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7-20-8

(1907), a “comedy of to‐day” by Augustin Daly. [Daly's Theatre, 49 perf.] Portrait of a Lady, picture #728 at the annual Academy exhibition, so lovingly depicts a beautiful woman ...

Architecture

Architecture   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,949 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...troubled, scores of new prisons, hospitals, and asylums continued to be erected. For the prosperous there were also important new buildings: Nash's Royal Opera House ( 1816–18 ) and Haymarket Theatre ( 1820–1 ), William *Wilkins 's University College, London ( 1827–8 ) and National Gallery ( 1834–8 ), Sir Robert *Smirke 's *British Museum ( 1823–46 ), Decimus Burton's ( 1800–81 ) Athenaeum Club ( 1827–30 ), and Charles *Barry 's Travellers' Club ( 1830–2 ). All these were London buildings, and indeed the war's end returned the capital to national...

Industrialization

Industrialization   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,380 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...there was a major discontinuity in the form of population increase. Taking England and Wales alone, population rose from below 6.5 million in 1751 to almost 18 million in 1851 . The trebling of Britain's population in just over a century, if we take the figure to 1861 (20.1 million), seems the most startling parallel to economic growth. However, as has long been recognized, England and Wales did not possess the only rapidly increasing populations in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Other European populations were also growing,...

Democracy

Democracy   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,165 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...armed *insurrection or even revolution. The Luddite industrial disorder of 1811–13 , the widespread distress and radical protests of 1816–20 , and the agrarian revolt, industrial protests, and political riots of 1830–1 might all have sparked off an insurrection if the ruling authorities had lost their nerve or had reacted in a different way. Revolutionary conspirators did exist and did plan violent action in 1796–8 and in 1816–17 , but at no stage were they well organized, well led, well armed, or well supported. And at no point did the government or...

Antiquarianism (Popular)

Antiquarianism (Popular)   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,164 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...by George *Cruikshank ), and a number of antiquarian works: The Apocryphal New Testament ( 1820 ), Ancient Mysteries Described ( 1823 , on the peepshows, processions, and dramas of medieval London), The Everyday Book ( 1826–7 , dedicated to * Lamb , with contributions by * Clare ), and The Table Book ( 1827–8 , a second massive compilation). Appropriately enough, it was this down-market publisher who gave the urban crowd the concept of a popular cultural history. When first-generation Romantic poets are picked off for individual study, they...

Declaration of The Rights of Man

Declaration of The Rights of Man   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
2,192 words

...had to fear the actions of public authority. To achieve this, despotic authority having been a focus of polemics under the ancien régime, the Declaration required legal restraint in the punishment of crimes and in the application of sentences (Articles 7 and 8), the nonretroactivity of the law (Article 8), the presumption of innocence (Article 9), freedom of opinions and of their communication (Articles 10 and 11), and religious tolerance (Article 10). All these rights could be guaranteed only by a public authority instituted for the advantage of all...

Revolutionary Cults

Revolutionary Cults   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
2,096 words

...Revolution, denouncing Hébert and Chaumette as “new fanatics” suspected of “aristocratic atheism”; he then announced the festival of the Supreme Being in his report of 18 Floreal ( 7 May ), when he established, according to republican principles, the calendar of civic ceremonies appropriate for a “regenerated people.” Robespierre presided over the Parisian festival on 20 Prairial ( 8 June ), called by some the “pontiff” of the festival. In the end, the cult was abolished with the fall of Robespierre. These festivals, in the provinces as well as in Paris, were...

Mysticism

Mysticism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
2,372 words

...du 18 ème siècle au 20 ème siècle. In Dictionnaire de spiritualité . Paris, 1937–1995. Vol. 4, col. 1178–1183. Gusdorf, G. Dieu, la nature, l'homme au siècle des lumières . Paris, 1976. Gusdorf, G. Naissance de la conscience romantique au siècle des lumières . Paris, 1976. Le Brun, Jacques . Censure préventive et litérature religieuse en France au début du XVIII e siècle. Revue d'Histoire de l'Église de France (1975), 201–225. Le Brun, Jacques . Entre la mystique et la morale. In Les Jesuites, Dix-huitième Siècle 8 (1976), 43–66. Le Brun,...

Poverty

Poverty   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
4,171 words

...(France), these large institutions sprang up all over northern Europe. By the late sixteenth century, Amsterdam had a workhouse, and similar institutions appeared in Brussels ( 1621 ), Paris ( 1656 ), Lübeck, Gdansk, Leipzig, and Vienna, and in almost all French cities of more than 20,000. Workhouses appeared later in Sweden ( 1724 ), Savoy ( 1717 ), and England (Bristol, 1796 ; Plymouth 1708 ; Norwich 1712 ). Among European countries, only Spain and Scotland failed to adopt the workhouse model. In Scotland, the Scottish church did not try to abolish begging;...

Scholarly Associations and Publications

Scholarly Associations and Publications   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
4,431 words

... Eighteenth-Century Research: Objects, Methods, and Institutions (1945–1995) . Paris, 1998. A collection of essays on the development of eighteenth-century studies since the end of World War II. Epstein, William . Professing the Eighteenth Century . ADE Bulletin 81 (Fall 1985), 20–25. Brief sketch of the professionalization of eighteenth-century studies between 1925 and 1975. Greene, Donald . ‘ More than a Necessary Chore': The Eighteenth-Century Current Bibliography in Retrospect and Prospect . Eighteenth-Century Studies 10 (Autumn 1976), 94–110. Greene,...

Mitchill, Samuel Latham

Mitchill, Samuel Latham (1764–1831)   Reference library

Rachel L. Dunn

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...1818), pp. 319–431. Further Reading Aberbach, Alan D. “Samuel Latham Mitchell: A Physician in the Early Days of the Republic,” Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine 40, no. 7 (1964): 501–10. Bergman, Norman A. “Samuel Latham Mitchell: A Neglected American Pioneer of Anesthesia,” Journal of the American Medical Association 235, no. 5 (1985): 675–8. Dean, Dennis R. “The word ‘geology’,” Annals of Science 36 (1979): 35–43. Hall, Courtney R. A Scientist in the Early Republic (New York, 1934). Rachel L. Dunn University of Durham ...

Stöckel, Leonard

Stöckel, Leonard (1510–1560)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
614 words

...a letter from Melanchthon, who, in the meantime, had also died. He was survived by his wife and six children. Hajduk, Andrej . Philipp Melanchthon und Leonhard Stöckel . Communio Viatorum 20 (1977), 171–180. ——. Leonhard Stöckel . Zeichen der Zeit 34 (1980), 229–232. Škoviera, Daniel . Epistulae Leonardi Stöckel . Zborník Filozofickej fakulty UK 7.8 (1975–1976), 265–359. Andrej...

millenarianism

millenarianism   Reference library

and

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...such as the *French Revolution , reaching a crescendo at the turn of the century. In modern discussions of this phenomenon, a distinction is often made between premillennialism and postmillennialism. The former is the belief that the 1,000-year period prophesied in Revelation 20: 1–8 will see the literal return of Christ to rule the world before it comes to an end with the Apocalypse and the Last Judgement. Such a view often went hand in hand with the expectation of sudden, violent, and apocalyptic events. Postmillennialists generally believed that the...

Willard, Joseph

Willard, Joseph (1738–1804)   Reference library

Gordon E. Kershaw

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...qualifications may have been shaky, but in the spirit of the Enlightenment, his intellectual gifts were superb. He was selected President of Harvard on September 20, 1781 . A year earlier, a new scientific society had been inaugurated in Massachusetts, one in which Willard would play a prominent role. At the group’s first meeting held in the “Philosophy Chamber” at Harvard on November 8, 1780 , president James Bowdoin specified the goals of the new American Academy of Arts and Sciences, which would facilitate “… every art and science, which may tend to...

Excommunication

Excommunication   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
2,569 words

...time. After that have nothing to do with him”—and also Romans 8:9 and Acts 5:1–11; see also Revelation 2:20. The word excommunicare was coined in Christian Latin usage in the fourth century, yet was still not found in the Vulgate. On the other hand, in view of the biblical usage, “anathema” is of special significance as a translation in the Septuagint and in the Vulgate for the Hebrew “herem” or “horma” ( Nm. 21:3; Dt. 7:26, 13:17; Jos. 6:17, 7:1, 11–13; Jgs. 1:17; 1 Chr. 2:7; Jdt. 16:23; Zec. 14:11; Mal. 4:6; 1 Mc. 5:5). “If anyone...

Indulgences

Indulgences   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
1,027 words

...40). His chief objection, however, was to the principle and not to the abuse of the practice. The crux of the Ninety-five Theses was the premise that the church can remit only penances imposed by itself, and that this jurisdiction does not extend to the dead (theses 5, 8, 10–11, 13, 20–22, 34). The only influence the pope has over souls in the next world, therefore, is the ordinary one of intercession (thesis 26). Luther's line of argument had devastating implications for the doctrine of purgatory and for the authority of the papacy and of the councils and...

Colloquies

Colloquies   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
7,562 words

...their internal unity. On 8 November the theologians, including Calvin, agreed to the Variata version of the Augsburg Confession. Concerning article 1, Melanchthon admonished his colleagues not to defend any of his earlier statements that might be presented by the opponents because mishaps were easy in these difficult questions. Concerning article 2 he did not expect problems. Justification, the sacrifice of the Mass, monastic vows, and papal primacy were also discussed. The first meeting of the two parties took place on 20 November. On 25 November ...

Illuminism

Illuminism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
1,469 words

...de Teología 35 (1975), 77–93. ——. The Franciscan Alumbrados and the Prophetic-Apocalyptic Tradition . Sixteenth Century Journal 8 (1977), 3–16. ——. The Heretical Alumbrados Dexados: Isabel de la Cruz and Pedro Ruiz de Alcaraz . Revue de littérature comparée 52 (1978), 292–313. ——. Valdesianism, The Viterbo Spirituali and the ‘Beneficio di Cristo.’ Proceedings of the Unitarian Universalist Historical Society 20.2 (1985–1986), 1–10. ——. L'Hérésie des Alumbrados . Revue d'histoire et de philosophie religieuses 66 (1986), 403–418. ——. The...

Pio, Alberto

Pio, Alberto (1475–1531)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
1,280 words

...Willem Th. M. Frijhoff , pp. 79–87. Leiden, 1988. A study of the strategies used by Erasmus to undermine Pio's authority. Minnich, Nelson H. The Debate between Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam and Alberto Pio of Carpi on the Use of Sacred Images . Annuarium Historiae Conciliorum 20 (1988), 379–413. A detailed examination of the validity of Erasmus's charges against Alberto Pio and of their differing views on the cult of images. Rummel, Erika . Erasmus and His Catholic Critics . Vol. 2, 1523–1536 . Nieuwkoop, 1989. Pages 115–123 provide an overview of the...

Müntzer, Thomas

Müntzer, Thomas (1525)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
3,074 words

...to preach or publish. The Allstedt print shop, which did Müntzer's publishing, was closed. Müntzer had agreed to remain for the time being at Allstedt, but in anticipation of an expulsion order he felt was imminent, he fled from Allstedt over the city wall during the night of 78 August. Luther's Brief an die Fürsten von Sachsen von dem aufrührerischen Geist (Letter to the Princes of Saxony Concerning the Rebellious Spirit) played a role in these events. Luther urged the princes to expel Müntzer for insurrection. Müntzer responded to this letter, which...

Population

Population   Reference library

Jacqueline Barbara Carr

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...some settlers were pushing further through the Appalachian Mountains by way of the Cumberland Pass. In 1770 the new frontier was the trans-Appalachian west, with Kentucky’s estimated population totaling 15,700 (15 percent of whom were black) and Tennessee’s populations at 1,000 (20 percent of whom were black). By 1780 the population in Kentucky had increased to 45,000 (16 percent of whom were black) and Tennessee boasted 10,000 people (15 percent of whom were black). In 1775 an estimated 250,000 persons called the backcountry home and villages and small...

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