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7-20-8

(1907), a “comedy of to‐day” by Augustin Daly. [Daly's Theatre, 49 perf.] Portrait of a Lady, picture #728 at the annual Academy exhibition, so lovingly depicts a beautiful woman ...

PHRONÊSIS

PHRONÊSIS (GREEK)   Reference library

Jean-Louis Labarrière

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...(ibid., 6.9, 1142a11–20). B. The new Stoic order In proportion to their dogmatism or absolute rationalism—for them, the wise man’s knowledge is an unshakeable knowledge that covers every domain, all of them closely interwoven with the others, and the great majority of men must be considered a bunch of good-for-nothings ( phauloi [ φαῦλοι ‎])—the Stoics make phronêsis as a virtue the “knowledge [ epistêmê ] of bad things, of good things, and of what is neither good nor bad” (Diogenes Laertius, Lives of the Eminent Philosophers 7.92). The founder of the...

COMPARISON

COMPARISON   Reference library

Francis Goyet

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...or “image.” Moreover, the idea that metaphor is an abbreviated simile comes from Quintilian ( Institutio oratoria , 8.6.8). Quintilian takes from Aristotle the excessively famous example of “Achilles is like a lion,” as opposed to “Achilles is a lion” (Aristotle, Rhetoric , 3.4.1406b20–24; Quintilian, Institutio oratoria , 8.6.9). Aristotle distinguishes between eikôn [ εἰϰών ‎] and metaphora [ μεταφορά ‎] ( Rhetoric , 3.4.1406b20–23), and Quintilian between similitudo and tra[ns]latio , the latter word being itself the Latin equivalent of the...

OMNITUDO REALITATIS

OMNITUDO REALITATIS   Reference library

Jean-François Courtine

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...Gottlieb . Metaphysica . 7th ed. Hildesheim, Ger.: Olms, 1963. First published in 1779. Corr, Charles Anthony . “The Deutsche Metaphysik of Christian Wolff: Text and Transitions.” In History of Philosophy in the Making , edited by Linus J. Thro , 113–20. Washington, D.C.: University Press of America, 1982. Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich . Enzyklopädie der philosophischen Wissenschaften im Grundrisse . §1-244. In Die Wissenschaft der Logik , edited by Wolfgang Bonsiepen and Hans-Christian Lucas . Gesammelte Werke . Vol. 20. Hamburg: Meiner, 1992....

HOMONYM

HOMONYM   Reference library

Barbara Cassin and Irène Rosier-Catach

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...βαδίζειν ‎], are synonyms): this is the modern meaning that prevailed with the Stoics (for example, Alexander and Paris: see Simplicius, 36.7–32). Generally speaking, Aristotle’s commentators, while asserting that homonyms are things, also apply the adjective “homonymous” to words. Simplicius is particularly aware of this shift (“In its literal sense, it is realities and not words that produce homonymy,” RT: CAG 8:24.20ff. / “It is clear, then, that a noun is homonymous,” 25.5). It becomes the locus itself of a distinction between a conceptualist...

KÊR

KÊR (GREEK)   Reference library

Pietro Pucci

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...function: bestowing good and evil upon men. This concept relates them to other deities sharing the same task: for example, the Muses ( Odyssey , 8.63), and Zeus in particular (first in the Iliad , 14.527ff.). They spin threads, but they are not the only ones to do so, since Homer sometimes uses “to spin” ( epiklôthô [ ἐπιϰλώθω ‎]) for the other gods when, either collectively ( Odyssey , 1.17, 8.579, 11.139, 20.196; Iliad , 24.525) or individually ( Odyssey , 4.208, 16.64), they make a decision or hand out portions of good fortune and misfortune to men....

INTELLECTUS

INTELLECTUS (LATIN)   Reference library

Alain de Libera

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...principiorum (for example, “intellectus dicitur habitus primum principiorum ,” Thomas Aquinas , Summa theologica , I, q. 58, 3c, “quendam specialem habitum, qui dicitur intellectus principiorum , ibid., q. 799, 12c); (7) intellectual inspection (Ger. Einsicht ), synonymous with intellegentia , and the antonym of which is ratio ; (8) conception, comprehension, interpretation, understanding, or meaning (Ger. Verständnis , intellektuelle Auffassung , for example “ verbum illud Philosophi universaliter verum est in omni intellectu [this sentence of...

BERUF

BERUF (SPANISH)   Reference library

Philippe Büttgen

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...we consider how much was invested theologically and doctrinally in this whole translation. Nevertheless, the question remains whether the conflation of occupation and divine vocation has a basis in the text of the Bible. Weber (French trans. K.) locates a passage in 1 Corinthians (7:20) that seems to move in this direction. This passage exhorts every Christian to “stay in that calling in which he was called” ( en têi klêsei hêi eklêthê [ ἐν τῇ ϰλήσει ᾗ ἐϰλήθη ‎]). In the characteristic reduplication of klêsis/eklêthê , we seem to find the two senses of Beruf...

PRÉDICABLE

PRÉDICABLE   Reference library

Alain de Libera

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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... Aristotle . 2nd ed. London: Methuen, 1930. Simplicius . Commentaria in Aristotelem Graeca . Vol. 8. Edited by K. Kalbfleisch . Berlin: G. Reimer, 1907. Simplicius . On Aristotle’s Categories 1-4 . Translated by Michael Chase . Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2003. Simplicius . On Aristotle’s Categories 5-6 . Translated by Frans A. J. de Haas and Barrie Fleet . Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2001. Simplicius . On Aristotle’s Categories 7-8 . Translated by Barrie Fleet . Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2002. Simplicius . On...

PRINCIPLE

PRINCIPLE   Reference library

Ali Benmakhlouf, Fabien Capeillères, Barbara Cassin, and Jérôme Dokic

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...it is a simple “definition” ( horismos [ ὁϱισμός ‎], from horizô [ ὁϱίζω ‎], “limit”) (2.72a 20–24). However, the common denominator of all these kinds of principles remains: “there will be no scientific knowledge of the primary premises” ( Posterior Analytics , 2.19.100b 10–11); the principles are undemonstrable primary truths: “Whereas the rest can be demonstrated by the principles, the principles cannot be demonstrated by something else” ( Topics , 8.3.158b 2–4). In this sense, there are two kinds of truths: secondary truths, established...

GEMÜT

GEMÜT (GERMAN)   Reference library

Denis Thouard

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...spirit” is “ein ledic gemüete” ( Die rede der unterscheidunge , in Eckhart, Die deutschen Werke , 5:190.9), but gemüete refers to something deeper than the mind, as suggested by the expression “your depth and your mind” (dînen grunt und dîn gemüete, ibid., 5:255.8). Sermon 83 (ibid., 3:437.4–8) establishes the coherence between geiste , mens , and gemüete , referring both to Saint Paul (Eph. 4:34) and to Augustine, which makes it possible to specify that mens or gemüete refers to the superior part of the soul, selen (“caput animae”: Enarratio in...

WORD

WORD   Reference library

Marc Baratin, Barbara Cassin, Irène Rosier-Catach, Frédérique Ildefonse, Jean Lallot, and Jacqueline Léon

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...of audible meanings in the sounds of the language (thus, sigônta legein [ σιγῶντα λέγειν ‎] is an amphiboly that can be understood both in the sense of ‘to speak of mute things,’ neuter plural, and ‘to speak by being silent,’ masculine singular: 4.166a 12–14; 10.17a 7–10.17b 2; 19.177a 20–26). But these illusions are highlighted in order to be dispelled with the aid of the tools of the categories and of grammar ( see HOMONYM ). Schêma tês lexeôs and the schêma in grammar ➤ COMPARISON , FORM , IDEA , SPECIES , TROPE Schêma [ σχῆμα ‎], documented in...

OIKONOMIA

OIKONOMIA (GREEK)   Reference library

Marie-José Mondzain

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...opposition to its letter (Eusebius, Histoire ecclésiastique , RT: PG , vol. 20, col. 308C; Dio Chrysostom, De sacerdotio , 6.7.40). Consequently, the word oikonomia designated the person of Christ as well as the whole narrative of his life, passion, resurrection, and beyond, as far as the future completion of the providential plan of redemption (Athanasius, RT: PG , vol. 25, col. 461B, and vol. 26, col. 169A; Justinian, RT: PG , vol. 6, col. 753B; Irenaeus, RT: PG , vol. 7, col. 504B; Gregory of Nazianzus, RT: PG , vol. 36, col. 97C; Gregory of Nyssa,...

REALITY

REALITY   Reference library

Jean-François Courtine

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...of which the thing represented in the idea is an entity, in so far as that exists in the idea.) ( Œuvres , 7:161.4–6) The reality of the idea is precisely the entity that is in turn a positive “thing”; even if it is an ens deminitum (a diminished being), yet it is not nothing, but something to which the principle of causality, taken in all its universality, can still be applied ( Meditations, Reply to Second Objections , Axioma 3, Œuvres , 7:165.7–9). And if it is also true ( Axioma 4) that “whatever reality or perfection exists in a thing [ realitas...

UNDERSTANDING

UNDERSTANDING   Reference library

Denis Thouard

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...perceive, understand), “to have in mind” (to consider, project, to have good sense, to be intelligent and prudent). Perfectly congruently, noein (in contradistinction to gignôskein [ γιγνώσϰειν ‎], 2.2 and 2.7) in Parmenides’s poem expresses the immediate relation to being and saying, in the triad that constitutes the “Way of Being” (3, 6.1, 8.34–36). In later usage, allegedly intellectualized (Anaxagoras’s Nous , the noêsis noêseôs [ νοήσις νοήσεως ‎], or Aristotle’s god, and up to the noêma [ νόημα ‎] of rhetoric, “concept” or “meaning” rather than...

LOGOS

LOGOS (GREEK)   Reference library

Barbara Cassin, Clara Auvray-Assayas, Frédérique Ildefonse, Jean Lallot, Sandra Laugier, and Sophie Roesch

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...for this assimilation: both are created by God (Prv 8:22; cf. Jn 1:4); both represent life (Wisdom declares “for he who finds me finds life and obtains favor from the Lord” [Prv 8:35]; cf. the Logos : “in him was life, and the life was the light of men” [Jn 1:4]); both preexist creation (“The Lord created me at the beginning of his work, the first of his acts of old” [Prv 8:22]); and both constitute the means of creation (Wisdom is the worker, technitis , who makes everything that is [Prv 7:21 and 8:6]; and Jn 1:3 says of Logos that “all things were...

GEFÜHL

GEFÜHL (GERMAN)   Reference library

Jean-Pierre Dubost

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...Theory of Taste . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001. Baumgarten, Alexander Gottlieb . Metaphysica . 7th ed. Hildesheim, Ger.: Olms, 1963. First published in 1779. Cohen, Ted , and Paul Guyer . Essays in Kant’s Aesthetics . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982. Corr, Charles Anthony . “The Deutsche Metaphysik of Christian Wolff: Text and Transitions.” In History of Philosophy in the Making , edited by Linus J. Thro , 113–20. Washington, DC: University Press of America, 1982. Guyer, Paul , ed. Kant’s Critique of the Power of Judgment:...

GLÜCK

GLÜCK (GERMAN)   Reference library

Christian Helmreich

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...for philosophers. For it is impossible to speak of happiness in the absence of a certain duration or stability: “For one swallow does not make a summer, nor does one day; and so too one day, or a short time, does not make a man blessed and happy” ( Nicomachean Ethics , 1.7.1098a 18–20; Barnes trans.). The extremely strong influence of Aristotelian reflection on happiness, beginning with the Renaissance, clearly explains the efforts at lexical differentiation, and especially the introduction of the compound Glückseligkeit , related to the attempts at...

OBJECT

OBJECT   Reference library

Olivier Boulnois

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...1057a7–12). II. Obiectum , or the Obstacle before the Eyes The word “object” designates the act of something presenting itself as opposite or standing over against, the Latin obiici . Here again, should we say that the word that designates it, and thus the concept that accompanies it, is already present in Latin antiquity? Classical Latin already has the past participle of obiicio , “to throw or place before, to be opposite, to set against”; and Tacitus, in Germania , refers to women in combat “using their breasts as shields [ obiectu pectorum ]” (8.1)....

COMMONPLACE

COMMONPLACE   Reference library

Francis Goyet

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...that we feel toward the happiness of our equals and rivals, which in our eyes is undeserved. Indeed, like spectators in a tragedy, we will be like gods if in this respect we have “no personal interest” (1386b15–20). That we are clearly dealing here with a work of conceptualization is again emphasized by the comparison with the Nichomachean Ethics (7.1108b1), where it is once again stated that nemesis is to envy what true courage is to temerity. Nemesis is the “happy medium” of indignation, it is a just form of indignation. By reformulating the concept,...

ANXIETY

ANXIETY   Reference library

Pascal David

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...the center in which he was created…. [T]o be able to live there … man is almost necessarily tempted to leave the center to escape toward the periphery. (Schelling, Sämtliche Werke , vol. 7) It is less from this concept of anxiety in Schelling’s 1809 Untersuchungen that Kierkegaard seeks to distance himself than from that in Die Weltalter ( Sämtliche Werke , vol. 8), where “the sufferings of the divinity longing for creation” characterize a divine anxiety whose anthropomorphism Kierkegaard stresses. As for the relationship Angst/Enge , it still...

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