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Overview

A20

A cytoplasmic zinc finger protein (790 aa) that inhibits NFκB activity and TNF-mediated programmed cell death. The expression of the A20 mRNA is upregulated by TNFα. It is a dual function ...

G20

G20   Quick reference

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
284 words

...to the G7/8 is minor. Whereas the G7 has an established history of delivering a number of significant global initiatives, the G20 remains fairly stagnate and ineffective in its ability to generate dynamic global policy initiatives and general consensus. That said, the G20 does offer a unique forum to tackle global collective action problems. Given that the G20 represents two-thirds of the world’s population and most of its economic viability, it has built-in potential to be a meaningful global policy forum, which could provide greater accountability and...

measurement

measurement ((levels of))   Quick reference

Stephen Fisher

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
213 words

...possible to say that 20°C is twice as hot as 10°C. Finally, the ratio level of measurement is the same as the interval level with the addition of a true zero point, so it becomes possible to make statements about the ratios of values. Whilst there is often a natural correspondence between the level of measurement and the nature of the variable, in practice some variables are measured or analysed in different ways. For instance, age is usually measured in years, which is a ratio scale; someone who is 40 is twice as old as someone who is 20. However, sometimes...

Group of Twenty

Group of Twenty   Reference library

Stephen Gill

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,171 words

...In their view, the G-20 is a self-appointed, elitist, and unaccountable club that suffers from the same lack of legitimacy as the G-7/G-8. They point out that the membership of the G-20 was drawn up unilaterally by the United States, that participation is determined by economic weight and political clout, and that, as a result, the vast majority of countries are excluded from global economic discussion and policy making. Proponents of the G-20 have argued that there is a trade-off between representation and efficiency, and that a smaller circle of the...

Emerging Powers

Emerging Powers   Reference library

Amitav Acharya

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,304 words

...Brazil, South Africa), BRICSAM (add South Africa and Mexico). At a broader level, the key point of reference is the G-20. G-20 members are: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, European Union, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, United Kingdom, and the United States. In a short time, the G-20 has emerged as a club known for its importance in global finance, membership in which almost automatically earns a smaller country the label of emerging power. Emerging powers are also...

Iraq War

Iraq War   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Politics in the Middle East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
156 words

...Iraq War ( 2003 ) Armed conflict between a US-led multinational coalition and Iraq which began in 2003 and continued, in various forms, until 2011 . American and British leaders accused Saddam Hussein of maintaining a weapons-of-mass-destruction programme and violating United Nations Security Council resolutions imposed after the 1991 Gulf War . The Iraq War commenced on 20 March 2003 , and multinational forces occupied Baghdad on 9 April when Hussein fled into hiding. Iraq was administered by the Coalition Provisional Authority between ...

Prisoners’ Dilemma

Prisoners’ Dilemma   Quick reference

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
487 words

...does not confess and 0 if he confesses. If Column confesses he will receive −20 if he does not confess and −10 if he confesses. Irrespective of what Column does, it is therefore a ‘sure thing’ that Row is better off if he confesses. The reasoning is symmetrical for Column. Therefore, rational prisoners will confess, even though both of them knew all along that it would be better for each if neither confessed. Column: Don’t confess Confess Row: Don’t confess −2, −2 −20, 0 Confess 0, −20 −10, −10 The Prisoners’ Dilemma has been generalized for repeated...

strategy

strategy   Quick reference

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
228 words

...between ‘strategic’ and ‘tactical’ is retained. A strategy is a plan for dealing with every possible move by the other player(s) at every stage in the game. The number of strategies open to a player in a game of any complexity is astronomical. Even in a trivial game such as noughts-and-crosses (tic-tac-toe) the first player has nine legal opening moves. To each of the second player’s eight legal responses the first player has seven legal replies, thus 504 strategies for the first two moves alone, and a total of 20,160 (9 × 8 × 7 × 6 × 5 × 4 × 3) strategies for...

Bukharin, Nikolay Ivanovich

Bukharin, Nikolay Ivanovich (1888–1938)   Quick reference

Stephen Whitefield

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
226 words

...was one of the ‘Left Communists’ who opposed the peace treaty with Germany and Austria-Hungary as a deal with imperialism. He favoured a rapid transition to total state control of the economy during the Civil War 1918–20 . Moreover, in this period, he produced a rather doctrinaire textbook, The ABC of Communism . However, Bukharin became the leading proponent of NEP, advocating the radicalization of the policy at various critical junctures. Famously, he enjoined the Russian peasantry to ‘enrich’ themselves. With the NEP’s demise, Bukharin’s political career...

Social Credit

Social Credit   Quick reference

Wyn Grant

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
337 words

...government in a landslide victory in 1935 , providing the premier until 1970 , and of the British Columbia provincial government in 1952 , remaining the governing party for all but three years up to 1991 . In New Zealand, Social Credit support peaked at 20.7 per cent in the 1981 general election. Small‐scale business people and farmers have provided many of the party’s activists in Canada and New Zealand. For such a movement, political education can be as important as electoral success, which Social Credit has never achieved at a national level. Wyn...

Gabon

Gabon   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
588 words

.... A heavily forested country created by France in western equatorial Africa between the 1840s and 1880s, Gabon achieved national independence on 13 August 1960 . Its constitutions of 21 February 1961 and 26 March 1991 established a presidential form of government within a democratic republic. The attempts of the first president, Léon Mba ( 1902–1967 ), to gain control of the National Assembly through the establishment of a single political party provoked the coup of 17– 20 February 1964 by young military officers. French military intervention...

Nonproliferation, Nuclear

Nonproliferation, Nuclear   Reference library

Zachary S. Davis

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,477 words

...for Nonproliferation Studies . Inventory of International Nonproliferation Organizations and Regimes . (Monterey, Calif., 2009). Perkovich, George . Universal Compliance: A Strategy for Nuclear Security . (Washington, D.C., 2007). United States Department of Defense . “Nuclear Posture Review Report.” (April 2010). http://www.defense.gov/npr/docs/2010%20nuclear%20posture%20review%20report.pdf . Zachary S....

Iraq War

Iraq War   Quick reference

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
491 words

...War War launched on 20 March 2003 by coalition forces led by the United States against Iraq, to oust Saddam Hussein. The coalition referred to Iraq’s failure to comply with the UN Resolution 1441’s conditions for disarmament, and a perceived terrorist threat. Critics suggested the US were imposing military hegemony on the Middle East. UN diplomatic efforts floundered, and the war was supported by a narrow coalition. The UK and Australia offered military support, and Turkey offered minimal cooperation. With massive air superiority and limited resistance...

Mali

Mali   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,261 words

.... The Republic of Mali (formerly French Sudan) is a Sahelian, landlocked former French colony in West Africa with a land area of approximately 475,000 square miles (1.24 million km.) and a population estimated at 10.6 million in 1998 . During that year, GNP stood at US$2.6 billion, while GNP per capita was $250. The capital city is Bamako, and Islam is the dominant religion. Mali gained independence from France on 20 June 1960 as the Mali Federation (Senegal and Mali). The federation broke up on 20 August 1960 , and on 22 September 1960 the dominant...

Mexican Revolution

Mexican Revolution   Quick reference

Francisco E. González

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
255 words

...Revolution The first social revolution of the twentieth century ( 1910–20 ). It started as a political revolution against the more than thirty‐year dictatorship of General Porfirio Díaz. This movement was led by Francisco I. Madero , whose motto ‘Effective suffrage, no re‐election’ crystallized discontent around the country in 1910–11 against Díaz’s permanence in power. Eventually Díaz went into exile in Paris, while Madero won democratic elections and became Mexico’s president in 1911 . However, the ancien régime forces, supported by United States...

Potsdam Conference

Potsdam Conference   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
517 words

...in industrial plant and from current production, on the scale of the US$20 billion figure established for discussion at Yalta. The Western powers favored reparations only through the dismantling and removal of industrial plant. The United States and Britain opposed reparations from current production, insisting that Germany must first become self-supporting from exports. The three countries reached a compromise that merely postponed the problem. Although Germany itself was to be treated as a single economic unit, each power was entitled to collect reparations...

Moldova

Moldova   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
594 words

.... The Republic of Moldova is a relatively small country (approximately 13,000 sq. mi. [33,670 sq. km.] and a population of approximately 4.3 million) in southeastern Europe, bordered by Ukraine and Romania. Its population is ethnically mixed: Romanian speakers (64.5%), Ukrainians (13.8%), Russians (13%), Bulgarians (2.0%), the Turkic-origin Gagauz community (3.5%). Formerly a republic of the USSR, Moldova became independent on 27 August 1991 . Four competitive national elections have been held since independence; for the president of the republic in ...

Libyan Civil War(s)

Libyan Civil War(s)   Quick reference

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
498 words

...on Gaddafi forces, which due to the open terrain of Libya, inflicted critical damage to Gaddafi’s heavy weaponry, troop deployments, and general morale. In August 2011 , opposition forces staged a series of attacks on coastal cities leading toward the capital Tripoli, eventually taking Tripoli. Despite capturing the capital, Gaddafi remained at large. On 20 October 2011 Gaddafi was captured and immediately executed by opposition militia in the city of Sirte. On 23 October 2011 , despite continued pockets of violence in Libya, the NTC declared Libya as...

Slovenia

Slovenia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
620 words

...there are Hungarian or Italian minorities, Hungarian and Italian respectively. Slovenia has a population of 1,986,989 of which 87.8 percent are ethnic Slovenians. No other single ethnicity accounts for more than 3 percent of the population. Slovenia borders Italy, Austria, Hungary, and Croatia . Although it covers only 20,256 square meters, its landscape includes Alpine, Pannonian, and Mediterranean elements, which has allowed Slovenia to develop a tourist industry. A distinct Slovenian national identity arose during the Protestant Reformation when the first...

Albania

Albania   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
524 words

...in the southwestern quadrant of the Balkan Peninsula. With an area of 28,750 square kilometers (11,000 sq. mi.) and a population in 1999 of approximately 3.4 million, Albania is the smallest of the Balkan states in size and population. It is also one of the most ethnically homogeneous countries in Europe with Albanians in 1999 comprising 95 percent of the population. Prior to World War II, about 70 percent of the Albanians were Muslims, 20 percent Eastern Orthodox, and 10 percent Roman Catholic. Albania is thus the only predominantly Muslim country in...

Russia–Australia

Russia–Australia   Reference library

Oxford Companion to Australian Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,060 words

...announced Vladimir's defection in parliament on 13 April . On 19 April , embassy guards moved Evdokia to Mascot airport for a flight back to Moscow, where a large group gathered, convinced that Evdokia would be executed once she returned to the USSR. As she stepped onto the tarmac the crowd pushed forward, creating a tense standoff broken only when the flight crew physically hauled her aboard. When her plane stopped at Darwin on 20 April to refuel, ASIO agents separated Evdokia from her couriers and offered her asylum, to which she eventually agreed....

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