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7-20-8

(1907), a “comedy of to‐day” by Augustin Daly. [Daly's Theatre, 49 perf.] Portrait of a Lady, picture #728 at the annual Academy exhibition, so lovingly depicts a beautiful woman ...

Group of Seven Conferences

Group of Seven Conferences   Reference library

Susan Ariel Aaronson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...and the Japanese surplus. Although the G7/G8 system evolved significantly over its first twenty-five years, it nevertheless lagged behind global economic and political changes. For example, the conferences neglected globalization's effects on national culture and law. Having traditionally delimited membership to democratic nations, the G8 increasingly faced criticism in the 1990s for excluding China, as well as other emerging markets, from membership. In 1999 , G8 countries arranged a Group of Twenty ( G20 ) system, intended to address this issue....

Education in Africa

Education in Africa   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,955 words
Illustration(s):
1

...79.8 Burkina Faso 26.6 Burundi 51.6 Cameroon 79 Cape Verde 76.6 Central African Republic 51 Chad 47.5 Comoros 56.5 Congo, Democratic Republic of the 65.5 Congo, Republic of the 83.8 Côte d'Ivoire 50.9 Djibouti 67.9 Egypt 57.7 Equatorial Guinea 85.7 Eritrea 58.6 Ethiopia 42.7 Gabon 63.2 Gambia, The 40.1 Ghana 74.8 Guinea 35.9 Guinea-Bissau 42.4 Kenya 85.1 Lesotho 84.8 Liberia 57.5 Libya 82.6 Madagascar 68.9 Malawi 62.7 Mali 46.4 Mauritania 41.7 Mauritius 85.6 Morocco 51.7 Mozambique 47.8 Namibia 84.0 Niger 17.6 Nigeria 68.0 Réunion 88.9 Rwanda 64.7 São Tomé...

Population Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa

Population Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...61.72 61.99 1.93 34.8 Burkina Faso 51.04 54.91 3.10 46.2 Burundi 51.02 53.01 3.27 46.2 Cameroon 52.89 54.52 2.19 40.9 Cape Verde 68.27 75.05 0.56 35.2 Central African Republic 44.4 44.54 1.49 40.9 Chad 46.67 48.77 2.06 46.7 Comoros 61.07 65.94 2.76 42.2 Congo, Democratic Republic of the 52.58 56.2 3.20 46.9 Congo, Republic of the 52.9 55.43 2.75 45.9 Côte d’Ivoire 54.64 56.28 2.13 40.6 Djibouti 41.89 44.89 1.90 43.3 Egypt 69.56 74.81 1.66 31.4 Equatorial Guinea 60.71 62.54 2.70 41.9 Eritrea 59.71 63.9 2.57 42.8 Ethiopia 52.92 57.97 3.20 46.1 Gabon 52.19...

Japanese Americans, Incarceration of

Japanese Americans, Incarceration of   Reference library

Roger Daniels

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...nationals,” were barred from immigrating to the United States. When Japanese military forces attacked Pearl Harbor and other American bases on 7 and 8 December 1941 , some 126,000 persons of Japanese ancestry or birth were living in the continental United States, all but a few thousand on the West Coast. According to plan, federal security authorities immediately interned some 11,000 enemy aliens, about 8,000 Japanese, 2,300 Germans, and a few hundred Italians. Although many if not most of those initially interned posed no threat to the United States,...

Biogeography of Africa

Biogeography of Africa   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,291 words
Illustration(s):
1

...patches of vegetation grow around oases or sprout after occasional torrential rains. In general, biological proliferation is an “event-driven” affair in arid regions. Life happens when rain falls. Sometimes deserts receive as little as 20 mm (1 in) of rain annually, and even semiarid regions seldom get more than 500 mm (20 in). Although aridity is typically accompanied by extremely high daytime temperatures, sometimes over 40° C (104° F), at night temperatures can drop precipitously, often to near 0° C (32° F). Mediterranean Because of the moderating effect...

Pearl Harbor, Attack on

Pearl Harbor, Attack on   Reference library

Donald M. Goldstein and Timothy J. Lynch

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...sabotage from among the sizable Japanese population the main threat in Hawai’i. On 7 December, Nagumo's force arrived 275 miles northwest of Oahu, and at 6:00 AM it launched the first attack wave, consisting of forty-nine bombers, forty torpedo planes, fifty-one dive-bombers, and forty-three fighter aircraft; this was followed by a second wave of fifty-four bombers, seventy-eight dive-bombers, and thirty-six fighters. The first wave arrived over Pearl Harbor at 7:55 AM (1:20 PM in Washington, D.C.), and the attack continued until 9:45 AM. Not until 11...

Rock Art, African

Rock Art, African   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...least 2000 b.c.e ., at the Cave of the Wild Boar near Dire Dawa, depicting large groups of herdsmen. In Tanzania, significant sites include Kisana, on the eastern rim of the Iramba plateau, and Ilongero, where thousands of images of wild animals cover a frieze 3 m (9 ft) high and 20 m (70 ft) long. In southern Africa, Malawi and Zambia are both rich in painting sites, though many have been continuously inhabited by local populations and therefore are inaccessible and subject to extensive rubbing and erosion. As in other regions, a few sites in Malawi and...

Burundi

Burundi   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,638 words
Illustration(s):
2

...In the most recent legislative elections, held in 2005 , the Conseil national pour la défense de la démocratie-Forces pour la défense de la démocratie (CNDD-FDD) won 58 percent of the vote, while the Burundi Democratic Front (FRODEBU) won 21.7 percent and the Unity for National Progress (UPRONA) party received 7.2 percent. Robert...

Lesotho

Lesotho   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,093 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Population Density: 61.7 persons per sq km (181.8 persons per sq mi) Population Below Age 15: 34.8 percent (male 373,159; female 368,271; 2009 estimate) Population Growth Rate: 0.116 percent ( 2009 estimate) Total Fertility Rate: 3.06 children born per woman ( 2009 estimate) Life Expectancy at Birth: total population:40.38 years (male 41.18 years; female 39.54 years; 2009 estimate)Infant Mortality Rate: 77.41 deaths per 1,000 live births ( 2009 estimate) literacy rate (age 15 and over who can read and write): Total population: 84.8 percent (male 74.5...

South Africa

South Africa   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
7,584 words
Illustration(s):
3

...Afrikaners had reached the point at which war appeared inevitable. In October 1899 the Afrikaner republics invaded British-held Natal and the Cape Colony. The South African War (often called the Boer War) took the lives of approximately 22,000 British and over 7,000 Afrikaner soldiers, as well as 20,000 to 25,000 Afrikaner civilians. But the war between whites also took a huge toll on black Africans. Both sides relied on black soldiers and laborers, and some 100,000 blacks were interned in British concentration camps, leaving over 10,000 dead. The British...

Ethiopia

Ethiopia   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
6,088 words
Illustration(s):
3

...Mortality Rate: 82.64 deaths per 1000 live births ( 2008 estimate) literacy rate (age 15 and over who can read and write): Total population: 42.7 percent (male 50.3 percent; female 35.1 percent; 2003 estimate) Education: Education is free and compulsory for children ages 7–13, but regular school facilities are not available to more than half the nation's school-age children. In the early 1990s about 2.8 million students attended primary and secondary schools run by the government and religious groups. In 2000 , 47 percent of school-age children...

Malawi

Malawi   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,423 words
Illustration(s):
2

...estimate) Population Below Age 15: 45.8 percent (male 3,272,790; female 3,258,893; 2009 estimates) Population Growth Rate: 2.388 percent (2009 estimate) Total Fertility Rate: 5.59 children born per woman (2009 estimate) Life Expectancy at Birth: Total population: 43.82 years (male 44.07 years; female 43.57 years; 2009 estimates) Infant Mortality Rate: 89.05 deaths per 1,000 live births; 2009 estimate) literacy rate (age 15 and over who can read and write): Total population: 62.7 percent (male 76.1 percent; female 49.8 percent; 2003 estimates) Education:...

Namibia

Namibia   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,822 words
Illustration(s):
2

...(mainly Lutheran), and about 10 to 20 percent adhere to indigenous beliefs. Climate: Namibia has a hot, dry, desert climate. Average rainfall ranges from 50 mm (about 2 in) in the Namib Desert along the coast to about 560 mm (about 22 in) in the north. Average temperatures in Windhoek vary from 17˚ C (63˚ F) in January to 6˚ C (43˚ F) in July. Land, Plants, and Animals: Namibia is located mostly on a high plateau, with the Namib Desert along the coast and the Kalahari Desert in the east; its highest point is about 2,606 m (8,550 ft) in elevation. Vegetation is...

Urbanism and Urbanization in Africa

Urbanism and Urbanization in Africa (1945)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,814 words
Illustration(s):
1

...urban areas by 2030, governments must make infrastructure, employment, and safety the focus of future plans. 20 Largest Cities in Africa Population in Thousands Country Lagos 9733.8 Nigeria Kinshasa 9518.9 Democratic Republic of Congo Cairo 8026.4 Egypt Ibadan 5003.7 Nigeria Alexandria 4317.3 Egypt Abidjan 4011.2 Ivory Coast Cape Town 3569.3 South Africa Durban 3409.0 South Africa al-Jizah (Gizeh) 3347.3 Egypt Casablanca 3269.9 Morocco Addis Ababa 3230.7 Ethiopia Nairobi 3141.0 Kenya Dar es Salaam 3092.4 Tanzania Luanda 2583.9 Angola Dakar 2535.4 Senegal Umm...

Swaziland

Swaziland   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,991 words
Illustration(s):
1

...products) and forestry for its exports, while subsistence farming and cattle ranching account for most of its domestic economic base. Swaziland’s other major, hidden export continues to be labor—it is estimated that remittance from Swazi mineworkers in South Africa adds as much as 20 percent to Swaziland’s GDP. The spread of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ( AIDS ) represents another major domestic crisis, with some rural areas reporting an infection rate as high as 50 percent. In 1993 Mswati III called for Swaziland’s first general election in twenty...

Cameroon

Cameroon   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,365 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Bantu (19 percent); some 200 other ethnic groups are represented in the remaining population, of which 11 percent are Kirdi, 10 percent Fulani, 8 percent Northwestern Bantu, 7 percent Eastern Nigritic, and less than 1 percent non-African. The remaining 13 percent are from other African ethnic groups. Religions: About 40 percent of the population adheres to indigenous beliefs; about 40 percent are Christian, and about 20 percent are Muslim. Climate: Tropical near the coast, dry inland. Average annual rainfall is about 4,060 mm (about 160 in) along the coast;...

Cape Verde

Cape Verde   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,755 words
Illustration(s):
1

...all of the remainder are of African ancestry. Religions: Roman Catholicism is the dominant religion, but is often fused with indigenous beliefs. Climate: Tropical and dry, showing little variation throughout the year. The average temperature in Praia, the capital, ranges from 20ů to 25ů C (68ů to 77ů F) in January and 24ů to 28ů C (75ů to 83ů F) in July. Winds are frequent, occasionally carrying clouds of sand from the Sahara in Africa to the east. Precipitation is slight and irregular, and the islands are subject to drought. Average precipitation in Praia...

Senegal

Senegal   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
4,460 words
Illustration(s):
2

...of six and twelve, but only 75.8 percent of primary and 26.5 percent of middle-school-aged children attended school in the late 1980s, and only 11 percent of secondary-school-aged children attended school. Languages: French is the official language. Almost half the population also speaks Wolof, the most widely understood of the African languages, but Pulaar, Jola, and Mandinka are also spoken. Ethnic Groups: 43.3 percent of the population are Wolof. Other ethnic groups are the Pular 23.8 percent, Serer 14.7 percent, Jola 3.7 percent, Soninke 1.1 percent,...

Sudan

Sudan   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
4,911 words
Illustration(s):
2

...42 persons per sq mi) Population Below Age 15: 40.7 percent (male 8,535,551; female 8,173,616; 2009 estimate) Population Growth Rate: 2.143 percent ( 2009 estimate) Total Fertility Rate: 4.48 children born per woman ( 2009 estimate) Life Expectancy at Birth: Total population: 51.42 years (male 50.49 years; female 52.4 years; 2009 estimate) Infant Mortality: 82.43 deaths per 1,000 live births ( 2009 estimate) literacy rate (age 15 and over who can read and write): Total population: 61.1 percent (male 71.8 percent; female 50.5 percent; 2003 estimate)...

World War II

World War II (1939–1945)   Reference library

Donald Cameron Watt, Mark A. Stoler, William L. O’Neill, Michael S. Sherry, Justus D. Doenecke, and Timothy J. Lynch

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...and communications gave the Japanese total strategic and tactical surprise in their attack on Pearl Harbor ; only the absent aircraft carriers, vital to America's naval victories later in 1942 , escaped destruction. President Roosevelt declared 7 December a “day of infamy,” and Congress declared war on Japan on 8 December 1941 . On 11 December, under the Tripartite Pact, Hitler's Germany and Mussolini's Italy declared war on the United States. The two separate conflicts had become one global war. [ See also Conscientious Objection ; Conscription ; Hull,...

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