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Overview

7-20-8

(1907), a “comedy of to‐day” by Augustin Daly. [Daly's Theatre, 49 perf.] Portrait of a Lady, picture #728 at the annual Academy exhibition, so lovingly depicts a beautiful woman ...

Chinese Americans

Chinese Americans   Reference library

Xiao-huang Yin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...versus 8.1 percent. This is especially true of PRC immigrants. A study in 2000 revealed that 30 percent of the families in New York City’s Chinatown, which has the largest presence of PRC immigrants in America , lived below the poverty level. Similarly, 2010 statistics indicated that about 60 percent of Chinese Americans had a bachelor’s degree or higher, double the rate of the overall U.S. population. However, the percentage of Chinese Americans who had not completed high school was also larger than that of the rest of the population, 18.7 percent...

Multiracial and Multiethnic Americans

Multiracial and Multiethnic Americans   Reference library

G. Reginald Daniel and Josef Castañeda-Liles

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...who reported more than one race provided only two races in 2010 ; white and black was the largest multiple-race combination. An additional 8 percent of the “two or more race” population reported three races, and less than 1 percent reported four or more races. Nearly three-quarters of the “two or more race” population was composed of four groups: white and black (1.8 million, or 20 percent), white and “some other race” (1.7 million, or 19 percent), white and Asian (1.6 million, or 18 percent), and white and American Indian or Alaska Native (1.4 million, or 16...

Japanese Americans, Incarceration of

Japanese Americans, Incarceration of   Reference library

Christen Sasaki

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...and suburban neighborhoods. After a presidential commission in 1982 identified “race prejudice, war hysteria, and a failure of political leadership” as the underlying causes of the incarceration, Congress passed the Civil Liberties Act of 1988 , which awarded 81,974 individuals $20,000 each and apologized to them on behalf of the nation; President Ronald Reagan and George H. W. Bush also apologized. In 1999 a memorial to the ordeal of the Japanese Americans was approved for a small park near the Capitol in Washington, D.C . [ See also Asian Americans ; ...

Life Expectancy

Life Expectancy   Reference library

Michael R. Haines

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...In 1900 the e(0) for blacks was about 20 percent lower than that for whites, and their infant mortality rate was about 54 percent higher. The situation had been even worse around 1850 , when blacks, mostly slaves, had an estimated e(0) of 23—40 percent lower than that for whites—and an estimated infant mortality rate of about 350—61 percent higher than that for whites. Although between 1850 and 1900 the absolute differences in the infant mortality rate between blacks and whites had narrowed to about 8 infant deaths per 1,000 live births, the...

Sports, Professional

Sports, Professional   Reference library

Steven A. Riess

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...player earned about $7,500. During the 1930 s, rosters began to include noticeable numbers of second-generation eastern and southern Europeans, including Hank Greenberg , whose parents were Jews born in Romania , and Joe DiMaggio , whose parents were born in Italy . Baseball took another big step in 1947 when Jackie Robinson debuted for the Brooklyn Dodgers, thus beginning the integration of baseball. The black proportion of major leaguers peaked in 1975 at 27 percent, falling to 8.5 percent by 2011 . In 2011 , 27.7 percent of major leaguers...

Poverty

Poverty   Reference library

Michael B. Katz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...War II, became less common as economic growth and trade unions fueled rising wages. By the 1980 s, however, as real wages declined, their numbers had started to grow once again. Among families with children and an unemployed household head, the poverty rate rose by nearly half—7.7 percent to 11.4 percent—from 1977 to 1993 . In the late twentieth century, chronic joblessness also became a new and widespread source of poverty. As manufacturing disappeared from cities, many people found themselves more or less permanently out of the regular labor force, a...

Women Workers

Women Workers   Reference library

Lara Vapnek

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...as well as a changing social climate, opened up new avenues of professional achievement to women. From 1960 to 2000 , women went from 3.5 percent of all attorneys to 29.7 percent. Women in the medical profession showed a similar increase, rising from 6.8 percent in 1960 to 27.9 percent in 2000 . Among college professors and instructors, women increased from 19 percent in 1960 to 43.7 percent in 2000 . Wage work for married mothers became the norm: in 1970 about four out of ten mothers with children under age eighteen worked; by 2000 the proportion...

Slave Trades

Slave Trades   Reference library

Gwendolyn Midlo Hall, Rebecca L. Hall, and Sheri M. Shuck-Hall

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Spanish rule, Africans labeled as being from “Senegambia” constituted 30.3 percent and those from “ Sierra Leone ” constituted 20.8 percent, for a total of 51.1 percent from Greater Senegambia. If slaves described as “ Guinea ” or “From the Coast of Guinea ” are excluded from the “ Sierra Leone ” category, the percentage of Africans from Sierra Leone drops to 6.7 percent. The result is a minimum of 37 percent (30.3 percent plus 6.7 percent) of Africans of identified ethnicities from Greater Senegambia in Spanish Louisiana . The large numbers of Greater...

An Overview

An Overview  

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

...Spanish rule, Africans labeled as being from “Senegambia” constituted 30.3 percent and those from “ Sierra Leone ” constituted 20.8 percent, for a total of 51.1 percent from Greater Senegambia. If slaves described as “ Guinea ” or “From the Coast of Guinea ” are excluded from the “ Si-erra Leone ” category, the percentage of Africans from Sierra Leone drops to 6.7 percent. The result is a minimum of 37 percent (30.3 percent plus 6.7 percent) of Africans of identified ethnicities from Greater Senegambia in Spanish Louisiana . The large numbers of Greater Se...

Military Personnel

Military Personnel   Reference library

Thomas Bruscino, John David Smith, Thomas Bruscino, Thomas Bruscino, and Thomas Bruscino

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...eleven slave states), the District of Columbia , Nova Scotia, Canada , Africa, and “unknown.” Collectively the men had plied forty-six trades and occupations. The most common profession was farmer (596), followed by laborer (74), waiter (50), cook (27), teamster (27), sailor (20), mason and plasterer (16), and hostler and shoemaker (9 each). The recruits had served in thirty-five other occupations, ranging from broom maker to glass grinder to confectioner. The men included 247 former slaves, 550 “pure blacks,” 430 men of “mixed blood,” 477 men who were...

Slavery

Slavery   Reference library

George R. Price, Lawrence A. Peskin, Kevin Thomas Harrell, Denise I. Bossy, Paul Conrad, Andrew K. Sturtevant, and Jeff Forret

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...in the colony. Since this accounting includes only those slaves who appeared in the colonial records, it almost certainly underestimates the actual number of slaves in New France . Native American slaves in the settlements in the Illinois Country accounted for between 10.8 and 16.7 percent of the total population at any one time. According to Daniel Usner , Native American slaves in Louisiana , where slaveholders had greater access to African slaves than people in New France had, declined from an estimated 29 percent of the population in 1708 to a...

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