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7-20-8

(1907), a “comedy of to‐day” by Augustin Daly. [Daly's Theatre, 49 perf.] Portrait of a Lady, picture #728 at the annual Academy exhibition, so lovingly depicts a beautiful woman ...

Pelorus Class Light Cruisers

Pelorus Class Light Cruisers  

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Laid down 1897, launched 1898–99; displacement 2100–2200 tons; length 314 feet; beam 37 feet; speed 20.5 knots; armament 8 × 4-inch guns, 8 × 3-pounder guns, 3 machine guns (after 1918 Psyche 2 × ...
Meteor, Gloster

Meteor, Gloster  

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(Single-seat ground-attack fighter [Mark 8]). Wingspan 37 feet 2 inches; length 44 feet 7 inches; armament 4 × 20-mm cannon, bombs 2 × 500-pound or 8 rockets; maximum speed 590 ...
Sea Venom, De Havilland

Sea Venom, De Havilland  

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(Carrier-borne 2-seat all-weather fighter). Wingspan 42 feet 10 inches; length 36 feet 7 inches; armament 4 × 20-mm cannon, 8 × 60-pound rockets; maximum speed 560 m.p.h.; range 1000 miles, power 1 × ...
Battle of the Coral Sea

Battle of the Coral Sea  

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The first confrontation between American and Japanese aircraft carriers in World War II, on May 7–8, 1942. Apprised by intelligence of an impending Japanese invasion of New Guinea and the ...
Satsuma

Satsuma   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
505 words

...length) × 25.4 m × 8.4 m (482′ × 83′4″ × 27′7″) . Tonnage: 19,372 normal displacement, 19,700 full-load displacement . Hull: steel. Complement: 800–940 . Armament: 4 × 30.5-cm (12″)/45-caliber quick-firing (QF) guns in 2 turrets; 12 × 25.4-cm (10″)/45-caliber guns in 6 turrets; 12 × 12-cm (4.7″)/40-caliber QF guns; 4 × 8-cm (3.1″)/40-caliber QF guns; 4 × 8-cm (3.1″)/28-caliber guns; 5 × 45-cm (18″) underwater torpedo tubes . Armor: 100–230-mm (4″–9″) belt, 180–240-mm barbette (6″ casemates), 180–230-mm (7″–9″) turret, 150-mm (9.8″) conning tower, 50-mm...

U-47

U-47   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
602 words

..., German submarine. Type VIIB. Length/beam/draft: 66.5 m × 6.2 m × 4.8 m (218′ × 20.3′ × 15.7′) . Tonnage: 753 tons . Hull: steel . Complement: 44 crew . Armament: 5 × 21.3″ torpedo tubes; 1 × 88-mm and 1 × 20-mm machine guns . Machinery: diesel engines; 3,200 effective horsepower; 2 screws; 17.9 knots . Built: Krupp Germania Werft, Kiel, Germany, 1938. After two vain attempts by the German navy to enter Scotland’s Scapa Flow—with U-18 in 1914 and UB-116 in 1918—Kapitänleutnant Günther Prien ( 1908–1941 ) began his World War II career by...

Merrimack

Merrimack   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
752 words

..., frigate. Length/beam/draft: 84 m × 12 m × 7.3 m (275' × 38.5' × 24') . Tonnage: 5,298 . Hull: wood . Armament: 2 × 10-inch guns (on pivots), 14 × 8-inch guns, and 24 × 9-inch guns . Merrimack , named for the Merrimack River of New Hampshire and Massachusetts , was built as a large cruising frigate for the U.S.Navy with auxiliary steam power, a type much favored at the time by American naval opinion. She was ordered on April 6, 1854 , launched on June 15, 1855 , and commissioned on February 20, 1856 . Her steam power plant consisted of a...

Skate

Skate   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
501 words

..., Skate -class nuclear submarine. Length/beam/draft: 81.6 m × 7.6 m × 6.1 m (267'8" × 25' × 20') . Displacement: 2,570 tons (surfaced), 2,861 tons (submerged) . Speed: 18+ knots (submerged) . Complement: 93 officers and crew . Armament: 6 × 53.3-cm (21") torpedo tubes . Built: Electric Boat division of General Dynamics, Groton, Connecticut; launched May 16, 1957. USS Skate (SSN-578) initiated a new class of nuclear submarines dedicated to anti-submarine warfare and marked the beginning of the potentially lethal deep-ocean submarine contest between...

Fram

Fram   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
538 words

..., topsail schooner (1 funnel, 3 masts). Length/beam/draft: 39 m × 11 m × 4.8 m (127.8′ × 34′ × 15′) . Tonnage: 402 gross registered tons, 307 net . Hull: wood . Complement: 16 . Machinery: triple expansion, 220 indicated horsepower, 1 screw; 7 knots. Designer and builder: Colin Archer, Larvik, Norway, 1892 . One of the most versatile purpose-built polar exploration vessels ever built, Fram sailed in two major expeditions in the Arctic, and she carried Roald Amundsen to Antarctica for his pioneering trek to the South Pole in 1911 . Fram was...

Frigate

Frigate   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
665 words

...was that they were large ships for having a rather small battery. Originally armed mainly with 8- or 9-pounders, frigates were soon enlarged to carry 12-pounders and 18-pounders. Considerable superstructures with light guns or carronades were gradually added. In the nineteenth century, super frigates with 24- to 32-pounders became common. The height of the lowest gun-port was gradually increased, from 1.75–2.0 meters (5.7–6.6 feet) to 2.0–2.4 meters (6.6–7.9 feet). Frigates were built by nearly all navies for reconnaissance, sea control, attacks on trade,...

Hulsius, Levinus

Hulsius, Levinus (c.1550–1606)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
677 words

...of Guyana, 1594–1594 and 1596 (editions 1601 , 1603 , and 1612 ; Latin edition 1599 ) 6. First circumnavigations of the globe, 1519–1519 , 1577–1577 , 1586–1586 , and 1598–1598 (editions 1603 , 1618 , and 1626 ) 7. Dutch discoveries and establishment in Guinea (editions 1603 , 1606 , and 1624 ) 8. Dutch expeditions to East India, 1599–1599 (editions 1617 and 1627 ) 9. Dutch expeditions to East India, 1604–1604 (editions 1606 and 1612 ) 10. Dutch expeditions to East India, 1605–1605 (edition 1613 ) 11. Dutch...

Surfboards

Surfboards   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
1,171 words

...shortboards. Surfboard makers in Hawai‘i, the center of board technology in premodern Oceania, produced two models: olo boards and alaia boards. Used exclusively by chiefs, olo boards were 14.5–18 feet long, 16–24 inches wide, and 5–8 inches thick. Alaia boards, mostly ridden by ordinary Hawai‘ians, were shorter (7–12 feet) and much thinner (0.5–1.5 inches). Both models were made of solid wood from wiliwili, koa, or breadfruit trees. The top and bottom decks were mildly convex, tapering to rounded rails; the noses were blunt and rounded, and the tails...

Yachting and Pleasure Sailing

Yachting and Pleasure Sailing   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
8,374 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to the Bullseye. LOA: 4.8 m (15′10″) Beam: 1.8 m (5′10″) Displacement: 615 kg (1,350 lb) Sail area (approximate): 15.2 sq m (140 sq ft) plus spinnaker X One-Design. One of the oldest and most active British racing classes, the nearly century-old X Class (or X OD) numbers approximately 200 boats (all built of wood), with 170 actively raced off the south coast of England and as many as 90 sailing in the class’s national championship. Designed by Arthur Westmacott in 1909 , the X is a three-person boat. LOA: 6.30 m (208″) Beam: 1.8 m (5′11″) Displacement:...

Henry Grâce à Dieu

Henry Grâce à Dieu   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
706 words

...hallowed on June 13, 1514 , she was armed with 22 great guns of various kinds, 128 serpentines, 22 stone guns, and 14 other guns, giving her much greater firepower than any other ship in the English fleet. Accounts for the building of Henry Grâce à Dieu show costs of both £7,708 and £8,745, the former probably exclusive of equipment and rigging. Officially she was designed by Robert Brigandyne, Clerk of the King’s Ships; but Brigandyne was more likely to have been the yard manager than the designer. The master shipwright was William Bond, and King Henry...

Suez Canal

Suez Canal   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
3,071 words
Illustration(s):
2

...of Atlantic and Indo-Pacific marine fauna across the Bitter Lakes. The formal inauguration ceremonies took place at Port Said on November 16–20 in the presence of Emperor Franz Josef of Austria-Hungary and Empress Eugénie of France . The waterway was formally blessed by representatives of Muslim, Catholic, and Greek Orthodox faiths. On November 18 a fleet of 46 vessels, including 5 Egyptian, 6 Italian, 7 Austrian, 9 French, and 10 British vessels, led by the French imperial yacht Aigle , entered the canal. The first vessel to pass entirely through...

Mobile Bay, Battle of

Mobile Bay, Battle of   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
1,851 words
Illustration(s):
1

...ironclad monitors, designed by John Ericsson , had failed under the leadership of Rear Admiral Samuel F. Du Pont to penetrate Charleston Harbor’s combined defenses (April 7, 1863 ); a single Confederate ironclad-ram, CSS Albemarle (built from scratch in a cornfield and armed with only two guns), managed to drive off Federal gunboats and spearhead the recapture of Plymouth (April 20, 1864 ); and an entire Union flotilla was nearly stranded in the low waters of the falling Red River, following a disastrous Army-Navy expedition deep into Louisiana ....

Copenhagen, Bombardment of

Copenhagen, Bombardment of   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
2,184 words
Illustration(s):
1

...shore of the city that made it impossible for naval forces alone to attack Copenhagen. A combined operation involving troops would therefore be required, but the distribution of British and Danish land forces was favorable for a British expedition to Zealand. On July 8 , a force of 8,000 to 9,000 British troops under the command of Lieutenant General Lord William Schaw Cathcart had arrived off Pomerania to assist the Swedes. They could easily be withdrawn and sent to Zealand, and there were also substantial forces available in England for the...

Tonnage Measurement and Port Dues

Tonnage Measurement and Port Dues   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
2,277 words

... Kommerzlast (Hamburg, Bremen) 2.3 Danish kommercelaest 2.0 Swedish svår läst 1.85 French tonneau 0.78 Spanish tonelada 0.83 Notes: The units in the table were first compared as weight units and then converted to register tons according to the empirical ratios of the Swedish and Danish last that were established when these countries adopted the register ton. The ratios are accurate for sailing ships only. For example, steamships measured in Swedish lasts normally measured, not 1.85, but about 2.8 times greater than their register tonnage. This was...

Kiel Canal

Kiel Canal   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
3,066 words
Illustration(s):
1

... with 13.8 percent and Great Britain with 12 percent. Passage through the canal follows strict rules and takes between 6.5 and 8.5 hours, depending on the maximum allowable speed—either 12 or 15 kilometers per hour. The speed is limited to avoid suction (the wash of the waves and backflow), which might damage the underwater embankments. The canal is passable for ships with a gauge of 9.5 meters (31 feet), a length of up to 160 meters (525 feet) and a width of 27 meters (88.5 feet), or with a length of up to 193 meters (633 feet) and a width of 20 meters...

Sailings

Sailings   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
3,585 words
Illustration(s):
7

...Then the track along these great circles and the parallel of latitude l V gives the shortest route between the two points (see Figure 7). (The longitudes of these tangent points can be obtained from formulas (24) and (25) because these points correspond to vertexes of these great circles.) This type of sailing is called composite sailing. Figure 7. Great Circle and Rhumb Line on the Gnomic Chart. The point of tangency is 20 degrees N, 170 degrees W. Courtesy of Hideki Hagiwara To carry out composite sailing using the great circle chart, one draws the two...

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