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7-20-8

(1907), a “comedy of to‐day” by Augustin Daly. [Daly's Theatre, 49 perf.] Portrait of a Lady, picture #728 at the annual Academy exhibition, so lovingly depicts a beautiful woman ...

Libri memoriales

Libri memoriales   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
103 words

...counterparts to the heavenly Book of Life ( liber vitae ). This biblical idea of the book containing the names of the elect (Revelation 20:12, 15) became linked with the *diptychs and the libri memoriales or *confraternity books between the 4th and 8th centuries. Alfons Zettler D. Geuenich , ‘A Survey of the Early Medieval Confraternity Books from the Continent’, in The Durham Liber Vitae and its Context (2004), 141–7. R. McKitterick , History and Memory in the Carolingian World ...

Epereia

Epereia   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
261 words

... epereia (e.g., Zepos , Jus 1:366.8) indicates that the central government was owed these charges, whereas Theophylaktos of Ohrid spoke of douleiai and epereiai required by local authorities ( Letters , ed. P. Gautier , no.12.20). Accordingly an act of 1429 mentions “the demosiake and other epereiai ” ( Lavra 3, no.167.19–20), and a chrysobull of 1405 refers to “ epereia archontike and demosiake ” (Binon, Xéropotamou , no.20.24). Thus, the term seems to have no strict, technical meaning. Having a connotation of “abuse” it could denote...

manna

manna   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
199 words

...every morning, except the sabbath, to be turned into wafers tasting of honey (Ex 16, 31; Num 11, 7-8). But its Nature mattered less than its symbolic value: the bounty of God who, even while testing his people, helped them to survive. This marvellous gift, whose Hebrew name – “What is it? ( man hu : Ex 16, 15) – emphasises its mysterious character, and stimulated numerous commentaries. In rabbinic writings, it was linked to the eschatological expectation (Sg 16, 20-29). It thus prepared the revelation of the true “bread from heaven” of which it was the...

Katapetasma

Katapetasma   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
155 words

...(καταπέτασμα), a veil or curtain separating the sanctuary from the nave. Use of katapetasmata is confirmed from the 6th C. in Egypt and Syria (cf. G. Khouri-Sarkis , Orient syrien 5 [ 1960 ] 363–84; 7 [ 1962 ] 277–96; 8 [ 1963 ] 3–20). The Byz. practice of suspending katapetasmata over the templon door developed from a monastic custom attested from the 12th C. ( Nicholas of Andida , PG 140:445C); occasional references to the katapetasma in the sources, esp. inventories , indicate its slow acceptance. Except for some early Coptic textiles,...

Old Roman chant

Old Roman chant   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
170 words

... Old Roman chant . The controversy has raised further questions about musical writing and *orality in the early MA. Peter Jeffery CLLA 1375–7. P. Bernard , Du chant romain au chant grégorien (1996). M. Haas , Mündliche überlieferung und altrömischer Choral (1997). H. Hucke and J. Dyer , ‘ Old Roman Chant ’, NGD2 , vol. 18, 381–5. K. Levy , ‘ A New Look at Old Roman Chant ’, EMH 19 (2000), 81–104; 20 (2001), 173–97. A. Pfisterer , Cantilena Romana ...

Mosaic Law

Mosaic Law   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
170 words

...that is preserved in dozens of MSS from the 11th C. onward, usually as an appendix to the Ecloga . The compilation cannot be earlier than the 8th C. Out of the 50 chapters of the compilation, about 20 deal with marital and sexual problems; among other topics are theft, murder, witnesses, loans, just weights and measures, charity, etc. The compilation uses terms such as paroikos (11:2) and misthotos (7:1). Unlike the much earlier (ca.5th C.?) Latin Collatio legum Mosaicarum et Romanarum , the Greek Mosaic law contains no direct comparison of...

Cursive

Cursive   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
225 words

...the form of a beak. This script occurs in Egyptian papyri of the 6th–8th C. The Minuscule evolves from the cursive; this development can be seen already at the end of the 7th C. in the subscriptions of the members of the Third Council of Constantinople ( 680 ), written partly in minuscule, partly in Uncial . The 8th- or 9th-C. Vat. gr. 2200 is a unique codex exhibiting an alternative to the minuscule, a cursive script used for literary rather than chancery purposes (L. Perria, RSBN 20–21 [ 1983–84 ] 25–68). Cursive elements survived in the regular...

Droungarios

Droungarios   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
164 words

...(δρουγγάριος), a military rank first mentioned in the early 7th C. During the 7th and 8th C., a droungarios in the provincial armies ( themata ) represented a high rank, immediately below tourmarches and above komes , and in command of a droungos of as many as 1,000 men, later a bandon of between 200 and 400. However, 9th- and 10th-C. sources indicate a gradual decrease in the authority of the droungarios . In the 911 expedition to Crete, the droungarioi commanded no more than 100 men each ( De cer. 656.14–15), and in 949 the ...

Torque

Torque   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
278 words

...slaves (PG 65:104A, 86:444B) and kings (e.g., the king of India; Malal. 457.13–20) alike. It was also a sign of military rank; in Philotheos ( Oikonomides , Listes 91.7, 93.4, 127.19) it is an insigne awarded to the kandidatos , spatharokandidatos , and protospatharios . The torque is depicted in the Rossano Gospels (fol.8v) where it is worn by the officers flanking Pilate. It is also represented in images of certain military saints, for example, Sergios and Bakchos on a 7th-C. (?) icon ( Weitzmann , Sinai Icons , no.B9); these torques are gold set...

Sklavinia

Sklavinia   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
365 words

...Carinthia (Latin sources of the 8th–9th C.) Pannonia ( Sclavenia in Latin documents of the 9th C.) Transylvania, where “Geographus Bavarus” (ca. 840 ) places the Eptaradici (lit. “of seven roots”), probably a distorted reflection of the Seven Slavic tribes in Theophanes Dalmatia, including Carinthia (Caruntania; Sclavenia in Latin documents of 871) Thrace and Moesia (Scriptor Incertus), including Seven Tribes and Drougoubitai Macedonia (second half of 7th C.; Miracles of St. Demetrios ; Theophanes) Peloponnesos (8th–9th C.; Theophanes; Chronicle of...

Azov Sea

Azov Sea   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
243 words

...for its salt and naphtha, and associated in Byz. convention with Cimmerians, Sarmatians , and Tauroscythians (see, e.g., Tzetzes , Hist. 12:835–36). Prokopios ( Wars 8:4.77.12) asserts that the peoples of the Azov region were a continual threat to the borders of the empire. The northern Azov region was controlled in the 7th C. by Great Bulgaria (Theoph. 356.20–357.11) and in the 8th–10th C. by the Khazars (who built there the fortress of Sarkel ). The peoples of the area (including Zichia ) in the 10th C. are described by Constantine VII ( De...

Palmyra

Palmyra   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
349 words

...like that of Baalshamin, was converted into a church in the 5th or 6th C. ( J. Leroy , CahArch 15 [ 1965 ] 17–20). Excavations in the military area known as the “Camp of Diocletian” reveal on that side of the city a decline in urban life in the late 6th or early 7th C. The wide “Via Praetoria” was encroached upon by humble dwellings and reduced to a narrower (3.7 m) road (K. Michałowski, Palmyre [Warsaw 1963 ] 41), and public squares such as the Roman Tetrapylon were transformed into residential areas (Idem, Palmyre [Warsaw 1962 ] 54f). Palmyra...

Elephants

Elephants   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
366 words

...Wars ( Prokopios , Buildings 2.1.11; Agath. 110.8–11, 119.4–8). In the early 7th C. Herakleios made a triumphal entrance into Constantinople in a chariot drawn by four elephants that were exhibited in the circus and the Hippodrome ( Nikeph . 22.20). By that time, however, the elephant was not widely used for warfare. The author of the Anonymous Treatise on Strategy (6th C. or later) did not discuss fighting with elephants because he considered their use obsolete ( Dennis , Military Treatises 44.20–21). Their appearance in the empire was a rare sight....

Nicholas of Methone

Nicholas of Methone   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
351 words

...As panegyrist of Manuel I , Nicholas consistently developed the concept of unity of state and church; not only a victorious general in the east, north, west, and at sea ( Logoi dyo , p.6.78), but a benefactor of the church as well (p.45.17–20), Manuel himself resembled vigilant saints (p.43.17–20). Nicholas dreamed that Manuel would unite the Western and Byz. churches (p.8.23–27). Unity within the church was Nicholas's focal concern. He criticized the Bogomils and strictly opposed the transfer of Nicholas IV from the see of Cyprus to Constantinople....

Novatianism

Novatianism   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
221 words

...Protopaschites because of their method for calculating the celebration of Easter. Novatianism lost much of its vigor in the 5th C., but the sect survived at least until the early 7th C. lit . H.J. Vogt , Coetus Sanctorum: Der Kirchenbegriff des Novatian und die Geschichte seiner Sonderkirche, in Theophaneia: Beiträge zur Religions- und Kirchengeschichte des Altertums 20 (Bonn 1968) 37–56. T.E. Gregory , Novatianism: A Rigorist Sect in the Christian Roman Empire , BS/EB 2 (1975) 1–18. Timothy E....

Thrakesion

Thrakesion   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
230 words

... 1:368). A tourmarches of Thrakesion is mentioned in 711 , a strategos in 741 . Thrakesion has generally been regarded as a creation of the early 8th C., having formerly been a tourma of the Anatolikon theme; recent theories, however, make it one of the original themes of Anatolia. It comprised the rich Aegean territories of Ionia and Lydia, with parts of Phrygia and Caria. It contained 20 cities, of which the largest was Ephesus ; its capital may have been at Chonai . The strategos of Thrakesion commanded 10,000 troops and drew a salary of...

Triodion

Triodion   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
241 words

..., is basically a monastic book that first appears in MSS of the 10th C.; its name derives from the fact that some of the kanones sung during this season do not have the standard nine odes but normally only three. The pristine Palestinian or “Oriental” monastic triodion of the 7th–8th C. was enriched over the next three centuries with hymns composed by the Stoudite monks of Constantinople and southern Italy; to it was also added a synaxarion , the liturgy of the Presanctified , various fixed Sunday commemorations such as the feast of Orthodoxy ( Triumph of...

Bithynia

Bithynia   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
236 words

...and military routes between Constantinople and Anatolia. The suburban coastal region east of Constantinople flourished particularly as the seat of many rich villas. Bithynia became part of the Opsikion theme in the 7th C., then was divided between that theme and the Optimatoi . The civil province of Bithynia continued to exist into the 8th C., when Slav captives were settled there (Zacos, Seals 1:190f). Frequent later references are to the geographical region. Texts of the 13th C. mention a district called Mesothynia, which apparently denotes the...

Reservation of the Sacrament

Reservation of the Sacrament   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
184 words

...From the Carolingian period at the latest, only priests could give communion , and the Eucharist was reserved from one mass to another (from the 7th or 8th c. for the papal mass, according to Ordo Romanus I [ed. M. Andrieu , Ordines Romani , t. II]) or for the sick. In Italy , reservation seems to have been in the sacristy ; north of the Alps , in the church with the relics . Canon 20 of the fourth Lateran council ( 1215 ) prescribed reservation under lock and key. This was either in a wall-cupboard or in a sort of tower, or in a dove...

Choraphion

Choraphion   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
291 words

... 1965 ]) registers choraphia bordering a garden (p.31.31) or vineyard (p.44.204–06) as well as roads or buildings; the cadaster of 1235 for the monastery of Lembiotissa includes a choraphion bordering an olive grove (MM 4:8.10–11). A choraphion could be surrounded by a ditch (MM 4:7.33–34) or boundary marks (MM 4:189.8–9). Olive trees and nut trees grew on some choraphia . All this indicates that choraphia were not peasant “shares” in a particular field, thereby providing evidence against the existence of an “open field” agricultural system....

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