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7-20-8

(1907), a “comedy of to‐day” by Augustin Daly. [Daly's Theatre, 49 perf.] Portrait of a Lady, picture #728 at the annual Academy exhibition, so lovingly depicts a beautiful woman ...

aspect ratio

aspect ratio  

Of a fin or wing, the ratio of length to width. A high-aspect-ratio fin or wing tends to be long and thin, producing a high lift- or thrust-to-drag ratio.
academies

academies  

Are societies or institutions for the cultivation and promotion of literature, the arts or science, or of some particular branch of science such as medicine, for example, the Académie de ...
abortion

abortion  

There is no actual prohibition in the Bible against aborting a foetus. Nevertheless, in the unanimously accepted Jewish consensus, abortion is a very serious offence, though foeticide is not treated ...
Darwinism

Darwinism  

The theory of evolution by natural selection, often used incorrectly as a synonym for the theory of evolution itself. The term ‘neo-Darwinism’ is often used to denote the ‘new synthesis’ (i.e. ...
television

television  

1. An electronic technology enabling the encoding and decoding of ‘moving images’ and synchronized sounds, together with their unidirectional, instantaneous, long-distance transmission and reception ...
Charles Darwin

Charles Darwin  

(1809–82)British naturalist, who studied medicine in Edinburgh followed by theology at Cambridge University, intending a career in the Church. However, his interest in natural history led him to ...
suicide

suicide  

The act of intentionally ending one's own life. A suicide pact is an agreement between two (or more) people to commit suicide together. See also euthanasia.
PHRONÊSIS

PHRONÊSIS (GREEK)   Reference library

Jean-Louis Labarrière

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...(ibid., 6.9, 1142a11–20). B. The new Stoic order In proportion to their dogmatism or absolute rationalism—for them, the wise man’s knowledge is an unshakeable knowledge that covers every domain, all of them closely interwoven with the others, and the great majority of men must be considered a bunch of good-for-nothings ( phauloi [ φαῦλοι ‎])—the Stoics make phronêsis as a virtue the “knowledge [ epistêmê ] of bad things, of good things, and of what is neither good nor bad” (Diogenes Laertius, Lives of the Eminent Philosophers 7.92). The founder of the...

COMPARISON

COMPARISON   Reference library

Francis Goyet

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...or “image.” Moreover, the idea that metaphor is an abbreviated simile comes from Quintilian ( Institutio oratoria , 8.6.8). Quintilian takes from Aristotle the excessively famous example of “Achilles is like a lion,” as opposed to “Achilles is a lion” (Aristotle, Rhetoric , 3.4.1406b20–24; Quintilian, Institutio oratoria , 8.6.9). Aristotle distinguishes between eikôn [ εἰϰών ‎] and metaphora [ μεταφορά ‎] ( Rhetoric , 3.4.1406b20–23), and Quintilian between similitudo and tra[ns]latio , the latter word being itself the Latin equivalent of the...

OMNITUDO REALITATIS

OMNITUDO REALITATIS   Reference library

Jean-François Courtine

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...Gottlieb . Metaphysica . 7th ed. Hildesheim, Ger.: Olms, 1963. First published in 1779. Corr, Charles Anthony . “The Deutsche Metaphysik of Christian Wolff: Text and Transitions.” In History of Philosophy in the Making , edited by Linus J. Thro , 113–20. Washington, D.C.: University Press of America, 1982. Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich . Enzyklopädie der philosophischen Wissenschaften im Grundrisse . §1-244. In Die Wissenschaft der Logik , edited by Wolfgang Bonsiepen and Hans-Christian Lucas . Gesammelte Werke . Vol. 20. Hamburg: Meiner, 1992....

HOMONYM

HOMONYM   Reference library

Barbara Cassin and Irène Rosier-Catach

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...βαδίζειν ‎], are synonyms): this is the modern meaning that prevailed with the Stoics (for example, Alexander and Paris: see Simplicius, 36.7–32). Generally speaking, Aristotle’s commentators, while asserting that homonyms are things, also apply the adjective “homonymous” to words. Simplicius is particularly aware of this shift (“In its literal sense, it is realities and not words that produce homonymy,” RT: CAG 8:24.20ff. / “It is clear, then, that a noun is homonymous,” 25.5). It becomes the locus itself of a distinction between a conceptualist...

KÊR

KÊR (GREEK)   Reference library

Pietro Pucci

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...function: bestowing good and evil upon men. This concept relates them to other deities sharing the same task: for example, the Muses ( Odyssey , 8.63), and Zeus in particular (first in the Iliad , 14.527ff.). They spin threads, but they are not the only ones to do so, since Homer sometimes uses “to spin” ( epiklôthô [ ἐπιϰλώθω ‎]) for the other gods when, either collectively ( Odyssey , 1.17, 8.579, 11.139, 20.196; Iliad , 24.525) or individually ( Odyssey , 4.208, 16.64), they make a decision or hand out portions of good fortune and misfortune to men....

INTELLECTUS

INTELLECTUS (LATIN)   Reference library

Alain de Libera

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...principiorum (for example, “intellectus dicitur habitus primum principiorum ,” Thomas Aquinas , Summa theologica , I, q. 58, 3c, “quendam specialem habitum, qui dicitur intellectus principiorum , ibid., q. 799, 12c); (7) intellectual inspection (Ger. Einsicht ), synonymous with intellegentia , and the antonym of which is ratio ; (8) conception, comprehension, interpretation, understanding, or meaning (Ger. Verständnis , intellektuelle Auffassung , for example “ verbum illud Philosophi universaliter verum est in omni intellectu [this sentence of...

BERUF

BERUF (SPANISH)   Reference library

Philippe Büttgen

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...we consider how much was invested theologically and doctrinally in this whole translation. Nevertheless, the question remains whether the conflation of occupation and divine vocation has a basis in the text of the Bible. Weber (French trans. K.) locates a passage in 1 Corinthians (7:20) that seems to move in this direction. This passage exhorts every Christian to “stay in that calling in which he was called” ( en têi klêsei hêi eklêthê [ ἐν τῇ ϰλήσει ᾗ ἐϰλήθη ‎]). In the characteristic reduplication of klêsis/eklêthê , we seem to find the two senses of Beruf...

PRÉDICABLE

PRÉDICABLE   Reference library

Alain de Libera

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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... Aristotle . 2nd ed. London: Methuen, 1930. Simplicius . Commentaria in Aristotelem Graeca . Vol. 8. Edited by K. Kalbfleisch . Berlin: G. Reimer, 1907. Simplicius . On Aristotle’s Categories 1-4 . Translated by Michael Chase . Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2003. Simplicius . On Aristotle’s Categories 5-6 . Translated by Frans A. J. de Haas and Barrie Fleet . Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2001. Simplicius . On Aristotle’s Categories 7-8 . Translated by Barrie Fleet . Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2002. Simplicius . On...

PRINCIPLE

PRINCIPLE   Reference library

Ali Benmakhlouf, Fabien Capeillères, Barbara Cassin, and Jérôme Dokic

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...it is a simple “definition” ( horismos [ ὁϱισμός ‎], from horizô [ ὁϱίζω ‎], “limit”) (2.72a 20–24). However, the common denominator of all these kinds of principles remains: “there will be no scientific knowledge of the primary premises” ( Posterior Analytics , 2.19.100b 10–11); the principles are undemonstrable primary truths: “Whereas the rest can be demonstrated by the principles, the principles cannot be demonstrated by something else” ( Topics , 8.3.158b 2–4). In this sense, there are two kinds of truths: secondary truths, established...

GEMÜT

GEMÜT (GERMAN)   Reference library

Denis Thouard

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...spirit” is “ein ledic gemüete” ( Die rede der unterscheidunge , in Eckhart, Die deutschen Werke , 5:190.9), but gemüete refers to something deeper than the mind, as suggested by the expression “your depth and your mind” (dînen grunt und dîn gemüete, ibid., 5:255.8). Sermon 83 (ibid., 3:437.4–8) establishes the coherence between geiste , mens , and gemüete , referring both to Saint Paul (Eph. 4:34) and to Augustine, which makes it possible to specify that mens or gemüete refers to the superior part of the soul, selen (“caput animae”: Enarratio in...

WORD

WORD   Reference library

Marc Baratin, Barbara Cassin, Irène Rosier-Catach, Frédérique Ildefonse, Jean Lallot, and Jacqueline Léon

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...of audible meanings in the sounds of the language (thus, sigônta legein [ σιγῶντα λέγειν ‎] is an amphiboly that can be understood both in the sense of ‘to speak of mute things,’ neuter plural, and ‘to speak by being silent,’ masculine singular: 4.166a 12–14; 10.17a 7–10.17b 2; 19.177a 20–26). But these illusions are highlighted in order to be dispelled with the aid of the tools of the categories and of grammar ( see HOMONYM ). Schêma tês lexeôs and the schêma in grammar ➤ COMPARISON , FORM , IDEA , SPECIES , TROPE Schêma [ σχῆμα ‎], documented in...

OIKONOMIA

OIKONOMIA (GREEK)   Reference library

Marie-José Mondzain

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...opposition to its letter (Eusebius, Histoire ecclésiastique , RT: PG , vol. 20, col. 308C; Dio Chrysostom, De sacerdotio , 6.7.40). Consequently, the word oikonomia designated the person of Christ as well as the whole narrative of his life, passion, resurrection, and beyond, as far as the future completion of the providential plan of redemption (Athanasius, RT: PG , vol. 25, col. 461B, and vol. 26, col. 169A; Justinian, RT: PG , vol. 6, col. 753B; Irenaeus, RT: PG , vol. 7, col. 504B; Gregory of Nazianzus, RT: PG , vol. 36, col. 97C; Gregory of Nyssa,...

REALITY

REALITY   Reference library

Jean-François Courtine

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...of which the thing represented in the idea is an entity, in so far as that exists in the idea.) ( Œuvres , 7:161.4–6) The reality of the idea is precisely the entity that is in turn a positive “thing”; even if it is an ens deminitum (a diminished being), yet it is not nothing, but something to which the principle of causality, taken in all its universality, can still be applied ( Meditations, Reply to Second Objections , Axioma 3, Œuvres , 7:165.7–9). And if it is also true ( Axioma 4) that “whatever reality or perfection exists in a thing [ realitas...

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