered an adult at age 20. Marriage. The biblical writers provide some details about marriage arrangements and wedding customs in ancient Israel, but they do not provide clear guidelines for marriage. What is clear from the text is that a marriage was considered a civil contract, not a religious one. Written marriage contracts may have...

Ashdod

Ashdod   Reference library

David Ben-Shlomo

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
3,957 words
Illustration(s):
2

...The king of Ashdod was taken prisoner and the region became a Babylonian province. The Babylonian destruction of Ashdod is mentioned by several prophets ( Jer 25:20 , Zeph 2:4 , Zech 9:6 ) as well as in Babylonian texts. For this reason, the suggestion that the site of Ashdod was moved during the seventh century to the nearby Ashdod- is unreasonable. During the Persian period Ashdod was a Persian province, with silver coins from this period carrying the city’s name. A postexilic passage in Nehemiah ( 13:23–24 ) mentions the non-Judaic nature...

Tel Kedesh

Tel Kedesh   Reference library

Andrea M. Berlin and Sharon C. Herbert

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,536 words
Illustration(s):
4

...is located on the edge of a mountainous plateau that extends about 20 miles (36 km) eastward from Tyre, on the Mediterranean shore, to the edge of the Hula basin. The site, which measures 2,953 ft (900 m) north–south, dominates a small, well-watered, fertile upland valley about 1,476 ft (450 m) above sea level. Steep cliffs demarcate its eastern edge, forming a precipitous and topographically dramatic boundary with the Hula basin almost 1,312 ft (400 m) below. Tel Kedesh is a double mound, with a high northern acropolis and a long lower tell that extends...

Ceramics Production, Bronze and Iron Age

Ceramics Production, Bronze and Iron Age   Reference library

Gloria Anne London

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
3,815 words

...48:11–12 ). A sherd broken from a nōbel was used for hot coals and to scoop water ( Isa 30:14 ). Traditional rural potters in Cyprus started the kiln with coals brought carried in sherds or household incense burners, to assure a successful outcome. A nēr was a clay lamp ( Exod 27:20 , Ps 119:105 ) in the form of a bowl, with one or more pinched spouts for a wick made of string, which burned on a thin layer of oil floating above a reservoir of water. Nērot were candlesticks or lamp stands of gold ( 1 Kgs 7:49 , Exod 25:31 ). A pak was a small,...

Mount Ebal

Mount Ebal   Reference library

Adam Zertal

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
2,269 words
Illustration(s):
1

... Ezekiel 43 , a vision of an altar to be built in Jerusalem but actually a description of the Solomonic Temple; the Mishnaic tractate Middot 3, describing the Second Temple altar in Jerusalem (ca. 20 b.c.e. –73 c.e. ); Josephus ( J.W. 5.222–227), describing the Jerusalem altar; and the “Temple Scroll” of the Dead Sea Scrolls, also describing the Second Temple altar. These later sources describe a relatively large altar built of unworked stones, square or rectangular in shape. It has a double ramp ascending to its upper side and a surrounding wall...

Feasting, Bronze and Iron Age

Feasting, Bronze and Iron Age   Reference library

Jacob L. Wright and Michael J. Chan

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
6,052 words

...( 2 Sam 3:20–21 ). Similarly, when Absalom and Adonijah, David’s sons, wish to mount the throne, they begin by organizing feasts ( 2 Sam 13:23–29 ; cf. 15:1 and 1 Kgs 1:5 ). With the help of strong drink, the Aramean king nourishes his alliance with his 32 coalition partners during a campaign against Israel ( 1 Kgs 20:16 ). Later, the prophet restrains the king of Israel from slaughtering the Aramean forces, commanding him instead to prepare a lavish feast for them. Thereafter, the enemy ceased their assaults on Israel ( 2 Kgs 6:22–23 ). As a royal...

Herodium

Herodium   Reference library

Jürgen K. Zangenberg

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,362 words
Illustration(s):
2

...a small fortification built earlier by Herod to lay claim to the hill. This fort was entirely covered by the new circular structure. The cylinder, presently entirely concealed inside the hill, originally stood free for the first 20 years. It comprised seven stories, the lowest two of which had strong barrel vaults serving as storage rooms, while the five above them (three of which were found in situ) had flat ceilings. Included in the original phase were a number of large cisterns and a feature that must have formed the spectacular impression of the hill: a...

Masada

Masada   Reference library

Jürgen Zangenberg

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,329 words
Illustration(s):
2

...a small garrison, like the ones at Qumran and En-Gedi, to guard the eastern shore of the Dead Sea. Remains of biblical and nonbiblical texts were found at various places on the mountain, some of them likely hidden by the defenders and others torn and dumped by the Romans in casemate rooms (Josephus, Ant. 20.115). But the Romans also left documents reflecting everyday activities, like a text referring to the payments and expenses of a soldier’s salary, on medical treatment in the army, and a literary text. Two documents from Murabba ʿ at even suggest that a...

Gender, Bronze and Iron Age

Gender, Bronze and Iron Age   Reference library

Mayer I. Gruber

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
4,502 words
Illustration(s):
1

...is a disaster that leads to the disintegration of society ( Micah 7:1–7 ). Inasmuch as both parents are inculcated in the cultural legacy of Israel, they are obligated to inculcate their children (see Deut 6:7 , 11:19 ), who receive instruction from both parents ( Prov 1:8 , 6:20 , 23:22–25 ). Deuteronomy 21:18–21 shows that mothers and fathers are together responsible for the proper upbringing of their children as both parents present a disobedient child to the elders of the city. In Deuteronomy 22:13–19 both parents defend their daughter, a...

Family Structure, Hellenistic and Roman Period

Family Structure, Hellenistic and Roman Period   Reference library

April Pudsey

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
6,921 words

...other children and a number of adults in their day-to-day lives: a direct consequence of the phenomenon of a frérèche -type arrangement, in which one (or more) brother brought his new wife into the household, was that children would live with many cousins, aunts, and uncles. A striking example of such a family can be seen in the early second century c.e. , where a family of four married brothers between the ages of 38 and 47 brought wives into the household: the youngest of these brothers had one son (age 4), the next youngest a son (age 20) and two daughters...

Aram-Damascus

Aram-Damascus   Reference library

K. Lawson Younger

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
4,541 words

...name “Ben-Hadad” may have been a dynastic title, there is no clear evidence of this. The second option understands 1 Kings 20 and 22 as misplaced by a mistaken biblical writer. Thus, it reflects a later political situation in the days of Jehoahaz or Jehoash. Adad-idri (Hadadezer) of the monolith should not be equated with Ben-Hadad of 1 Kings 20 and 22 but instead should be identified with Ben-Hadad (Bar-Hadad), the son of Hazael, who ruled over Damascus in the early eighth century. Thus, in the stories of 1 Kings 20 and 22 , the name of Ahab has...

Gath

Gath   Reference library

Aren Maeir

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,993 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to a site by this name refer to Gath of the Philistines, one of five major cities of the Philistine Pentapolis (along with Ashdod, Ashkelon, Gaza, and Ekron). While in the past its location was debated due to the lack of a site in Philistia preserving this ancient name (and quite a few identities were suggested), based on both textual analyses and the archaeological remains, it is clear that Gath of the Philistines should be placed at Tell eṣ-Ṣâfi (Tel Zafit), a site in the northwestern Shephelah, on the southern bank of the Elah Valley, ca. 12.5 miles (20 km)...

Dan

Dan   Reference library

David Ilan

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,469 words
Illustration(s):
2

...II, Jeroboam II) bamah represents a phase of alterations and supplements. It was also the phase that revealed a series of cultic objects—altars (cf. Exod 27:1–8 , 30:1–5 ), basins (cf. Lev 16:4 ; 2 Chr 4:6 ; Exod 29:4 , 30:17–21 ), incense shovels, a scepter head, and sacrificial remains—in the exterior belt of rooms surrounding the cultic precinct. This was also the stage to which most of the epigraphic material could be attributed. It is quite clear, however, from the biblical text ( 1 Kgs 15:20 , 2 Kgs 13:3–5 ) and from the “House of...

Jerusalem, Hellenistic and Roman

Jerusalem, Hellenistic and Roman   Reference library

Jürgen K. Zangenberg

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
9,575 words
Illustration(s):
2

... b.c.e. ), intensively promoted Hellenism and organized public life in Jerusalem according to a Greek polis . Jason received permission to build a gymnasium, soon to be followed by an ephebeion (a college for the Greek elite’s male youth) and a wrestling school, all provocatively close to the sanctuary ( 1 Macc 1:14 , 2 Macc 4:7–17 , 4 Macc 4:20 ; Josephus, Ant. 12.240f.; no remains identified so far). Jason may have seen all this as preparation to draw up a citizens’ list for the new city Antiochia Jerusalem ( 2 Macc 4:9 ). To counter growing...

Shiloh

Shiloh   Reference library

Hayah Katz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
2,582 words
Illustration(s):
1

...ft (3 and 5.5 m) thick and in Area D was preserved to a height of 21.9 ft (6.7 m). The glacis, which abutted the base of the wall, was 82 ft (25 m) wide at its lower part and 20.7 ft (6.3 m) wide next to the wall. At the center of the glacis, a wall was built to further stabilize it. Large boulders were laid at the edge of the glacis as an additional support measure. In Area F, a series of rooms whose walls were preserved to a height of 7.5 ft (2.3 m) was found adjacent to the wall. This preservation is a result of the fact that while the southwestern side of...

Jezreel

Jezreel   Reference library

Norma Franklin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
3,699 words

...of Mount Sion wrote that Zerin had 20 to 30 houses. Yet in 1538 , just nine households were recorded; in 1597 , the number dropped to four. A century later the population had grown, and Zerin was described as having some 150 houses, occupied by both Muslims and Jews. The village prospered, and in 1815 the traveler James Silk Buckingham described about 50 dwellings around a high, modern building. Victor Guérin visited in 1870 and noted that the local sheik resided in the tower, which also served as a manzal , a secure overnight resting place for...

Infancy, Childhood, Adulthood, Old Age, Bronze and Iron Age

Infancy, Childhood, Adulthood, Old Age, Bronze and Iron Age   Reference library

Jennie Ebeling

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
9,760 words

...or anything that belongs to your neighbor” ( Exod 20:17 ). All members of this multigenerational family worked closely together and shared a collective identity. The archaeological correlates of the bet ʾ av and the daily life activities of most of the population during the biblical period can be found in the Israelite four-room house, which is the dominant feature of Iron-Age domestic architecture. A bet ʾ av may have occupied a single four-room house or a complex made up of several houses with a common courtyard. The activities performed in spaces...

Death and Burial, Bronze and Iron Age

Death and Burial, Bronze and Iron Age   Reference library

Elizabeth Bloch Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,612 words

...For example, the deceased Samuel and “ghosts and familiar spirits” of Isaiah foretold the future ( 1 Sam 28:15–19 , Isa 8:19–20 ). Elisha’s bones revived a dead man ( 2 Kgs 13:21 , a reprise of 2 Kgs 4:31–35 ). Necromancers, dōrēš ע el-hammētîm , and those associated with the ע ôb and yiddě א ōnî (“ghosts” and “familiar spirits”) likely contacted the dead for information or intercessory services ( Lev 19:31 , 20:6 ; Deut 18:10–11 ; 1 Sam 28:8 ; 2 Kgs 21:6 ). Additionally, těrāpîm , objects of human form also referred to as ע ělōhîm (...

Household Religion, Hellenistic and Roman Period

Household Religion, Hellenistic and Roman Period   Reference library

Annette Weissenrieder

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,094 words
Illustration(s):
1

...a positive result. With reference to literary testimony, one expects to find his cult place in the storeroom (Dio Chrysostom, 1 Regn. 92; Menander Pseudo-Herakles, Poetae Comici Graece 6.2.410). Two speeches, delivered by Isaeus ( Orat. 8.16–17) and Antiphon ( Orat. 3.18–20), describe a tribute of the domus by way of a sacrifice and a (ritual) meal. Yet while Isaeus restricts the sacrifice to the family in the narrower sense, Antiphon reports on two friends’ cult sacrifice that is committed in one of their houses. So here one must create a broader...

Caesarea

Caesarea   Reference library

Joseph Patrich

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
6,858 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Mediterranean. A Mithraeum was installed in the third century c.e. by one of the financial procurators in the northern vault under the audience hall of the praetorium . There were many synagogues, but the remains of only one of the fourth to seventh centuries c.e. , yielding seven Greek inscriptions, were uncovered in the northern part of the Herodian city ( CIIP 1139–1145 ). In 66 c.e. , a controversy between Jews and non-Jews over control of a narrow alley that led to one of the synagogues resulted in a pogrom in which more than 20,000 Jews were...

View: