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7-20-8

(1907), a “comedy of to‐day” by Augustin Daly. [Daly's Theatre, 49 perf.] Portrait of a Lady, picture #728 at the annual Academy exhibition, so lovingly depicts a beautiful woman ...

Interactions among Precolonial Foragers, Herders, and Farmers in Southern Africa

Interactions among Precolonial Foragers, Herders, and Farmers in Southern Africa   Reference library

James R. Denbow

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
11,802 words
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1

...and Lee, Foragers . 7. Denbow and Wilmsen, Advent ; Wilmsen, Land ; Wilmsen and Denbow, Paradigmatic History . 8. James Denbow , The Archaeology and Ethnography of Central Africa (New York: Cambridge UniversityPress, 2014); James Denbow , Carla Klehm , and Laure Dussubieux , “The Glass Beads of Kaitshàa and Early Indian Ocean Trade into the Far Interior of Southern Africa,” Antiquity 89 (2015): 361–377; Christopher Ehret , “The Early Livestock-Raisers of Southern Africa,” Southern African Humanities 20 (2008): 7–35; Thomas Güldemann ,...

Ceramics, Foodways, and Consumption: Methods

Ceramics, Foodways, and Consumption: Methods   Reference library

Liza Gijanto

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
8,209 words
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2

...DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1998), 20. 7. Technical style as defined by archaeologists involves all of the decisions made by the potter including clay and temper selection, the method used to construct the pot, how the pot is fired, and the decoration applied. 8. Susan Keech McIntosh , Excavations at Jenne-Jeno, Hambarketolo, and Kaniana (Inland Niger Delta, Mali), the 1981 Season (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995), 212. 9. Frank, Mande Potters and Leatherworkers , 20. 10. Dean E. Arnold , Ceramic Theory and...

Paleoenvironmental Science: Methods

Paleoenvironmental Science: Methods   Reference library

David K. Wright

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
8,781 words
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3

...metabolizing the heavier 13 C isotopes relative to C4 and CAM plants. When measured against a carbonate standard known as Pee Dee Belemnite (PDB), C3 plants range in 13 C at –20 to –35 per mille (‰), while C4 plants generally occur between –8 and –15‰. 15 CAM plants have a wider range of 13 C uptake. Atmospheric concentrations of 13 C relative to 12 C are approximately –8‰ (i.e., 99:1), so while C4 plants discriminate against 13 C a little, C3 plants do significantly more. The higher mass of 13 C relative to 12 C is the basis for this...

Genetics and Southern African History

Genetics and Southern African History   Reference library

Francesco Montinaro and Cristian Capelli

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
9,492 words
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6

...Khoe Pastoralists ,” Current Biology: CB 24, no. 8 (2014): 852–858; and Enrico Macholdt et al., “Tracing Pastoralist Migrations to Southern Africa with Lactase Persistence Alleles,” Current Biology: CB 24, no. 8 (2014): 875–879. Another signature of selection related to this ancestry component refers to a polymorphism (rs1426654 in the SLC24A5 gene) associated with the lighter skin color common in Europe that is present in a considerable proportion in some Khoe-San populations, ranging between 7 (Ju|’hoan) and 49 percent (Nama). 26 The average...

South African Historical Writing to the End of the Apartheid Era

South African Historical Writing to the End of the Apartheid Era   Reference library

Christopher Saunders

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
7,107 words

...frontier for 20th-century segregationist policies, which he opposed as contrary to the needs of the economy. For him, the racism of the Boer republics had been carried into the new Union of South Africa by the dominance of the Afrikaners of the Transvaal. 7 A more important figure in opening new approaches was William Miller Macmillan, who taught at the new University of the Witwatersrand in the 1920s. He first explored white and black poverty, then wrote books on the missionary Philip to challenge the pro-colonist views of Theal and Cory. 8 Walker,...

Africa in the World: History and Historiography

Africa in the World: History and Historiography   Reference library

Esperanza Brizuela-Garcia

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
9,468 words

...by a shift in their understanding of the work of the historian. They strongly believed, for instance, in the idea of writing a history that could respond to the needs of the 20th century and reflect the experiences of ordinary peoples. This marked a shift in the way historians perceived their work and gradually increased their focus on the study of underrepresented communities. 8 Many of the goals of the Annales group are exemplified in the work of French historian Fernand Braudel. He is credited for coining the term histoire totale , by which he meant a...

Quantitative Methods and Economic Statistical Sources for African History

Quantitative Methods and Economic Statistical Sources for African History   Reference library

Morten Jerven

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
12,951 words

...from African and Comparative Economic History,” Journal of International Development 20, no. 8 (2008): 996–1027 . 14. Hopkins, “New Economic History”; and Austin, “Reversal of Fortune Thesis,” 998. 15. Hopkins, “New Economic History,” 175. 16. Austin, “Reversal of Fortune Thesis,” 998, emphasis added. 17. Austin, “Reversal of Fortune Thesis,” 1019. 18. Austin, “Reversal of Fortune Thesis,” 997. 19. Hopkins, “New Economic History,” 177. 20. James Fenske, “The Causal History of Africa: A Response to Hopkins,” Economic History of...

Stone Tools: Their Relevance for Historians and the Study of Historical Processes

Stone Tools: Their Relevance for Historians and the Study of Historical Processes   Reference library

Justin Pargeter

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
8,737 words
Illustration(s):
5

...Late- 19th - and early- 20th-century approaches emphasized “evolutionary” sequences among lithic assemblages. 31 Prior to the 1960s, major research questions in stone-tool studies were largely culture-history oriented. 32 They focused on describing similarities and differences among stone-tool industries and other archaeologically constructed entities. 33 Research in the mid- 20th century focused on categorical variation among stone tools, their assemblage structure, and sources of change and variability. 34 Later 20th-century research placed...

Heritage and the Use of the Past in East Africa

Heritage and the Use of the Past in East Africa   Reference library

John Giblin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
14,165 words

...University Press, 2010). 6. John Giblin , “Post-Conflict Heritage: Symbolic Healing and Cultural Renewal,” International Journal of Heritage Studies 20, no. 5 (2014): 500–518. 7. Giblin, “Post-Conflict Heritage,” 500–518; and Kiprop Lagat , “Remembering the 1998 Nairobi Terror Attack: Cultural and Trauma Memory and the Reconciliation of a Nation” (PhD diss., University of East Anglia, 2014). 8. Peter Schmidt , Historical Archaeology: A Structural Approach in an African Culture (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1978). 9. Jan Vansina , ...

The Internet and Social Media as Sources

The Internet and Social Media as Sources   Reference library

Aubrey Bloomfield and Sean Jacobs

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
5,865 words

...Internet as archives, debates among historians over its value as a source are a relatively recent development. One group of historians are optimistic and excited by the potential as a record of “history-as-it-happens.” 7 Among this group, there is optimism that it is “logical to assume that future historians will also look at these sources.” 8 Historians could utilize social media and the Internet to research things such as “the first people who reported live from what later became known as the Arab Spring” or what “Barack Obama said on Twitter during an...

The Bantu Expansion

The Bantu Expansion   Reference library

Koen Bostoen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
11,201 words
Illustration(s):
1

...for the fact that the Bantu expansion was a major demic diffusion. 72 It can even be considered as “one of the most dramatic demographic events in human history.” 73 Especially the Y‑chromosomal haplogroups E1b1a8 (also known as E-U175) and E1b1a7a (also known as E-U174), which are actually subgroups of E1b1a (also known as E-M2) and E1b1a7 (also known as E-M191), respectively, are very prominent among both Bantu speakers and Niger-Congo-speaking populations from West Africa as opposed to communities speaking languages belonging to one of Africa’s other...

Digital Sources for the History of the Horn of Africa

Digital Sources for the History of the Horn of Africa   Reference library

Massimo Zaccaria

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
10,371 words
Illustration(s):
4

...African Studies , 5, no. 2 (1998): 7–21; “Islamic Literature in Ethiopia: A Short Overview,” Ethiopian Journal of Languages and Literature , 8 (1998): 25–37; and Hussein Ahmed , “The Coming of Age of Islamic Studies in Ethiopia: The Present State of Research and Publication,” in Ege et al., Proceedings of the 16th International Conference of Ethiopian Studies , 449–455. Alessandro Gori , “Contemporary and Historical Muslim Scholars as Portrayed by the Ethiopian Islamic Press in the 1990s,” Aethiopica 8 (2005): 72–94; and Alessandro Gori ,...

Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Precolonial Sub-Saharan African Farming and Herding Communities

Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Precolonial Sub-Saharan African Farming and Herding Communities   Reference library

Paul Lane and Anna Shoemaker

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
14,174 words
Illustration(s):
23

...no. 5 (2011): 591–601. 76. For example, Christine D. White , “ Isotopic Determination of Seasonality in Diet and Death from Nubian Mummy Hair ,” Journal of Archaeological Science 20, no. 6 (1993): 657–666, . 77. For example, Judith Sealy , “ Isotopic Evidence for the Antiquity of Cattle-Based Pastoralism in Southernmost Africa ,” Journal of African Archaeology 8, no. 1 (2010): 65–81, . 78. For example, Marie Balasse et al., “ Determining Sheep Birth Seasonality by Analysis of Tooth Enamel Oxygen Isotope Ratios: The Late Stone Age Site of...

Oral History and Life History as Sources

Oral History and Life History as Sources   Reference library

Mary Dillard

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
9,274 words

...African Culture History , ed. Creighton Gabel and Norman R. Bennett (Boston: Boston University Press, 1967), 57. 7. Vansina, Oral Tradition , 19. 8. Anne C. Bailey, African Voices of the Atlantic Slave Trade: Beyond the Silence and the Shame (Boston: Beacon Press, 2005). 9. Ardra L. Cole and J. Gary Knowles, eds., Lives in Context: The Art of Life History Research (Walnut Creek, CA: Altamira Press, 2001), 18–20. 10. Marcel Griaule, Conversations with Ogotemmêli: An Introduction to Dogon Religious Ideas (London: Published for the...

Business Records as Sources for African History

Business Records as Sources for African History   Reference library

Dmitri van den Bersselaar

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
10,806 words

...Africa 20 (1993): 173–184. 6. Stephanie Newell , “Dirty Familiars: Colonial Encounters in African Cities,” in Global Garbage: Urban Imaginaries of Waste, Excess, and Abandonment , ed. Christoph Lindner and Miriam Meissner (New York: Routledge, 2016), 35–51; and Martha G. Anderson and Lisa Aronson , eds., African Photographer J. A. Green: Reimagining the Indigenous and the Colonial (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2017). 7. Lynn Schler , Nation on Board: Becoming Nigerian at Sea (Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 2016). 8. ...

Newspapers as Sources for African History

Newspapers as Sources for African History   Reference library

Emma Hunter

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
10,862 words

...in West Africa, the Sierra Leone Gazette , established by the colonial government in 1801 . 7 While the early gazettes were limited in purpose and scope, as the ambition of colonial governments increased over the course of the 19th and 20th centuries , so too did their use of newspapers as didactic tools. Newspapers were used to communicate new technologies and practices. They also played a major role in projects to standardize African languages. 8 Yet at the same time, Frank Barton’s use of a religious metaphor to describe the historical roots of...

Climatology: Methods

Climatology: Methods   Reference library

Sharon E. Nicholson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
12,177 words
Illustration(s):
22

...for precipitation estimates. 8 However, their performance varies considerably in different parts of Africa. While satellite data are important tools for the climatologist, they are too short in duration to be useful for historical studies. Although the first weather satellites were launched in the 1960s, climate data sets produced via satellite generally extend back only to 1979 , at best. Two reanalysis products do cover a much longer period. The Twentieth Century Reanalysis of NOAA extends from 1851 to 2014 . 9 The ERA-20CM data set of the European...

The Dar es Salaam School of African History

The Dar es Salaam School of African History   Reference library

Gregory H. Maddox

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
7,736 words

... 31 (1967): 20–26 . 18. Mahmood Mamdani, When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001), 32 . 19. Ranger, “The ‘New Historiography’ in Dar es Salaam,” 52. 20. Paul K. Bjerk, “Sovereignty and Socialism in Tanzania: The Historiography of an African State,” History in Africa 37 (2010): 277 . 21. Gwassa and Iliffe, Records of the Maji Maji Uprising ; John Iliffe, “The Organization of the Maji Maji Rebellion,” Journal of African History 8, no. 3 (1967):...

Scientific Dating Methods in African Archaeology

Scientific Dating Methods in African Archaeology   Reference library

Vincent J. Hare and Emma Loftus

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
10,060 words
Illustration(s):
4

... Reviews of Geophysics 56, no. 1 (March 1, 2018): 278–305. It is also possible to calculate local marine reservoir offsets at Calib database (calib.org/marine). 7. For example, Ricardo Fernandes et al., “Food Reconstruction Using Isotopic Transferred Signals (FRUITS): A Bayesian Model for Diet Reconstruction,” ed. Luca Bondioli. PLoS ONE 9, no. 2 (February 13, 2014): e87436. 8. Bone carbonate is not considered a suitable material for dating due to the high likelihood of diagenesis and contamination, although see Antoine Zazzo, “Bone and Enamel...

Migration History and Historiography

Migration History and Historiography   Reference library

Benedetta Rossi

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
16,419 words

... Journal of African History 36, no. 2 (1995): 173–195, here 190–195. 7. For a critical summary of the state of this debate in 1979 and 2010, see John Sutton, “Towards a Less Orthodox History of Hausaland,” Journal of African History 20 , no. 2 (1979): 179–201; and John Sutton, “Hausa as a Process in Time and Space,” in Being and Becoming Hausa: Interdisciplinary Perspectives , ed. Anne Haour and Benedetta Rossi (Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2010), 279–298. 8. Sonja Magnavita and Carlos Magnavita, “All That Glitters Is Not Gold: Facing the...

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