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7-20-8

(1907), a “comedy of to‐day” by Augustin Daly. [Daly's Theatre, 49 perf.] Portrait of a Lady, picture #728 at the annual Academy exhibition, so lovingly depicts a beautiful woman ...

Capernaum

Capernaum   Reference library

Stefano De Luca

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
8,467 words
Illustration(s):
1

...where the crowd assembles and he meets with, heals, teaches, and debates them and privately instructs his disciples ( Mark 1:29–39 , 2:1–12 , 3:20–35 , 4:10–11 , 7:17–23 [cf. Matt 15:1–20 ], 9:33–37 ; Matt 8:14–17 , 9:1–18 , 12:46–50 , 13:36–43 , 18:1–5 ; Luke 4:38–43 , 5:17–26 , 8:9–10 , 8:19–21 , 9:46–48 ). Even if one recognizes an underdeveloped ecclesiological dimension in Mark, Mark 3:20–35 documents elements typical of a new core of believers, a new family of Jesus in the house of Simon and Andrew—set in opposition to those...

Feasting, Bronze and Iron Age

Feasting, Bronze and Iron Age   Reference library

Jacob L. Wright and Michael J. Chan

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
6,052 words

...of the Torah here, as in Nehemiah 8:13–18 , occupies the place assigned to the proclamation of monarchic decrees in state-sponsored festivals (see, however, m. Soṭah 7:8 ). The priestly festival laws ( Lev 23 , Num 28 –29) emphasize neither commensality nor assembly at the central place as Deuteronomy does. Instead, they take these features for granted and focus on more technical matters related to prohibitions, rituals, and sacrifices. (For additional [late] regulations on the festivals, see Exod 12:3–20 , 13:1–16 , 34:18–26 .) Nevertheless,...

Gender, Bronze and Iron Age

Gender, Bronze and Iron Age   Reference library

Mayer I. Gruber

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
4,502 words
Illustration(s):
1

...as well, in Leviticus 19:3 ; but here mother is placed before father. Disrespect for aging parents is a disaster that leads to the disintegration of society ( Micah 7:1–7 ). Inasmuch as both parents are inculcated in the cultural legacy of Israel, they are obligated to inculcate their children (see Deut 6:7 , 11:19 ), who receive instruction from both parents ( Prov 1:8 , 6:20 , 23:22–25 ). Deuteronomy 21:18–21 shows that mothers and fathers are together responsible for the proper upbringing of their children as both parents present a...

Mount Ebal

Mount Ebal   Reference library

Adam Zertal

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
2,269 words
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1

...m) lower than the upper face of the altar. The smaller, secondary ramp, which was connected to the main one, led to it. Two stone-paved courtyards constructed in front of the main building, measuring approximately 26.2 by 19.7 ft (8 by 6 m) each, contained several stone boxes. In all, some 100 or more little stone boxes, each ca. 20 by 20 inches (50 by 50 cm), were found scattered in the courtyards and around the altar. They were built in layers that indicate several stages of use. Different pots, above all jugs, were found inside most of them. The pots had...

Ashdod

Ashdod   Reference library

David Ben-Shlomo

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
3,957 words
Illustration(s):
2

...of Tel Ashdod is located in the industrial zone south of the modern city of Ashdod (3.7 miles [6 km] from the city), 2.8 miles (4.5 km) east of the shoreline, near one of the Nahal Lachish tributaries. Its ancient port was probably located in the nearby Tel Mor or Ashdod Yam. The identification of the tell as Ashdod is quite certain since the Arab village Isdud retained the name. The tell of Ashdod is about 84 to 89 acres (34 to 36 ha) in size, with an upper tell of 20 acres (8 ha); its elevation is 171 ft (52 m) above sea level, 49 ft (15 m) above its...

Masada

Masada   Reference library

Jürgen Zangenberg

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,329 words
Illustration(s):
2

...by Herod to plan this series of small palaces on the summit of Masada” (Netzer, 2006 , p. 27). Especially luxurious was the core of the Western Palace, with stuccoed guardrooms, a large courtyard, and opposite the entrance a vestibule (23 by 22 ft [7 by 6.7 m]) leading to a large reception hall (28.5 by 19.7 ft [8.7 by 6.0 m]). A “Greco–Jewish” bath complex with a mikvah and service rooms also belong to the mansion. Here, too, the walls were stuccoed with large, white panels imitating marble slabs. Although it remains unclear who exactly lived in these...

Infancy, Childhood, Adulthood, Old Age, Bronze and Iron Age

Infancy, Childhood, Adulthood, Old Age, Bronze and Iron Age   Reference library

Jennie Ebeling

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
9,760 words

... Exodus 38:8 , women served in the Tabernacle, and Miriam had a role in the cult of Yahweh ( Num 12:1–5 ). During the period of the monarchy, women were devotees of the Canaanite goddess Astarte ( Jer 7:16–20 , 44:15–19 ) and the Mesopotamian god Tammuz ( Ezek 8:14 ). Women could also be prophets: Deborah was a prophet as well as a judge, and other female prophets mentioned by the biblical writers include Huldah ( 2 Kgs 22:14 ) and Noadiah ( Neh 6:14 ). Women also served as musicians in public religious events ( 1 Chr 25:5–6 ). Nehemiah 7:67 and ...

Arad

Arad   Reference library

Zeאev Herzog

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
4,675 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Two carefully hewn limestone incense altars were found lying on their sides on the middle stair of stratum X, below the floor of stratum IX of the main hall. The altars differ in size: the base of the smaller is 8.7 by 7.9 inches (22 by 20 cm) and it is 15.7 inches (40 cm) high, while the larger is 12.2 by 11.4 inches (31 by 29 cm) at base and 20 inches (51 cm) high. Both altars had a top part separated from the base by a groove. A shallow depression was cut in the top surface, with remnants of organic material. Unlike many similar altars, those at Arad had...

Herodium

Herodium   Reference library

Jürgen K. Zangenberg

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,362 words
Illustration(s):
2

...fragments an 82 ft (25 m) high, monumental pillar with four segments was reconstructed: a podium with a square, 9.8 ft (3 m) vaulted room inside with a small opening from the east (the “hidden room”), then a 28 ft (8.5 m) square middle story of 19.7 ft (6 m) height and another square vault inside (“vaulted room”) of 14.8 ft (4.5 m), and finally a tholos (beehive-shaped structure) of 24.3 ft (7.4 m) diameter and 23.6 ft (7.2 m) height decorated with 18 columns sporting Ionic capitals and Attic bases and surrounding a third domed “upper room.”...

Cooking

Cooking   Reference library

Cynthia Shafer-Elliott

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
4,370 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of their Middle Bronze–Age predecessors but with some variations in size and an increasingly carinated shape. During the Late Bronze Age II, cooking pots added a folded-over, everted rim with a triangular flange. The diameter of the mouth averaged 9.8 to 15.7 in (25–40 cm) and the height 5.9 to 7.8 in (15–20 cm). Its open mouth, wide shape, and special cooking ware allowed the pot to be used for several types of cooking, including steaming, frying, simmering, and boiling. It served as well for cooking larger food items like meat and for serving larger groups...

Death and Burial, Bronze and Iron Age

Death and Burial, Bronze and Iron Age   Reference library

Elizabeth Bloch Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,612 words

...is evident in their veneration and designation as ע ělōhîm (“divinities”) (e.g., 1 Sam 28:13 , Isa 8:19 ) and qědôšîm (“holy ones”) ( Ps 16:3 ) with their consequent receipt of offerings and tithes ( Ps 16:3–4 , Deut 26:14 , Isa 57:7 ). Their presumed ability to help the living warranted attending to the dead. For example, the deceased Samuel and “ghosts and familiar spirits” of Isaiah foretold the future ( 1 Sam 28:15–19 , Isa 8:19–20 ). Elisha’s bones revived a dead man ( 2 Kgs 13:21 , a reprise of 2 Kgs 4:31–35 ). Necromancers, dōrēš ...

Household Religion, Hellenistic and Roman Period

Household Religion, Hellenistic and Roman Period   Reference library

Annette Weissenrieder

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,094 words
Illustration(s):
1

...78; Aulus Gellius, Noct. att. 6.1.2­–4; Cicero, Div. 1.36; Pliny, Nat. 7.122). A personal genius is never mentioned in these sources; instead of pinecones and eggs, wine, flowers, and olibanum (frankincense) are offered. Finally, snakes can appear as a manifestation of different gods. Realistic representations and allegories are shown as well as images of gods. Sometimes vicomagistri of the Compitalia cult appear between lares . Realistic scenes show processions; here, the divine can hardly be distinguished from the realistic (Pompeii IX.7.1,...

Puberty, Marriage, Sex, Reproduction, and Divorce, Bronze and Iron Age

Puberty, Marriage, Sex, Reproduction, and Divorce, Bronze and Iron Age   Reference library

Jennie Ebeling

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
8,817 words

...the work of an adult man. Leviticus 27:3–7 , which gives an estimate of the value of a male based on his age, offers some insight into the economic value of boys and men in ancient Israel. From age 5 to 20, a boy’s value is one-third or two-fifths of the value of an adult; between ages 20 and 60, a man’s value is that of an adult. The census in Numbers 1:3 indicates that men could take part in military activities at age 20, further supporting the idea that a male was considered an adult at age 20. Marriage. The biblical writers provide some details...

Shiloh

Shiloh   Reference library

Hayah Katz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
2,582 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of fieldstones laid directly on bedrock, was between 9.8 and 18 ft (3 and 5.5 m) thick and in Area D was preserved to a height of 21.9 ft (6.7 m). The glacis, which abutted the base of the wall, was 82 ft (25 m) wide at its lower part and 20.7 ft (6.3 m) wide next to the wall. At the center of the glacis, a wall was built to further stabilize it. Large boulders were laid at the edge of the glacis as an additional support measure. In Area F, a series of rooms whose walls were preserved to a height of 7.5 ft (2.3 m) was found adjacent to the wall. This...

Fortifications in the Bronze and Iron Age

Fortifications in the Bronze and Iron Age   Reference library

Kyle H. Keimer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,828 words

..., 22:15 , 25:7 ; Josh 20:4 ; Ruth 4:1–12 ; 2 Sam 19:8 ; 1 Kgs 22:10 ; Jer 36:10 , 38:7 ; Amos 5:10 ; Neh 8:1, 3 ). The gates at Lachish (stratum III) and Dan (stratum III) had inner and/or outer plazas lined with shops where economic transactions took place (cf. 1 Kgs 20:34 , 2 Kgs 7:1 ). Watering troughs appear in many gates (e.g., Gezer VIII), as does evidence for cultic activity such as standing stones, ritual vessels, and deposits of ashes and burnt animal bones (Dan III–II, Bethsaida 5; cf. 2 Kgs 23:8 ; Ezek 8:3 , 5 ; 16:24 , ...

Dan

Dan   Reference library

David Ilan

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,469 words
Illustration(s):
2

...the basins, the remains of meat sacrifices, dice ( urim and thumim ?); and many other artifacts all resonate in passages that refer to rituals and ritual paraphernalia in, for example, 1 Kings ( 6–7 ), Exodus ( 20:25 , 30:78 ), Amos ( 3:14 , 6:4–7 ), Isaiah ( 1:10–17 ), Jeremiah ( 17:26 ), Ezekiel ( 43 ), Deuteronomy ( 33:8 ), Leviticus ( 1–7 ), and Numbers ( 28 ). The Iron-Age destructions at Tel Dan are not always easy to pin down in terms of biblical history. For example, a literal reading of Judges 18 would suggest that the Late...

Aram-Damascus

Aram-Damascus   Reference library

K. Lawson Younger

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
4,541 words

...the patronym as (Hadad-)Ezer. Others have understood this Bar-Hadad to be a king of Aram (i.e., Arpad), reading the patronym as Attar-šumki. Hazael and empire. Between 845 and 842 b.c.e. , a usurper named Hazael became king of Aram-Damascus. An account is given in 2 Kings 8:7–15 , though the name of the king murdered by Hazael is Ben-Hadad, not Hadadezer (Adad-idri). Again, scholars are divided in dealing with this problem. Some doubt the historicity of the passage, seeing it as prophetic propaganda. Others accept the general veracity of the account but...

Ceramics Production, Bronze and Iron Age

Ceramics Production, Bronze and Iron Age   Reference library

Gloria Anne London

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
3,815 words

...meanings. For example, certain bowls and jugs, such as sîr and mizrachim ( Zech 14:20–21 ) or kiyyôrot and mizracot ( 1 Kgs 7:38, 40 ), were made both in metal and in clay. Two terms refer to smoky and sooty heating devices, of which kibšān ( Gen 19:28 ; Exod 9:8 , 9:10 , 19:18 ) is more appropriate for describing a kiln for firing pottery. In contrast, the tannûr ( Neh 3:11 , 12:38 ) was a stove or oven used to heat and cook food ( Lev 2:4 , 7:9 ). The potter, yôṣtēr ( Isa 41:25 ), worked in the bêt hayyôṣtēr ( Jer 18:1–2 , ...

Jerusalem, Hellenistic and Roman

Jerusalem, Hellenistic and Roman   Reference library

Jürgen K. Zangenberg

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
9,575 words
Illustration(s):
2

...in 9 or 8 b.c.e. in connection with Herod’s anniversary as king (Josephus, Ant. 15.423). But the project was so huge that much work dragged on until 28 c.e. ( John 2:20 ), and it was not before 64 c.e. that the Roman governor Albinus declared the Temple finished and ordered construction to stop, creating a major social crisis (Josephus, Ant. 20.219). Herod Agrippa II (r. 48–ca. 93 c.e. ) had to repair and embellish the streets of Jerusalem to keep 18,000 workers active who were previously employed at the Temple (Josephus, Ant. 20.220–221)....

Diet, Bronze and Iron Age

Diet, Bronze and Iron Age   Reference library

Peter Altmann

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
6,760 words

...game become less prominent in the archaeological record. Furthermore, while only the meat of domesticated animals appears in the lists of sacrificial offerings ( Lev 1:1–3 ; Deut 12:7 , 17 ; cf. Deut 12:15–17 , 20–22 ), fallow deer bones have been found in connection with the Early Iron–Age Mount Ebal cultic site near Nablus, biblical Shechem (cf. Deut 27:4–7 , Josh 8:30–33 ). Consumption of wild game ( צידה , ṣêdāh ) is rare in the Bible but appears to have been quite desirable ( Gen 27:3 ). Significant discussion over the consumption of...

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