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7-20-8

(1907), a “comedy of to‐day” by Augustin Daly. [Daly's Theatre, 49 perf.] Portrait of a Lady, picture #728 at the annual Academy exhibition, so lovingly depicts a beautiful woman ...

Population Levels and Trends

Population Levels and Trends   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,124 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...information available for England. Many places do not have surviving parish registers, and estimates of the national population based on hearth tax returns for 1687 vary from 1.7 million to 2.2 million. About 100 years later the population is thought to have reached somewhere between 4.2 and 4.8 million. The census of 1821 recorded 6.8 million. Twenty years later this had risen to 8.2 million. The major difference between Ireland and the rest of the British Isles is that this population growth was not associated with rapid urbanization. The urban proportion...

Education

Education   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,295 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... 1846–7 and 1866–7 , but only on a county rather than a parish basis. A survey of Roman Catholic voluntary schools returned in 1845 was published as an appendix to the Report of the Catholic Poor School Committee for 1849 . Parliamentary papers also include three later surveys: for 1871 , 1893 , and 1899 . These and other reports are listed in W. B. Stephens , Sources for English Local History (3rd edn, 1994) , ch. 7. For Scotland, two volumes of reports to the Department of Education by school inspectors for the years 1859 and 1866–7 are...

Welsh Local and Family History

Welsh Local and Family History   Quick reference

D. Huw Owen

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,425 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Borough of Cardiff ( 1888–1911 ) also appeared in six volumes. Large‐scale, multi‐volume histories of the Welsh dioceses , and of the Nonconformist denominations , together with biographies of the leaders, were published in the second half of the 19th century and the early 20th century. In spite of their bulk, and in some cases intimidating appearance, valuable information is often contained in these works, and also in more recent studies, including D. Walker's A History of the Church in Wales ( 1976 ), T. M. Bassett , Bedyddwyr Cymru/The Welsh...

Historic Churches

Historic Churches   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,420 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...whose designs influenced builders in other towns and in parts of the countryside where new accommodation was needed or where a great landowner rebuilt a church on his estate. In the Victorian period such estate churches were invariably Gothic. During the second half of the 20th century a wide range of modern styles were used. Towers and spires vary in style according to the period of their construction and the locality in which they were reared. In 9th‐century Italy the casting of bells heavier than hitherto necessitated the construction of separate...

Family and Society

Family and Society   Quick reference

Ralph Houlbrooke

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,144 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of parents. The welfare state was set up during the first half of the 20th century. Through the old age pension, sickness and unemployment benefits, and the National Health Service, the state (using tax payments and National Insurance contributions) underpinned the family at moments of crisis and lightened its load. Support for the aged was particularly important. Between 1901 and 1951 the proportion of the population of England and Wales aged 65 and over more than doubled, from 4.7 per cent to 11 per cent. (It stood at 16 per cent in 2005 .) The...

Domestic Buildings

Domestic Buildings   Quick reference

Malcolm Airs

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,135 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and The Building Accounts of Mapperton Rectory, 1699–1703 has been published by the Dorset Record Society (Publication No. 8 ( 1983 ) with a perceptive introduction by R. Machin. Contemporary accounts of local communities can also offer incidental evidence on housing which can supplement these meagre sources of information. The Revd William Harrison , Description of England , first published in 1577 and expanded in 1586–7 (ed. Georges Edelen , 1994 ), has long been recognized as a classic source for Essex houses at a period of major change, and...

Local Government

Local Government   Quick reference

R. W. Hoyle

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,202 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...local government expenditure was raised and expended within the parish. Total county rates, which were levied by the parish on a magistrate's precept, were a much smaller charge nationally than total parochial expenditure (£0.3 million against £2 million in 1792 , and £0.8 million against £7 million in 1832 ). Attempts were made to curb the scale of expenditure on the poor by altering the composition of the vestry. An Act of 1818 instituted a system of plural voting for ratepayers with the aim of encouraging the domination of the vestry by a minority of...

African‐Caribbean Genealogy

African‐Caribbean Genealogy   Quick reference

Guy Grannum

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,002 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Most of these early censuses are to be found in the Colonial Office records in TNA; for example, there are censuses of heads of household for Barbados ( 1679 ), Cayman Islands ( 1802 ), and St Lucia ( 1811 ). The colonies continued taking regular censuses during the 19th and 20th centuries, and if the returns survive they will be found in the islands. Wills often named the family and noted the property of the deceased, and they and their associated inventories may also include names of slaves. Most West Indian wills and grants of administrations were...

Towns

Towns   Quick reference

David M. Palliser

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,140 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Large towns were able to attract immigrants from much greater distances. McClure's work on place surnames suggests that in the early 14th century over half of Nottingham's and Norwich's immigrants came from more than 15 miles away, while for York the equivalent threshold was 20 miles, and for London over 40 miles. London and a few other large towns were already attracting immigrants from overseas; and until 1290 (when they were expelled from the realm) several large English towns included a colony of Jews. The period from the 12th to the 14th centuries...

Family History

Family History   Quick reference

Anthony Camp

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,329 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of the times in which they lived. However, the first competent history of a yeoman family was probably William Miller Higgs's A History of the Higges or Higgs Family ( 1933 ). New records were being explored, and, following the great social upheavals in the first half of the 20th century, more people began to take an interest in the subject. The first of the new generation of basic guides for family historians was Arthur Willis's Genealogy for Beginners ( 1955 ). With the subsequent growth of the subject, elementary guides have become legion. In ...

regnal years

regnal years   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
320 words

...I 5 Aug. 1100–1 Dec. 1135 Stephen 26 Dec. 1135–25 Oct. 1154 Henry II 19 Dec. 1154–6 July 1189 Richard I 3 Sept. 1189–6 Apr. 1199 John 27 May 1199–19 Oct. 1216 Henry III 28 Oct. 1216–16 Nov. 1272 Edward I 20 Nov. 1272–7 July 1307 Edward II 8 July 1307–20 Jan. 1327 Edward III 25 Jan. 1327–21 June 1377 Richard II 22 June 1377–29 Sept. 1399 Henry IV 30 Sept. 1399–20 Mar. 1413 Henry V 21 Mar. 1413–31 Aug. 1422 Henry VI 1 Sept. 1422–4 Mar. 1461 (and 9 Oct. 1470–14 Apr. 1471 ) Edward IV 4 Mar. 1461–9 Apr. 1483 Edward V 9 Apr. 1483–25 June 1483 Richard III 26 June...

calendar

calendar   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Local and Family History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
245 words

...to refer to dates before 1752 as Old Style and those after 1752 as New Style. Before 1752 September, October, November, and December were often referred to in written records as 7ber, 8ber, 9ber, and 10ber. Quakers called all the months by numbers; before 1752 March was their First Month, afterwards it was the Third Month. This Quaker practice continued into the 20th century. In the Middle Ages documents were dated not by calendar years but by regnal years starting from the time that a monarch ascended the throne. In the early modern period...

calendar

calendar   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
374 words

...year on 6 April , which is Old Lady Day, eleven days after the present 25 March . Before 1752 September, October, November, and December were often referred to in written records as 7ber, 8ber, 9ber, and 10ber. Quakers called all the months by numbers; before 1752 March was their First Month, afterwards it was the Third Month. This Quaker practice continued into the 20th century. In the Middle Ages documents were dated not by calendar years but by regnal years starting from the time that a monarch ascended the throne. In the early modern period...

wars, foreign

wars, foreign   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
461 words

...against the Dutch ( 1652–4 , 1665–7 , and 1672–4 ), and two long wars were fought against the France of Louis XIV ( 1689–97 and 1701–14 , the latter being known as the War of the Spanish Succession). In the 18th century the Union with Scotland ( 1707 ) and the defeat of the Jacobite rebellions of 1715 and 1745 brought an end to wars between England and Scotland, but renewed struggle with the Catholic countries of Europe brought the War of Jenkins's Ear ( 1739 ), the War of the Austrian Succession ( 1740–8 ), and the Seven Years War ( 1756–63 )....

wars, foreign

wars, foreign   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Local and Family History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
418 words

...fought against the Dutch ( 1652–4 , 1665–7 , and 1672–4 ), and two long wars were fought against the France of Louis XIV ( 1689–97 and 1701–14 , the latter being known as the War of Spanish Succession). In the 18th century the Union with Scotland ( 1707 ) and the defeat of the Jacobite rebellions of 1715 and 1745 brought an end to wars between England and Scotland, but renewed struggle with the Catholic countries of Europe brought the War of Jenkins' Ear ( 1739 ), the War of Austrian Succession ( 1740–8 ), and the Seven Years' War ( 1756–63 )....

wages

wages   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
787 words

...weekly wages in the counties of northern England amounted to 11 s. 6 d. , whereas in the south they stood at 8 s. 5 d. Agricultural wage levels in the north had to come reasonably close to those offered in industry if men were to continue working on farms, but there were no such constraints on the bargaining power of farmers in the south. This regional pattern was the reverse of what it had been in earlier centuries, and what it became again in the 20th century, under different conditions. The impressionistic evidence offered by Arthur Young suggests that...

civil registration

civil registration   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
2,017 words

...the indexes; both are widely used. With the index information, it is then possible to purchase a copy of a certificate online by credit card; by post to the General Register Office, PO Box 2, Southport, Merseyside, PR8 2JD; by telephone (0845 603 7788); by fax (01704 550013), or by visiting TNA. In 2007 the standard fee for a certificate was £7. A search of the indexes can also be requested, at a standard fee of £4.50. In April 2008 the Office for National Statistics began to provide facilities to search most of the indexes of births, marriages, and deaths...

census returns

census returns   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
2,593 words

...years have come to light in local record offices , but the great bulk of this material was destroyed once the official statistical tables had been published as parliamentary papers . These tables are a basic source for the study of †population levels and trends in the 19th and 20th centuries (though the 1801 census is thought to have missed about half a million people). The population tables are available in the larger public reference libraries. Figures from the 19th‐century returns for some counties may be more readily available in the relevant volumes...

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