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7-20-8

(1907), a “comedy of to‐day” by Augustin Daly. [Daly's Theatre, 49 perf.] Portrait of a Lady, picture #728 at the annual Academy exhibition, so lovingly depicts a beautiful woman ...

Jacques Delors

Jacques Delors  

(b. 20 July 1925).President of the EC Commission 1985–94 Following a university degree in economics he worked for the Bank of France (1945–61), while also being active in the Christian trade‐union ...
UDF

UDF  

A French political party founded in 1978 by Giscard d'Estaing. In 1966 he had set up the FNRI (Fédération Nationale des Républicains Indépendants, Independent Republican Party) out of the small rump ...
Kim Young Sam

Kim Young Sam  

(b. 20 Dec. 1927).President of the Republic of Korea (South Korea) 1993–8Born near Pusan, he graduated in sociology from the Seoul National University in 1951. He became a secretary to Syngman Rhee, ...
Gro Harlem Brundtland

Gro Harlem Brundtland  

(b. 20 Apr. 1939).Prime Minister of Norway 1981, 1986–9, 1990–6Early careerBorn in Oslo as the daughter of a former government minister, she studied medicine in Oslo and at Harvard and became a ...
Narasimha Narasimha Rao

Narasimha Narasimha Rao  

(b. 28 June 1921).Prime Minister of India 1991–6Early careerBorn in the Karimnagar district (Andhra Pradesh), he studied law and graduated with an LLB. He joined the Indian National Congress in 1945, ...
Group of Eight

Group of Eight   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

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2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
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1,036 words
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...Wrong Direction: What the United States Can and Should Do.” Independent Task Force Report No. 57. New York: Council on Foreign Relations Press, 2006. G8 Research Group. “G8 Information Centre.” http://www.g7.utoronto.ca/ . Sponsored by the University of Toronto. Hajnal, Peter . The G8 System and the G20: Evolution, Role, and Documentation . Burlington, Vt.: Ashgate, 2007. Wainwright, Martin . “G8 to Pool Data on Terrorism.” Guardian , 18 June 2005. Subrina Mahmood and Roy...

Colombia

Colombia   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

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...1850, 1870, 1890, and 1912 (in U.S. dollars) 1850 1870 1890 1912 Uruguay 54.9 46.6 44.6 50.3 Cuba 22.2 44.3 55.7 64.7 Costa Rica 11.4 21.2 37.9 27.l Argentina 10.3 16.5 32.4 62.0 Chile 7.8 14.2 20.3 44.3 Bolivia 5.5 8.6 12.4 18.6 LATIN AMERICA 5.2 8.9 11.7 20.4 Brazil 5.0 8.6 9.6 14.2 Peru 3.7 10.1 3.3 9.4 Venezuela 3.3 6.8 8.3 10.5 Mexico 3.2 2.3 4.4 10.7 Ecuador 2.0 5.0 8.1 15.5 Colombia 1.9 6.6 5.7 6.4 Guatemala 1.7 2.5 7.5 7.2 Paraguay 1.3 5.8 8.5 8.6 Based on Victor Bulmer-Thomas, The Economic History of Latin America since Independence (Cambridge, U.K.:...

UDF

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A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
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343 words

.... Thereafter, the UDF regularly gained around 20 per cent fewer seats than the Gaullists, with whom it held government 1978–81 , 1986–8 , and 1993–7 . Often referred to as Giscardistes, the party subscribed to the ideas of individual liberalism and social reform outlined by its founder and leader in his book Démocratie française ( 1976 ). In 1996 , Giscard d'Estaing was succeeded as party leader by the former Minister of Defence ( 1993–5 ), François Léotard. The UDF experienced a deep crisis in 1997–8 , when in the general elections it lost half of...

Narasimha Rao

Narasimha Rao (28 June 1921)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
328 words

...the Congress (I) ( 1974–7 ), he entered the lower chamber, the Lok Sabha, in 1977 . After Indira Gandhi's re-election in 1980 , he was Minister for External Affairs ( 1980–4 ). Under Rajiv Gandhi he served as Minister of Home Affairs ( 1984 ), for Defence ( 1985 ), for Human Resource and Health and Family Welfare ( 1986–8 ), and for External Affairs ( 1988–9 ). He retired from politics after the electoral defeat of 1989 . As perhaps the party's best-known and least controversial figure, the colourless Rao came to lead the party on 20 June 1991 after Rajiv's...

Meat Industry

Meat Industry   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

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2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,439 words

...15.86 63.83 Western Europe 7,666,703 19.58 17,991,066 43.68 1,200,411 3.56 8,913,333 20.38 87.20 North America 3 13,561,440 42.51 10,236,976 29.63 118,644 0.58 17,480,372 46.18 118.90 Latin America and Caribbean 13,817,217 24.76 5,034,922 10.01 424,054 0.89 12,517,681 22.86 58.52 S ource : FAOSTAT data, 2006 . Production figures given in metric tons, per capita consumption figures in kilograms. 1 Excluding China and Japan. 2 Including North Africa. 3 USA and Canada. laws proscribed pork, making lamb and goat a favorite throughout North Africa, the...

Dubček, Alexander

Dubček, Alexander (27 Nov. 1921)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
465 words

...Dubček, Alexander (b. Uhrovec, western Slovakia , 27 Nov. 1921 ; d. Prague , 7 Nov. 1992 ) leader of the Slovak Communist Party 1963–8 , leader of the Czechoslovak Party 1968–9 The son of a Communist carpenter, Dubček spent his childhood from 1925 to 1938 in the Soviet Union. He joined the illegal Slovak Communist Party in 1939 . In August 1944 he participated in the Slovak National Uprising and was wounded. Until 1949 Dubček held a variety of menial and factory jobs. He then entered the party apparatus full-time, working in Trenčin, and...

Kennedy, Robert Francis

Kennedy, Robert Francis (20 Nov. 1925)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
433 words

...Kennedy, Robert Francis (b. Brookline, Massachusetts , 20 Nov. 1925 ; d. Los Angeles , 6 June 1968 ) US Attorney-General 1961–4 , US Senator 1965–8 Kennedy served in the navy 1944–5 . He then took a BA at Harvard University and an LLB at the University of Virginia. In 1952 he acted as campaign manager for his elder brother John F. Kennedy 's successful race for the US Senate. In 1953 he became Assistant Counsel for the Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, which was chaired by Senator Joseph McCarthy , but he joined the walkout...

Kyoto Protocol

Kyoto Protocol   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
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481 words

...perfluorocarbons and sulphur hexafluoride. The Protocol envisaged a combined reduction of these gases by at least 5 per cent for each signatory by 2012 , though the actual amount varied. The EU and other European states committed themselves to a reduction of 8 per cent, the US to a 7 per cent reduction, and states such as Canada, New Zealand and Japan to a reduction in emissions of 6 per cent. The Protocol was formally effective from 2005 , when the required minimum of 55 states, representing 55 per cent of greenhouse emissions, had ratified the...

Settler Societies

Settler Societies   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

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Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
2,140 words

...of current U.S. dollars) 1900 1914 United States 1,550 12.92% 4,250 21.25% Canada 700 5.83% 2,800 14.00% Australia 1,550 12.92% 1,700 8.50% New Zealand 50 0.42% 300 1.50% Argentina 550 4.58% 1,550 7.75% Uruguay 100 0.83% 200 1.00% Rest of the World 7,500 62.50% 9,200 46.00% Total 12,000 100.00% 20,000 100.00% Source: Adapted from William Woodruff, Impact of Western Man: A Study of Europe's Role in the World Economy, 1750–1960 (London and Melbourne, Australia: Macmillan; New York: St. Martin's Press, 1966 ), table IV-2. countries. High population growth...

Hoover, Herbert Clark

Hoover, Herbert Clark (10 Aug. 1874)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,017 words

..., and committed themselves to the repeal of prohibition. Roosevelt in his acceptance speech emphasized the need for economic recovery. Hoover was easily beaten in the election. Though he won 15.7 million votes, or 40 per cent, he carried few states—the only large state that he carried was Pennsylvania—and secured only 59 electoral college votes. Roosevelt, with 22.8 million votes, amassed 472 electoral college votes. Hoover retired to his home in Palo Alto, California, but was to emulate a predecessor, William Howard Taft , in finding his true vocation after...

Namibia

Namibia   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
860 words
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...enabling it to retain maximum possible influence. Following multi-party talks (with SWAPO excluded), 1975–7 , negotiations were entered with the UN. In the subsequent decade the South African government found a number of reasons to stall the UN and prolong its own rule over the country. However, an international arms embargo against South Africa, imposed because of its occupation of Namibia and its apartheid regime, finally took its toll. In 1987–8 it became clear that the South African army could not win against the well-equipped and increasingly...

Coolidge, John Calvin

Coolidge, John Calvin (4 July 1872)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
961 words

...people is business’, he kept government out of the affairs of business as much as possible. At a time of economic success, it was a popular stance and he was easily elected as President in his own right in 1924 . In the election, he won 15.7 million votes against 8.3 million for the Democrat, John W. Davis , and 4.8 million for the Progressive Robert M. La Follette . He continued his policy of keeping government out of business. He relaxed business regulations and lowered some taxes. He left it to Cabinet members to get on with their work without...

Napoleonic Wars

Napoleonic Wars   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

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2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
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1,019 words
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...alliance with France. But in October, Britain and its allies were joined by Prussia. Undaunted, Napoleon struck east again and routed the Prussians at Jena and Auerstädt ( 14 October 1806 ). Overrunning Prussia, he then moved east into Poland. Here he was almost defeated at Eylau (78 February 1807 ), but a further offensive shattered the Russians at Friedland ( 14 June 1807 ), and Tsar Alexander I in consequence made peace. Indeed, Russia now changed sides and voluntarily adhered to the Continental System—a series of decrees that Napoleon had issued...

Azerbaijan

Azerbaijan   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

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2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
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1,766 words
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...more than two thousand protected areas, including many wetlands. People and Economy. The population of Azerbaijan in 2006 was almost 8.5 million, 1.7 million of whom lived in Baku. The annual population growth rate is 1.5 percent. The next most populous cities are Gäncä and Sumqayit, each with more than 250,000 people. Almost 91 percent of the population are Azerbaijani (also known as Azeri), with Russians accounting for 1.8 percent. There are numerous small ethnic groups such as those living near Dagestan (e.g., Lezgins, Avars, and Tsakhurs), as well as...

Economy

Economy   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

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2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
9,938 words
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... 2006 (%) (7) Indonesia 264.7 ($1,127) 948.3 ($3,900) 2.6 (5.5) 5.9 (13.2) 8.9, 6.3, 4.4 13, 46, 54 39, 29 Malaysia 132.3 ($5,323) 313.8 ($12,900) 4.9 (5.9) 1.7 (3.8) 9.6, 6.0, 7.3 8, 48, 44 120, 96 Philippines 116.9 ($1,283) 449.8 ($5,000) 4.3 (5.4) 5.4 (6.2) 6.0, 3.0, 3.1 14, 32, 54 40, 44 Singapore 122.1 ($26,543) 141.2 ($31,400) 3.3 (7.9) 0.6 (1.0) 9.1, 7.4, 7.8 0.1, 34, 66 232, 202 Thailand 197.7 ($3,037) 596.5 ($9,200) 5.0 (4.8) 2.2 (5.1) 6.8, 7.9, 4.6 10, 45, 45 62, 60 Vietnam 48.4 ($568) 262.8 ($3,100) 7.5 (8.2) 4.5 (7.5) −0.4, 5.6, 7.6 20, 42, 38 82,...

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