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7-20-8

(1907), a “comedy of to‐day” by Augustin Daly. [Daly's Theatre, 49 perf.] Portrait of a Lady, picture #728 at the annual Academy exhibition, so lovingly depicts a beautiful woman ...

aspect ratio

aspect ratio  

Of a fin or wing, the ratio of length to width. A high-aspect-ratio fin or wing tends to be long and thin, producing a high lift- or thrust-to-drag ratio.
academies

academies  

Are societies or institutions for the cultivation and promotion of literature, the arts or science, or of some particular branch of science such as medicine, for example, the Académie de ...
abortion

abortion  

There is no actual prohibition in the Bible against aborting a foetus. Nevertheless, in the unanimously accepted Jewish consensus, abortion is a very serious offence, though foeticide is not treated ...
Darwinism

Darwinism  

The theory of evolution by natural selection, often used incorrectly as a synonym for the theory of evolution itself. The term ‘neo-Darwinism’ is often used to denote the ‘new synthesis’ (i.e. ...
television

television  

1. An electronic technology enabling the encoding and decoding of ‘moving images’ and synchronized sounds, together with their unidirectional, instantaneous, long-distance transmission and reception ...
Charles Darwin

Charles Darwin  

(1809–82)British naturalist, who studied medicine in Edinburgh followed by theology at Cambridge University, intending a career in the Church. However, his interest in natural history led him to ...
suicide

suicide  

The act of intentionally ending one's own life. A suicide pact is an agreement between two (or more) people to commit suicide together. See also euthanasia.
Salvation

Salvation   Reference library

James W. Thompson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
4,749 words

...(cf. Rom 5:6 , 8 ; 14:15 ; 1 Cor 8:11 ; 2 Cor 5:14 ; Gal 2:20 ). This creedal statement suggests that the death of Christ has rescued believers from sin and its consequences. Paul holds the apocalyptic view that the present aeon is under the power of the interlocking forces of sin (cf. Rom 1:18–3:20 ; 5:12–21 ), the flesh ( Rom 7:5 ; 7–25 ; Gal 5:13–21 ), and death ( Rom 5:12–14 ; 6:9; 1 Cor 15:21 , 26 , 54–56 ) and assumes the presence of malevolent spirits that are hostile to God (cf. Rom 8:38 ; 1 Cor 2:6–8 ; 2 Cor 4:4 ; Gal ...

Romans

Romans   Reference library

Cilliers Breytenbach

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
3,212 words

...death (e.g., 1:3 ; 3:25 ; 4:25 ; 5:6 , 8 ; 8:3 , 32 ; 15:14 ) or resurrection ( 4:24 ; 8:11 ; 10:9 ) as bases for his argument. He made extensive use of Greek translations of the Hebrew scriptures, quoting key passages in support of the gospel he mediated (cf. Rom 1:17c ; 2:6 , 24 ; 3:4b , 10–18 ; 4:3 , 78 , 17a , 18b , 23 ; 7:7 ; 8:36 ; 9:7b , 9b , 12–13 , 15 , 17 , 20b , 25–29 , 33 ; 10:5–8 , 11 , 13 , 15b , 16b , 18–21 ; 11:2–4 , 8–10 , 26–27 , 34–35 ; 12:19–20 ; 13:9 ; 14:11 ; 15:3b , 9b–12 , 21 ). The...

Sin

Sin   Reference library

Marius Nel and Friedrich Wilhelm Horn

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
6,638 words

...), even against the emperor ( Acts 25:8 ), or public morals. Even though sinful deeds may be directed against sinners themselves ( 1 Cor 6:18 ), fellow humans ( 1 Cor 8:12 ), or public norms, it also violates the law-installing authority, i.e., first and foremost God ( Luke 15:18 ) and God’s Law ( Acts 25:8 ) or Christ ( 1 Cor 8:12 ). Sin has followed human beings since creation ( Rom 5:12 ), but is continually revived by resistance against the Law ( Rom 7:9 , 11 ), which, in turn, identifies sin as sin ( Rom 3:20 ). Often, sin is spoken of in...

Zechariah

Zechariah   Reference library

Jill Middlemas

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
2,734 words

...right and wrong ( Cook, 1995 , pp. 123–165). Brief allusions to an eschatological future in Haggai ( 2:20–23 ) are developed more fully in First Zechariah, such that the political and religious authorities are to work together to ensure the well-being of the community ( 6:13 ), Yahweh will bring the exiles back to Jerusalem ( 8:78 ), the nations will be included in the blessings of the new age ( 8:20–23 ), and morality is commended ( 7:8–10 ; 8:19 ). With its emphasis on realized eschatology, First Zechariah contributes to a discussion of biblical...

Formation

Formation   Reference library

James W. Thompson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
3,292 words

...( Exod 20:6 ; 33:19 ; 34:6–7 ). The legal demands are a response to the gracious God and a call for an ordered community that offers compassion both to fellow Israelites and to the stranger (cf. Exod 22:21–24 ; Lev 19:18 , 33 ). The Wisdom literature depicts human formation through the acquisition of the understanding given by God. The “fear of God is the beginning of wisdom” ( Prov 1:7 ; cf. 1:29 ), and the acquisition of wisdom results in the formation of character. Those who have wisdom keep the commandments (cf. 2:1 ; 6:20 ; 7:1 ; 10:8 ),...

Body and Embodiment

Body and Embodiment   Reference library

Jon L. Berquist

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
3,717 words

..., 20:29–34 ; Mark 8:22–26 , 10:46–52 ; Luke 18:35–43 ; John 9:1–12 ), hearing ( Mark 7:31–37 ), speech ( Matt 9:32–33 , 12:22 , 15:30–31 ; Luke 11:14 ), agility ( Matt 12:10 ; Mark 3:1–3 ; Luke 6:6–8 ), or mobility ( Matt 9:5 , 12:9–13 ; Mark 2:1–12 , 5:42 ; Luke 5:17–42 ; John 5:1–18 ), as well as a bleeding woman ( Matt 9:18–26 ; Mark 5:21–43 ; Luke 8:40–56 ) and lepers ( Matt 8:1–4 ; Mark 1:40–45 ; Luke 5:12–16 , 17:11–19 ). After Jesus, some of the disciples continued to perform similar healings ( Acts 3:6–8 , ...

Antinomianism

Antinomianism   Reference library

James D. G. Dunn

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
2,218 words

...in his dismissal of idolatry and condemnatory of sexual license ( porneia ) as any devoutly law-observant Jew ( 1 Cor 10:78 ; 1 Thess 4:3 ). And he did think the law multiplied sin and aroused sinful passions ( Rom 5:20 ; 7:5 ), but he went on to praise the law as “holy and just and good” ( 7:12 ) and to defend the law as both manipulated by the power of sin ( 7:7–25 ) and too weakened by the flesh to be effective without the Spirit ( 8:3–4 ). So Paul’s view of the law was much more nuanced than the gospel/law antithesis and the charge of antinomianism...

Casuistic Ethics

Casuistic Ethics   Reference library

Friedrich Wilhelm Horn

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
2,528 words

... 2:13—3:7 ) regulate the relationships between husband and wife, father and children, master and slaves. These codes are modeled upon traditional, Hellenistic economic norms, but are modified for Christian usage according to the principles of Christians being in the Lord and living in mutual love. Individual problems give rise to a casuistic formation of early Christian ethics, for example, issues such as incest ( 1 Cor 5:1–8 ), asceticism ( 1 Cor 7:1–7 ), celibacy ( 1 Cor 7:25–38 ; 1 Tim 4:3 ), various aspects of church conduct ( Matt 18:15–20 ; 2 Cor...

Law

Law   Reference library

Dale Patrick and William Loader

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
7,976 words

...back from Babylon by Ezra and introduced to the temple community in ceremony ( Neh 7:73—8:18 , cf. Ezra 7:6 , 25 ). The people celebrate the festival of Sukkoth (Booths) according to the specifications of Leviticus 23:39–43 . The date of this publication of the law book would fall between 404 and 358 b.c.e . Leviticus 18 and 20 can be paired: chapter 18 has addressed prohibitions against incest, supplemented by a few other forbidden unions, and chapter 20 specifies the death penalty for some of these and lesser consequences for others....

Cheating

Cheating   Reference library

Jacobus (Kobus) Kok

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
1,986 words

... onward), Paul makes it clear that his preaching is not motivated by selfish needs that would exploit and cheat the believer (cf. 1 Thess 2:5 ) (see Malherbe, 2006 , p. 37). Paul stressed the fact that it was never his intention to take advantage of anyone (cf. 2 Cor 7:2 ; 8:820 ; 12:17 ). In the deutero-Pauline letter to the Colossians, the believers are also warned against those who want to deceive them by false arguments, leading them away from the true path and sound teaching they have received from apostles (cf. paralogizomai in Col 2:4 ; ...

Elderly

Elderly   Reference library

Peter S. Perry

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
2,832 words

...decline in abilities. Reaching an old age is a sign of divine fulfillment and favor ( Isa 65:20 ; Eccl 11:78 ). Aging and death are expected parts of life ( Eccl 3:1–2 ; Sirach 41:2–3 ; cf. Deut 34: 7 ; Ps 90:10 ). Abraham “died in a good old age, an old man and full of years” ( Gen 25:8 ; cf. Job 5:26 ). This attitude allows an elder to openly face decline and eventual death with hope ( Ps 71:14 ; Job 19:26–27 ; Isa 51:2 ; cf. 2 Tim 4:6–8 ). For Paul, this hope is rooted in the revelation of God’s strength and wisdom hidden in the...

Friendship

Friendship   Reference library

John T. Fitzgerald

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
3,450 words

...Macc 8:9 ), who served as the king’s counselors ( 1 Esd 8:12 ) and political allies ( 1 Macc 10:19–20 ), and who were beneficiaries of the king’s largesse ( 1 Macc 2:18 ; 10:60 ; 4 Macc 8:5–6 ; 12:5 ). In addition, there are several examples of friendship formed between different nations and rulers ( 1 Macc 8:17 ; 9:35 ; 10:54 ; 11:33 ; 12:14 ; 14:18 , 22 ). References to friendship with God and with humans also occur. The Wisdom of Solomon links friendship with wisdom ( 8:18 ), so that wisdom is what makes possible friendship with God ( 7:14 , ...

Jesus Sirach

Jesus Sirach   Reference library

Eric Reymond

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
2,279 words

...nobility ( 11:1 ). In terms of financial matters, it is important to lend to one’s neighbors ( 29:1–7 , 14–20 ), though one should be cautious about lending to a social superior ( 8:12–13 ). He states that wealth acquired without recourse to unrighteous behavior is a good thing ( 13:24 ; 31:8–11 ), though in other passages he signals his wariness of mercantile activity ( 26:29–27 ), and, in general, a distrust of the pursuit of money for its own sake ( 31:1–7 ). In terms of relative worth, Ben Sira emphasizes health and well-being as superior to riches (...

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