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7-20-8

(1907), a “comedy of to‐day” by Augustin Daly. [Daly's Theatre, 49 perf.] Portrait of a Lady, picture #728 at the annual Academy exhibition, so lovingly depicts a beautiful woman ...

cognitive feelings

cognitive feelings   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
3,133 words

...’. Psyche , 7, http://psyche.cs.monash.edu.au/v7/psyche-7-18-mangan.html Norman, E. (2002). ‘ Subcategories of “fringe consciousness” and their related nonconscious contexts ’. Psyche , 8. http://psyche.cs.monash.edu.au/v8/psyche-8-15-norman.html ——,  Price, M. C. , and Duff, S. C. (2006). ‘ Fringe consciousness in sequence learning: the influence of individual differences ’. Consciousness and Cognition , 15. Price, M. C. (2002). ‘ Measuring the fringes of consciousness ’. Psyche , 8, http://psyche.cs.monash.edu.au/v8/psyche-8-16-price.html...

art and visual abstraction

art and visual abstraction   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
3,613 words
Illustration(s):
6

...is abstracted into linear contours similar to b. Fig. 2. Contoured representations of the human body from the 13th and the 20th centuries. The examples show opposite contrasts: black on white ( a ) and white on black ( b ). a. Medieval drawing of a sitting man in Villard d'Honnecourt's sketch-book ( c. 1230). It is limited mainly to the body contour with a few added lines indicating muscles and ribs. Pen on parchment. Left side, 14 × 7 cm of a 14 × 22 cm page. b. Modern contoured print by Matisse in white lines on black background (1944). It shows the...

correlates of consciousness, computational

correlates of consciousness, computational   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,676 words

...that are manipulated by such processes. 1. Organization of computational theories 2. Stability 3. Strength and ‘fame in the brain’ 4. Re‐entrant processing and adaptive resonance 5. Synchrony and gamma oscillations 6. Global availability 7. Information integration and differentiation 8. Meta‐representation 9. Conclusion 1. Organization of computational theories Computational theories of consciousnesscan be organized along two dimensions (see Atkinson et al. 2000 ): (1) A process vs representation dimension, which contrasts theories...

calculating geniuses

calculating geniuses   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,489 words

...remainder 14. And even into 14,027 is 609 with remainder 20. And so on like that. Also, before I even start this … I know that there is a recurring period of sixty-six places. He was asked to multiply 123 by 456, and gave the answer after a pause of two seconds. He then commented as follows: I see at once that 123 times 450 is 55,350, and that 123 times 6 is 738; I hardly have to think. Then 55,350 plus 738 gives 56,088. Even at the moment of registering 56,088, I have checked it by dividing by 8, so 7,011, and this by 9 gives 779, I recognize 779 as 41 by 19....

neurotransmitters and neuromodulators

neurotransmitters and neuromodulators   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
8,888 words
Illustration(s):
16

...IP, inositol triphosphate second messenger; PDE, phosphodiesterase, which inactivates cyclic GMP. Adapted from Fig 2 in Holscher (1997). Adapted from fig. 2 in C. Holscher, ‘Nitric oxide, the enigmatic neuronal messenger: its role in synaptic plasticity’. Trends in Neuroscience 20(7) (1995). The second observation, in the 1980s and 1990s, which was to throw light on the mechanism of retrograde synaptic action, and the mechanism of LTP, was the finding that at least two gases are working as neurotransmitters, namely nitric oxide and carbon monoxide. The latter...

brain development

brain development   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
6,208 words
Illustration(s):
5

...for learning meanings from other people 2. What brain science can and cannot explain 3. Discovery of how neurons link up to make mental activity 4. Reflexes, motives, and consciousness: what develops? 5. The embryo brain (conception to 8 weeks) 6. The fetal brain (8 to 40 weeks) 7. The newborn infant's brain 8. Age-related changes in functions of cortex in different lobes of the hemispheres 9. How language and other meanings fit in: a brain with personality and for all cultures 1. The human brain: adapted for learning meanings from other people...

cruelty

cruelty   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,233 words

...work: the kill success rate for the wolves on Isle Royale in Lake Superior is under 5 per cent, and the meat yield is 4 kg of meat per wolf per day; for the Gombe chimpanzees, hunting is nutritionally uneconomic: a 1 kg baby monkey is the typical yield for a hunting party of up to 20, so that the effort expended ‘is enormously costly relative to the quantity of meat that is usually available’ (Stanford 1999 : 97). The costs of hunting (nutritional killing by hominids) in hunter–gatherer societies is equally high: among the Dobe !Kung, 10 hunter-hours yield...

neuronal global workspace

neuronal global workspace   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,770 words
Illustration(s):
1

...dendritic trees, and very long axons are denser in some areas than in others. In all primates, prefrontal, cingulate, and parietal cortices, together with the superior temporal sulcus, are closely interlinked by a dense network of long‐distance connections. At the beginning of the 20th century, Von Economo already noted that these regions are characterized by a thick layer of large pyramidal cells, particularly in cortical layers II and III, that send and receive long‐distance projections, including through the corpus callosum. From these observations,...

children's understanding of the physical world

children's understanding of the physical world   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,843 words
Illustration(s):
1

...focus of much experimental interest and debate is the issue of object permanence; namely an appreciation that solid objects continue to exist in the absence of observation. In one of his famous observations, Piaget ( 1952 ) noted that, when a toy was covered, infants up to about 78 months behaved as if it no longer existed. He interpreted this as evidence for a limited understanding of object permanence. When the toy disappeared, the infant who was not able to form a representation of the toy treated it as if it no longer existed. This is captured in his...

phrenology

phrenology   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,742 words
Illustration(s):
2

...of Gall, with additions by Spurzheim and Combe, were: 1. Amativeness2. Philoprogenitiveness3. Concentrativeness4. Adhesiveness5. Combativeness6. Destructiveness6a. Alimentiveness7. Secretiveness8. Acquisitiveness9. Constructiveness10. Self-esteem11. Love of approbation12. Cautiousness13. Benevolence14. Veneration15. Conscientiousness16. Firmness17. Hope18. Wonder19. Ideality20. Wit21. Imitation22. Individuality23. Form24. Size25. Weight26. Colour27. Locality28. Number29. Order30. Eventuality31. Time32. Tune33. Language34. Comparison35. Causality (Published...

astrology

astrology   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,735 words

...attention. It was Krafft who, in a letter of 2 November 1939 (to a member of Himmler's Secret Intelligence Service), predicted that Hitler's life would be in danger between the 7th and 10th of the month—he specifically mentioned ‘assassination by explosive material’. When Hitler narrowly escaped death in the Munich beer cellar—he had just left when the bomb exploded— on 8 November 1939 , Krafft's prediction was remembered and he was brought to Berlin. For a while he became a kind of semi-official astrologer to Himmler, but soon fell out of favour, and...

metaphor

metaphor   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,366 words

...is the evidence that such young children are unable to understand metaphors. Estimates of the age at which children begin to understand metaphors properly vary considerably. Some investigators claim that it is not until early adolescence, while others claim that by the age of 7 or 8 many children can deal with metaphors. The variations in these estimates are the result of several factors, the principal ones being fluctuating and often rather atheoretical criteria for what is to count as a metaphor, and for what is to count as evidence of its comprehension....

perception, philosophical perspectives

perception, philosophical perspectives   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
5,005 words

...the precise relationship between phenomenal character and representation and whether the former can be explained solely in terms of the latter. Section 8 elaborates on this issue. 1. Perception, sensation, and belief 2. Unconscious perception 3. The common‐kind view and the causal theory of perception 4. Disjunctivism 5. Empirically informed direct realist views 6. Sense‐datum theory 7. Adverbialism 8. Representational theories 1. Perception, sensation, and belief Traditionally, philosophers have contrasted perception with sensation. Perception was...

neuroanatomical techniques

neuroanatomical techniques   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,826 words
Illustration(s):
9

...value to medicine. (For further discussion see dopamine neurons in the brain .) Fig. 7. a. Fluorescence in the septum of the rat brain after treating the tissue with formaldehyde. Both adrenaline and noradrenaline fluoresce. b. The same region from a different brain treated to make the fluorescence specific for a different transmitter, dopamine. The arrows show that the transmitter is concentrated round cell bodies. From fig. 4 Hokflet and Ljumgdahl Fig. 8. Immunofluorescence in the substantia nigra of a rat brain after incubating the tissue with...

illusions

illusions   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
8,247 words
Illustration(s):
23

...perception. Related brain processes are beginning to be discovered. We may say that rival perceptual hypotheses are entertained in turn, when the brain can't make up its mind. The most famous is the Necker Cube (Fig. 7 a ). A Necker Cube drawn with perspective (Fig. 7 b ) will stay longer in the orientation of its perspective depth. Fig. 8b. Inkblots. Inkblots can be seen as almost anything, with slowly changing perceptual hypotheses projecting meaning. Perhaps these are truly minimal art—where the viewer does more work than the artist. A three-dimensional...

infancy, mind in

infancy, mind in   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
6,170 words
Illustration(s):
5

...and philosophers 2. Newborn intelligence 3. Imitating to share 4. Protoconversions in ‘primary intersubjectivity’ 5. Chasing and manipulating objects; playing games; sharing songs 6. Gaining a sense of self, and awareness of meaning in cooperation 7. The pride and shame of a social identity 8. Beginning to speak: the end of infancy 9. A mind adapted for human society and for cultural learning 1. The baby and philosophers Theories of human mental life offer very different descriptions of the intelligence of infants. Empiricists, who tend to be...

consciousness, modern scientific study of

consciousness, modern scientific study of   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
4,955 words

...modern scientific study of Consciousness has elicited interest amongst philosophers, theologians, and scientists through the ages and across cultures, but the scientific study of consciousness is a relatively recent phenomenon. After a burst of sustained interest during the early 20th century, initiated by William James and, later, by the introspectionist movement, behaviourism brought with it a period of stagnancy in the study of consciousness. Scientific interest in consciousness was rekindled in the 1960s and 1970s, in part due to the influence of the...

psychology and the study of consciousness

psychology and the study of consciousness   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
3,641 words

... Parallel Distributed Processing , Vol. 2. Titchener, E. B. (1898). ‘ The postulates of a structural psychology ’. Philosophical Review , 7. Tulving, E. (1985). ‘ Memory and consciousness ’. Canadian Psychology , 26. Velmans, M. (1991). ‘ Is human information processing conscious? ’ Behavioral and Brain Sciences , 14. Watson, J. B. (1913/1994). ‘ Psychology as the behaviorist views it ’. Psychological Review , 20. Wundt, W. (1896/1907). Outline of Psychology , transl. C. H....

delirium

delirium   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
3,455 words
Illustration(s):
2

...in a woman of 60 years of age. EEG shows bilaterally synchronous frontally predominant 2 c/s runs of delta activity. The EEG returned to normal after recovery. By permission of the author. Senile dementia in a woman of 80 years of age. EEG shows dominant posterior rhythm at 78 c/s associated with irregular theta components, and eye movement artefacts in anteriorly recording channels. Despite advanced dementia, the EEG abnormality is slight. By permission of the author. 1. Related disorders The stages of delirium in which the patient is disoriented,...

philosophy and the study of consciousness

philosophy and the study of consciousness   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
6,248 words

...initiates the action occurs prior to that conscious volition. Libet has also shown that even though subjects' conscious experiences of somatosensory stimulation can occur as much as 500 ms later than the actual stimulation, subjects experience them as occurring earlier, within 10–20 ms of the actual stimulus. The best explanation of these striking results is that volitions and bodily sensations are distinct from, and may occur at a different time from, the events of being conscious of those volitions and sensations. Our common‐sense test for somebody's being...

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