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Overview

A20

A cytoplasmic zinc finger protein (790 aa) that inhibits NFκB activity and TNF-mediated programmed cell death. The expression of the A20 mRNA is upregulated by TNFα. It is a dual function ...

Kyoto school

Kyoto school   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
19 words

...school A loose group of 20th-century Japanese philosophers united in bringing key Buddhist concepts together with Western...

evolutionism

evolutionism   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
36 words

...Discredited late 19th- and early 20th-century doctrine associating the changes of evolution with a progressive view of social change, positive attitudes to competition and war, and justification of inequalities of power. See also evolutionary ethics...

Academy of Athens

Academy of Athens   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
212 words

... bc : see also Middle Platonism ) was not properly the doing of the Academy, but paved the way for the emergence of Neoplatonism . http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Plato.html A brief history of the Academy http://php.iupui.edu/~cplaneau/Plato%20and%20His%20World/Plato%20Frame%20Set%204.html An introduction to the Academy and its...

John of Salisbury

John of Salisbury (20–1180)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
87 words

...of Salisbury (1115/ 20–1180 ) English churchman and diplomat . A student of Abelard , John was one of the most learned of early medieval writers on moral and political matters. He was secretary to Theobald, archbishop of Canterbury, and to St Thomas à Becket, of whom he wrote a biography. From 1176 to 1180 , he was bishop of Chartres. His two main works are the Polycraticus , a treatise on the principles of government, and the Metalogicus , a defence of logic showing considerable acquaintance with Aristotle...

projectibility

projectibility   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
89 words

...A property of predicates, measuring the degree to which past instances can be taken to be guides to future ones. The fact that all the cows I have observed have been four-legged may be a reasonable basis from which to predict that future cows will be four-legged. This means that four-leggedness is a projectible predicate. The fact that they have all been living in the late 20th or early 21st century is not a reasonable basis for predicting that future cows will be. See also entrenchment , Goodman’s paradox...

Philo Judaeus

Philo Judaeus (c.20 bcc. ad 50)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
81 words

...Judaeus ( c. 20 bc – c. ad 50 ) Hellenistic philosopher . Philo was a member of a prominent Jewish family of Alexandria, and inaugurated the Islamic, Jewish, and subsequent Christian traditions of reconciling scripture with the teaching of the classical Greek philosophers. In particular, he believed that the early books of the Old Testament, properly interpreted, were allegories which wrapped essential philosophical truths in their tales of gross human happenings. His guiding principle was that Moses was a great Middle Platonist ...

Gramsci, Antonio

Gramsci, Antonio (1891–1937)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
98 words

... communist and social theorist . Born in Sardinia and educated in Turin, Gramsci became one of the most celebrated 20th-century interpreters of Marx . A principal founder and the first general secretary of the Italian communist party, he was imprisoned from 1926 until his death. His major work is the posthumous Prison Notebooks , written between 1929 and 1935 , which propounds a humanistic Marxism, stressing the need for a transformed self-consciousness or ‘battle of ideas’ in society before revolution would occur, and therefore dismissing the...

determinism, logical

determinism, logical   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
167 words

...logical . Whether or not God or anyone or anything else knows the future, it is alleged, there must be a true description of the future, a set of true statements about it. The conjunction of all the true statements about the future we will call The Book. Now The Book must contain either the statement ‘ John Doe gets married on 20 June 2145 ’ or the statement ‘John Doe does not get married on 20 June 2145 ’. Whichever alternative The Book contains is true. Thus, it is alleged, whether or not Mr Doe will get married is already settled. So with...

hell

hell   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
80 words

...Place or state reserved for unrepentant sinners after death, where they suffer both separation from God, and other traditional punishments. Hell is designed by a benevolent deity, which seems surprising: Russell believed that no truly good person could ever have invented the doctrine. In the 20th century there has been a growing tendency to personalize the matter. Sartre held that hell is other people; T. S. Eliot said that hell is oneself. See also evil, problem of...

Chrysippus

Chrysippus (c.280–207)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
106 words

...time, having written 705 books, none of which survive (however, ancient books were relatively short; see also Dewey ). Chrysippus was originally a pupil of Arcesilaus , and was converted to Stoicism by Cleanthes. He enjoyed a considerable reputation as a logician, and there is some evidence that he commanded the fundamental idea of a truth function , which then lay dormant until the 20th century. He also held a cognitive theory of the emotions , which he thought consisted in judgements of the value of...

external world

external world   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
95 words

...that this world is separated from the world of the mind, so that our immediate experience is one thing, and the question of the nature of the world of which it is an experience is another thing. This is commonly called a Cartesian picture of the mind, and has been the target of many epistemologists, especially since the middle of the 20th century. See also experience , perception...

Hipparchia

Hipparchia   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
89 words

...The wife of Crates the Cynic , whom she had chosen to marry in spite of the poverty and unconventionality of the life he offered her. She was a source of speculation because, since the Cynics insisted that nothing natural was shameful, she and Crates are reported as having copulated together in public. Augustine ( City of God , xiv. 20) thinks that they only pretended to do so, under the concealment of the Cynic’s cloak. But he was properly reprimanded for this unwarranted scepticism by Bayle...

wickedness

wickedness   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
98 words

...by wickedness, which in some moral systems is universal ( see original sin ), and in others at least occasional. Wickedness is often assimilated to loss of control ( see akrasia ), the idea being that full control would put reason back in charge of any unruly or base passions. A 20th-century reversal of this, with roots in de Sade and Nietzsche , romantically elevates the freedom that is supposed to come from deliberately flouting (transcending) normal ethics, thought of as an external system of restraints on...

redefinition, high/low

redefinition, high/low   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
103 words

...high/low Term introduced by the 20th-century American philosopher Paul Edwards for the manoeuvre of redefining a term more or less tightly, so that an apparently false statement is made true if interpreted in the new way. A high redefinition tightens the criterion of application: ‘No, he wasn’t drunk—to be drunk you have to be really comatose, after all.’ A low redefinition relaxes it: ‘You were drunk—a single glass of wine impairs one’s faculties’. Edwards believed that philosophical disputes, e.g. over whether some process of forming belief...

casuistry

casuistry   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
122 words

... (Latin, casus , a case) The approach to ethical problems in which the circumstances of cases affect the application of general rules; a casuist is one who distinguishes and marshals the relevance of different cases and rules. The Resolutiones morales ( 1659 ) of the Spanish ‘prince of casuists’ Antonio Diana ( 1585–1683 ) discusses some 20,000 cases. The term is often used pejoratively, implying the multiplication of doubtful distinctions, and their use to defend apparently self-serving and conflicting moral verdicts. Casuistry as a discipline declined...

constitutive/regulative

constitutive/regulative   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
109 words

...in the antinomies of pure reason. Regulative principles are maxims of thought, deriving from our interest in ‘a certain possible perfection’ of knowledge of an object. Constitutive principles determine the way things must be, and derive from insight into their nature. When a maxim, such as everything must have a cause, is taken to apply constitutively and universally, antinomies develop. The distinction was taken over by the 20th-century American philosopher J. R. Searle , to describe the way rules (such as those of chess) may not only regulate the...

constructive empiricism

constructive empiricism   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
111 words

...empiricism A position in the philosophy of science associated with the 20th-century Canadian philosopher Bas van Fraassen ( The Scientific Image , 1980 ). Constructive empiricism divides science into observation statements and theory statements. It holds that the latter are capable of strict truth and falsity, but maintains that the appropriate attitude is not to believe them, but only to accept them at best as empirically adequate. It is often regarded as a variety of pragmatism or instrumentalism , although more orthodox varieties of those...

Barcan formula

Barcan formula   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
154 words

...formula A fundamental thesis in quantified modal logic, first isolated by the 20th-century American philosopher Ruth Barcan Marcus . It was originally the schema that ◊(∃ x )A x strictly implies (∃ x )◊A x (informally: if possibly something is A, then something is possibly A). Adding this to a standard modal logic is equivalent to adding ◊(∃ x )A x → (∃ x )◊A x or (∀ x )□ F x → □(∀ x )F x , and either of these may be called the Barcan formula. Informally the latter means that if everything is necessarily F, then necessarily everything is F. The...

relative identity

relative identity   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
133 words

...identity The view advocated by the 20th-century English philosopher Peter Geach according to which the identity statement ‘ a = b ’ needs interpreting as ‘ a is the same F as b ’ where F is a kind-term or sortal . The clearest motivation for this view would be if different choices of sortal produce different identity statements with different truth-values. Thus if a denotes a statue at an early time, and b a statue at a later time, it may be that a is the same mass of clay as b , but not the same statue. However, it may also be that the...

fascism

fascism   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
114 words

...in the early 20th-century governments of Mussolini in Italy, Hitler in Germany, and General Franco in Spain. Elements include nationalism; hostility to ideals of equality; hatred of minorities, degenerates, and deviants; élitism; hostility towards the ideals of liberalism , and in particular towards freedom of expression; the cult of the charismatic leader or Übermensch ; belief in the destiny of the race; and a love of political symbolism such as uniforms and other emblems of militarism. The whole cocktail is animated by a belief in...

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