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7-20-8

(1907), a “comedy of to‐day” by Augustin Daly. [Daly's Theatre, 49 perf.] Portrait of a Lady, picture #728 at the annual Academy exhibition, so lovingly depicts a beautiful woman ...

30 The History of the Book in Austria

30 The History of the Book in Austria   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

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Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
1,528 words
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Oxford University Press
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...came into being in 1955 . Today Austria’s population is c .8.2 million, of whom 1.6 million live in Vienna. 2 Early history In the Middle Ages, book culture flourished in such monasteries as Salzburg (then belonging to Bavaria) and *Kremsmünster , both 8 th -century foundations, and later at Admont, St Florian, and elsewhere. In 1500 , the population of the area corresponding to present-day Austria was about 1.5 million. Vienna had c .20,000 inhabitants, Schwaz 15,000, Salzburg 8,000, Graz 7,000, Steyr 6,000, and Innsbruck 5,000. At that date, Vienna’s...

7 The Book as Symbol

7 The Book as Symbol   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

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2010
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History, Social sciences
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1,981 words
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...the Cultural Revolution in 1969 —the Little Red Book gained its value largely from its status as a political icon. Even as the book is demystified and deconsecrated in the modern world, its symbolic value endures. ( See also 2 , 8 , 38 .) Bibliography H. Amory , ‘The Trout and the Milk: An Ethnobibliographical Talk’, HLB NS 7 (1996), 50–65 E. R. Curtius , European Literature and the Latin Middle Ages (1953) J. Milton , Areopagitica ...

17 Bookbinding

17 Bookbinding   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

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2010
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History, Social sciences
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5,252 words
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...experimentation with the possibilities of bookbinding as an art form. Nineteenth- and 20 th -century bookbindings commonly have decoration on their covers or dust jackets that reflects the content of the book. This is a modern development; throughout the medieval and hand press periods, bookbinding decoration was normally abstract, with no attempt to use designs to represent content. There are exceptions, but they are very few in proportion to the bulk of what was produced. 8 The bookbinding trade Bookbinding was generally carried out as a professional activity...

12 The Economics of Print

12 The Economics of Print   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

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Current Version:
2010
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History, Social sciences
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7,040 words
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...Company and early institutional structures of the British book trade 3 The origins of legal copyright 4 Nineteenth-century economic history and innovations in the book trade 5 Reducing the cost of paper 6 Mechanization of printing 7 The wages of compositors and cost of composition 8 Types of publishing firm 9 The 20 th century 1 The economic value of a book Four essential factors determine the economic value of a book: its worth as literary property, the cost of its manufacture, regulatory and institutional controls, and its price in the market. The...

36 The History of the Book in the Balkans

36 The History of the Book in the Balkans   Reference library

Aleksandra B. Vraneš

The Oxford Companion to the Book

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2010
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3,947 words
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...History of the Book in the Balkans Ekaterina Rogatchevskaia and Aleksandra B. Vraneš 1 Balkan geography 2 South Slavonic MSS and the beginning of printing 3 Bulgaria 4 Serbia 5 Montenegro 6 Macedonia 7 Bosnia and Herzegovina 8 Croatia 9 Slovenia 10 Albania 11 Romania 12 The socialist and post-socialist eras 1 Balkan geography The Balkans, the region in the southeast of Europe, is geographically bounded by the rivers Sava and Danube in the north; the Mediterranean in the south; the Black Sea, the Sea of Marmara, and the Aegean Sea in the east...

1 Writing Systems

1 Writing Systems   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

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2010
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...and thence to Southeast Asia. By the 20 th century, as a consequence of colonial empires, most of the world’s peoples except the Chinese and Japanese were writing in alphabetic scripts. These employ on average between 20 and 40 basic signs; the smallest, Rotokas, used in Papua New Guinea, has 12 letters, the largest, Khmer, used in Cambodia, has 74 letters. The western alphabetic link between the Greeks and the Romans was Etruscan—as is clear from the early Greek letter-forms inscribed on Etruscan objects dating from the 7 th century bc , which were then...

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

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2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
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6,807 words
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...as provider of Spanish-language books: by 2005 it produced 39.7 per cent of all Spanish books sold in Latin America, whereas Spanish-American countries accounted for 40.2 per cent of sales. The biggest Latin American publishers of books in Spanish continued to be Argentina (27.1 per cent), Mexico (19 per cent), and Colombia (16.3 per cent), followed by Peru (6.1 per cent), Venezuela (5.9 per cent), Chile (5.6 per cent), Ecuador (4.3 per cent), Costa Rica (3.8 per cent), and Cuba (2.8 per cent) (SIER). Given that school textbooks were still dominant—with...

24 The History of the Book in Germany

24 The History of the Book in Germany   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

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2010
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History, Social sciences
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10,033 words
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...History of the Book in Germany John L. Flood 1 Introduction 2 The Middle Ages 3 The 15 th century 4 The 16 th century 5 The 17 th century 6 The 18 th century 7 The 19 th century 8 The 20 th century 1 Introduction Historically, ‘Germany’ is difficult to define in geographical and political terms. The Roman province of Germania covered only the southern part of what we now call Germany; the area north and east of the Danube, Main, and Rhine was never part of the Roman empire. Whereas around 1200 Germany was thought of as extending ‘from the...

33 The History of the Book in Poland

33 The History of the Book in Poland   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

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2010
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4,081 words
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...a printing office for the Polish Socialist Party in London. 7 The 20 th century When Poland regained independence in 1918 , printing, publishing, and cultural life were reinvigorated, but many obstacles remained for the development of reading and book culture. Literacy levels were low ( c .33 per cent in 1921 ) and book prices were high. There were approximately 500 publishers in Poland in 1935 ; overall production in terms of titles had nearly trebled from c .3,000 (early 20 th century) to c .8,700 ( 1938 ). Gebethner & Wolff remained the giants of...

40 The History of the Book in China

40 The History of the Book in China   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

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2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
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8,923 words
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...History of the Book in China J. S. Edgren 1 The book before paper and printing 2 Tang to Yuan (7 th –14 th centuries) 3 Ming to Qing (14 th –19 th centuries) 4 The 20 th century 1 The book before paper and printing Although the early invention of true paper (2 nd century bc ) and of textual printing (late 7 th century) by *woodblock printing profoundly influenced the development of the book in China, the materials and manufacture of books before paper and before printing also left some traces. Preceding the availability of paper as a writing...

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

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2010
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History, Social sciences
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13,110 words
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...divine revelation and redemption 3 Arabic scribal culture and its legacy 4 Physical aspects of the Muslim MS book 5 The Muslim MS book beyond the Arab world 6 The longevity of the Muslim MS tradition 7 The origins of printing in the Arabic script 8 Arabic-script book printing in the Muslim world 9 Printing the Qur’ān 10 Muslim book culture in the 20 th and 21 st centuries 1 The origins of the Arabic book Arabic is a Semitic language akin to Hebrew and Aramaic. The *Arabic script developed from that of ancient Nabataean Aramaic, and reached only a...

20b The History of the Book in Britain, 1801–1914

20b The History of the Book in Britain, 1801–1914   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

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2010
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History, Social sciences
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5,058 words
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...19 th century, although literary writing was already growing fast. Bibles, tracts, and commentaries made up some 20 per cent of the books published between 1814 and 1846 . The second- and third-largest categories were almost equal: a catch-all, combining works on geography, *travel , history, and biography came in at 17 per cent, while fiction and juvenile literature measured about 16 per cent. A little over half of the latter category, 8.9 per cent or 3,180 entries over 32 years, constituted *novels , romances, and tales as distinct from moral tales...

44 The History of the Book in Australia

44 The History of the Book in Australia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

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2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
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6,048 words
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...to 350,000; South Australia from 63,000 to 126,000; Queensland from 8,000 to 30,000. Tasmania, however, flat-lined; the end of convict transportation in 1855 combined with the pull of the mainland goldfields to cancel out any population growth from free settlers. Universities, too, were being established—at Sydney ( 1851 ), Melbourne ( 1853 ), Adelaide ( 1874 ), and Tasmania ( 1890 )—although higher education remained the exclusive preserve of a tiny minority until well into the 20 th century, and university libraries were accordingly slow to develop....

18 Theories of Text, Editorial Theory, and Textual Criticism

18 Theories of Text, Editorial Theory, and Textual Criticism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

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2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
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5,963 words
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...audience tastes? These alternatives—variously prioritizing the author, the documentary witness, the sociological circumstances of production, or taste as a principle of authority—respond to different disciplinary and social sources and functions in the edition. For most of the 20 th century, literary scholarship, particularly in English, privileged the author and used bibliographical and critical processes in order to reach a putative authorial text hidden or corrupted by subsequent error. Historians, by contrast, have generally preferred *diplomatic...

6 The European Printing Revolution

6 The European Printing Revolution   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

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2010
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History, Social sciences
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6,082 words
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...Church and religious orders 6 New aspects 7 Distribution 8 The Venetian success 9 Loss and survival 10 The outlook now 1 Introduction Printing with movable *type , a European invention of the mid-15 th century, revolutionized the making and use of books. The innovative nature of the invention and its implications were felt and discussed from the 15 th century onwards; however, a comprehensive and systematic analysis of the phenomenon is largely a product of *book history as a distinct discipline. In the 20 th century, authors such as *McLuhan , ...

3 The Ancient Book

3 The Ancient Book   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

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2010
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...bound on to the head and arms ( tefellin ). The Bible also refers to seals and signet rings that go back to the 8 th century bc , and writing on ivory goes back to the same period, while the earliest fragments of the Bible (Num. 6:24–6) are found on two silver scrolls that date from slightly later. Inscribed stones with the teachings of Moses were displayed publicly (Josh. 8:32), and Ezekiel was commanded to write on pieces of wood (Ezek. 37:15–20). Baked clay ostraca were used for receipts, lists, tax records, and drafts. The *Dead Sea Scrolls , fragments...

10 Paper

10 Paper   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

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2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
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6,008 words
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...Daven Christopher Chamberlain 1 Introduction 2 Paper manufacture 3 Sheet structure 4 Watermarks 5 Surface characteristics 6 Other characteristics 7 Composition 8 Provenance 1 Introduction Paper is a sheet material consisting of overlapping vegetable fibres that bond together to form a compact mat. Its origin can be traced to China, where a court official named Cai Lun is said to have invented it c. ad 105 . Paper remained exclusive to the Middle East and East Asia until around 1151 , when there is evidence of its being made in Spain during...

16 The History of Illustration and its Technologies

16 The History of Illustration and its Technologies   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

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2010
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History, Social sciences
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5,930 words
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... of 1789 , in which both the text and the illustrations were etched in relief and coloured by hand. He followed this with several more ‘Illuminated Books’ before the turn of the century; later came two monumental achievements, produced by this method, Milton ( 1801–8 ) and Jerusalem ( 1804–20 ). Although Blake had disciples (notably Samuel *Palmer ), he created no school of illustration. His extraordinary and technically complex publications remain unrivalled and unchallenged, and his unique method of printmaking was rarely emulated. Turner and Constable,...

28 The History of the Book in Italy

28 The History of the Book in Italy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

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2010
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History, Social sciences
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10,068 words
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...History of the Book in Italy Neil Harris 1 Introduction 2 The introduction of printing 3 Venice 4 Aldus 5 An interlude with factors and causes 6 The 16 th century and the supremacy of Venice 7 The 17 th to the 19 th centuries: decline, revival, fall, renewal 8 The 20 th and 21 st centuries: two wars, Fascism, and after 1 Introduction Histories of the book in Italy, especially those assessing the impact of printing, often follow a predictable and all too conventional narrative pattern. They open with the German printers—who began publishing the...

35 The Slavonic Book in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus

35 The Slavonic Book in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

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2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,008 words
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...Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus Christine Thomas 1 Early East Slavonic MSS 2 The beginning of printing 3 Printing in 17 th -century Moscow 4 Belarusian and Ukrainian printing, 16 th –17 th centuries 5 Eighteenth-century Russia 6 Private printers in Russia 7 From 19 th -century Russia to World War I 8 Ukraine and Belarus within the Russian and the Austro-Hungarian empires 9 The Soviet Union 10 Post-communist Russia 11 Post-Soviet Belarus 12 Independent Ukraine 1 Early East Slavonic MSS There is no direct evidence of written documents from East Slavonic...

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