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7-20-8

(1907), a “comedy of to‐day” by Augustin Daly. [Daly's Theatre, 49 perf.] Portrait of a Lady, picture #728 at the annual Academy exhibition, so lovingly depicts a beautiful woman ...

Mathematics

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

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2005

...get respectively 1 + 1/2 + 1/8 + 1/20, 1/5, and 1/8. The series 1/2 + 1/4 (= 2 × 1/8) + 1/5 + 1/20 sums to unity, since 20 partitions into 10 + 5 + 4 + 1, so that the addition of 1 gives the 2 of the doubling process. To take a simpler example, 2/7 = 1/4 + 1/28, because multiplying through by 7 gives 7 × 1/4 = 1 + 3/4 = 1 + 1/2 + 1/4, 7 × 1/28 = 1/4, and 1/2 + 1/4 + 1/4 sums to unity. The evidence suggests that in the division, care has been taken to choose fractional multipliers not just from the 2/3, 1/3, 1/6 … or the 1/2, 1/4, 1/8 … series, but in such a way...

Instructions of Amenemope

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

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2005

...behavior and abstaining from gluttony when invited by one's superior is another topic. Amenemope's teaching is the most influential Egyptian Wisdom text that has found its way into Hebrew scriptures ( Prov. 22.17–23, 11). Proverbs 22.20b even refers to “thirty chapters,” also mentioned at the end of Amenemope (27, 7). This number does not correspond to Amenemope 22, 17–23, 11 but has to be taken as a reference to the text extending to 24, 22 (Römheld 1988). Budge, E. A. W. Facsimiles of Egyptian Hieratic Papyri in the British Museum . 2d series....

Ankhtifi of Moʿalla

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...in the Memory of Klaus Baer , edited by David Silverman , pp. 79–86. Studies in Oriental Civilization, 55. Chicago, 1994. Fecht, Gerhard . Zu den Inschriften des ersten Pfeilers im Grab des Anchtifi (Moʿalla). In Festschrift für Siegfried Schott zu seinem 70. Geburtstag am 20. August 1967 , edited by Wolfgang Helck , pp. 50–60. Wiesbaden, 1968. Fischer, Henry G. Notes on the Moʿalla Inscriptions and Some Contemporaneous Texts . Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde des Morgenlandes 57 (1961), 59–77. Goedicke, Hans . Ankhtyfy's Threat. In Individu,...

Ramesses III

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2005

...invasions of Egypt: in Year 5, the Libu people of Cyrenaica; in Year 8, the Proto-Hellenic Sea Peoples, who had wrought destruction across the Near East; in Year 11, the coalition of Libyan tribes led by the Meshwesh. Whether a Syrian campaign took place before the Libyan is a matter of conjecture. The wars brought Egypt a new prosperity. After the temple estates had been audited in Year 15 by a countrywide inspection, they received workers, cattle, and all kinds of riches. About Year 20, three expeditions brought back myrrh and incense from Punt, copper from...

Weights and Measures

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2005
Subject:
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...pieces of a product, so economic records frequently express totals of products in “various vessels.” Among the best known of such kinds of containers, one can quote the large storage vessel mnἰ or mnt (“jar” of 20 or 30 hin [9.6 or 14.4 liters]), the small mehtet (of 1 hin ), and the smaller bas (1/2 hin ), a (1/4 hin ), and pgʒ (1/8 hin ) used for the presentation of offerings. weights and measures . Figure 1. The Horus Eye notation of fractions . (Courtesy Pierre Grandet) The “Baking Ratio.” A measure called psw (from the Egyptian verb ...

Insinger Papyrus

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...headings illustrate the wide range of subjects, which include the following: 7. self-restraint 8. avoidance of gluttony 9. rejection of foolishness 10. instruction of a son 11. acquiring protection in life 12. carefulness in relationships with others 13. crime and sin (lacks heading) 14. the inferior and stupid man 15. warning against greed 16. caution against miserliness (lacks heading) 17. strictures on worry 18. the nature and importance of patience 19. calmness 20. warning not “to slight a small thing” 21. “the teaching not to slight lest...

Aniba

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History, Ancient history (non-classical to 500 CE)
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702 words
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...Weigall , C. Leonard Woolley , Walter B. Emery and L. P. Kirwan , Georg Steindorff , and Abdel Moneim abu Bakr revealed the remains of a large fortified town that underwent several expansions from the Middle Kingdom to the New Kingdom, eventually reaching a size of 8 hectares (about 20 acres). Major discoveries included the remains of a stone temple dedicated to Horus , Lord of Miam; a building identified by the excavators as a treasury; and a set of storage magazines to the north of the city with inscribed door jambs, naming Nehi, viceroy under ...

Reference Works

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...Felber . Demotistische Literaturübersicht . Enchoria 1 (1971), 57–72; 2 (1972), 96–102; 3 (1973), 71–80; 4 (1974), 83–94; 5 (1975), 127–134; 6 (1976), 83–92; 7 (1977), 180–190; 8 (1978), 39–50; 9 (1979), 125–134; 10 (1980), 141–150; 11 (1982), 99–108; 12 (1984), 155–186; 13 (1985), 173–200; 14 (1986), 135–154; 15 (1987), 181–196; 16 (1988), 101–118; 17 (1990), 133–152; 18 (1991), 153–174; 19–20 (1992–1993), 181–214; 21 (1994), 107–127; 22 (1995), 182–217; and 23 (1996), 150–176. Wente, Edward . Letters from Ancient Egypt . Society of Biblical Literature,...

Theban Necropolis

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2005
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History, Ancient history (non-classical to 500 CE)
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...silt-and-sand-covered limestone plain that varies in width from 10 meters (about 30 feet) at the north-south midpoint of the necropolis to 3 kilometers (1.8 miles) at the southern end, where Amenhotpe III's heb-sed palace, Malqata ( 6 ), was located. [See Malqata .] At the northern end of the necropolis the desert plain is more than 2 kilometers (1.25 miles) wide and includes an area called el-Tarif ( 7 ), in which several hundred tombs from the end of the Old Kingdom through the Middle Kingdom have been found. In this low desert, immediately adjacent to...

Thirteenth Dynasty

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2005

...in hard stone include the pairs of red granite colossi for Semenkhkare Mermesha (h. 3.62 and 3.67 meters/11.6 and 11.7 feet) and Khaneferre Sobekhotep IV (h. 2.68 and 2.71 meters/8 and 8.7 feet), which have been found at Tanis, and the red granite colossus of an otherwise unattested Sneferibre Senwosret at the Seventh Pylon at Karnak (h. 2.75 meters/3.8 feet). The lower part of a quartzite statue of Sehetepkare Intef (h. 0.84 meter/2.7 feet) was found at Medinet Maadi. This production in hard stone contrasts with the record for the seventeenth dynasty,...

Insignias

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2005
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History, Ancient history (non-classical to 500 CE)
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...of this article: (1) block throne; (2) knotted-plants motif; (3) nine bows; (4) lion throne; (5) aba -scepter; (6) sekhem -scepter (depicted as a sistrum); (7) ḥts -(or ʒmts -) scepter; (8) crook; (9) flail; (10) fly-whisk; (11) ostrich-plume fan; (12) scimitar; (13) piriform mace; (14) lentoid mace; (15) mks -scepter; (16) lotus scepter; (17) Ramessid baton; (18) wʒs -staff; (19) dʿm -staff; (20) papyrus staff; (21) sedge staff; (22) djed -pillar staff; (23) mks -staff; (24) ʒms -staff; (25) herald's staff; (26) aby -staff; (27) aʿwt -staff; (28)...

Manichaean Texts

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...Keph. 18, on the five wars of good against evil; Keph. 76, on the mission of Manichaeus; and Keph. 77, on the four kingdoms. There are numerous descriptions of the heavenly personages of Manichaen mythology: Keph. 7, on the the five fathers; Keph. 10, the fourteen aeons; Keph. 11, the Fathers of light; Keph. 16, the five greatnesses; Keph. 20, the name of the Father; Keph. 21, the Father of greatness; Keph. 26, the first man and the envoy; Keph. 28, the twelve riders of the Father; Keph. 38, the light-nous; Keph. 46 and 66, the envoy; Keph. 50, the words...

Kush

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...did with the Hyksos kings in the Nile Delta, in an effort to expell both from traditional Egyptian territory. Archaeological evidence virtually confirms that the capital of Kush was located at present-day Kerma, Sudan, about 650 kilometers (420 miles) upstream from Aswan and about 20 kilometers (12.5 miles) upstream from the Third Cataract, on the eastern bank of the Nile. There, vestiges were found of a large ancient settlement (name still unknown) first excavated by George A. Reisner from 1913 to 1915 , who published Excavations at Kerma. Harvard African...

Ramesses II

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2005
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...by the Hittite king, Muwatallis II . On the day, Ramesses won, but ultimately Egypt lost, as Kadesh was never regained, and the Egyptian-held, southern Syrian zone of Upe was temporarily lost to the Hittites. In about Year 7, Ramesses invaded north again, in Moab and Edom (Jordan), before returning north in future campaigns. In Year 8 and 10, Ramesses attacked towns in central Syria, bypassing Kadesh to do so, but these he could not hold against Hittite opposition, so he seems to have given up a futile struggle there. The stela from Beth-Shan (northern...

Valley of the Kings

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2005
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...Ayrton, 1907 KV 62 Tutankhamun Carter, 1922 WV 23 Ay III Belzoni, 1816 ; Schaden, 1972 KV 57 Horemheb IV Ayrton, 1908 Nineteenth Dynasty Tombs KV 16 Ramesses I III Belzoni, 1817 KV 17 Sety I IV Belzoni, 1817 KV 7 Ramesses II II open since antiquity, now being studied by French mission KV 5 sons of Ramesses II Burton, 1825 ; Weeks, 1989 on KV 8 Merenptah III accessible since antiquity KV 10 Amenmesse III accessible since antiquity; Schaden, 1992 on KV 15 Sety II III accessible since antiquity; Carter, 1902–1904 KV 47 Siptah III Ayrton, 1905 KV 14...

Transportation

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...large wsḫ -vessels are given in the inscriptions of the “Piya (Piankhy) blocks” of the twenty-fifth dynasty; there it was recorded that wsḫ -vessels hauling cargo from Sais to Thebes were approximately 45 cubits in overall length and 15 cubits wide, or approximately 23.5 by 7.8 meters (75 by 25 feet). Other common ship types were the mnš -ships, known primarily from the New Kingdom in connection with shipping on the Mediterranean and Red Sea; qr or kr -ships were used from the New Kingdom into at least the Persian period and appear to have been...

Biblical Tradition

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...kingship may be found in biblical narrative, as in 2 Samuel 7 or 1 Kings 3 and 5–15 with some elements of the so-called king's novel (or “prince's novel”), and some in Hebrew poetic literature. So the phrase “You are my son; today I have begotten you” ( Ps. 2.7) recalls similar declarations in the inscriptions at the temple of Abydos. The beginning of Psalm 110 uses mythological elements that originated in Egyptian images of the king's dominion over his enemies. The imagery chosen in Psalm 8 leads us into Egyptian kingship as transformed by expressions...

Technology and Engineering

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2005

...dynastic jewelry (70.8–99.8 percent) is similar to that shown by assays of gold samples from modern Egyptian mines (76.0–90.3 percent); such data indicate that ancient Egyptians worked with varying grades of native gold rather than refining it. Nevertheless, the gold was so skillfully worked that few modern practices in goldworking were unknown to them. Electrum The native alloy of gold and silver, electrum, was used in Egypt from Early Dynastic times through the end of the pharaonic period. Its silver content varies from about 20 to 30 percent, some as...

Dabʿa, Tell Ed-

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...size increased steadily. During the second half of the eighteenth century bce , an influx of Syrian-Palestinian Middle Bronze Age elements is noticable. Among the settlement pottery, the percentage of Middle Bronze Age IIA-types, the majority imports, increased from about 20 to 40 percent. Soon afterward, epidemics seemed to have decimated the town. The eastern suburbs were abandoned and in the excavated quarters emergency burials were found, some with multiple interments in shallow pits. A sacred precinct was constructed in the Eastern town; it...

Mediterranean Area

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...EM I EC I EH I 2687–2632 Dynasty 3 *Chalc.III EC IB EB II EM I EC I EH I 2632–2510 Dynasty 4 *Chalc.III EC IC EB III EM I–IIA EC I–II EH I–II 2510–2374 Dynasty 5 *EC I EC IC EB III EM IIA-B EC II EH II 2374–2191 Dynasty 6 *EC I EC II EB III EM IIB EC II EH II 2191–2165 Dynasties 78 *EC I EC II EB IV/MB I EM III EC IIIA EH III 2165–2040 Dynasties 9–10 vs. 11 *EC I–II EC III EB IV/MB I EM III EC IIIA EH III 2040–1998 Late Dynasty 11 *EC II–III EC III MB IIA EM III EC IIIA EH III 1998–1991 Civil strife MM IA EC III B MH early 1991–1895 Early Dynasty 12 *EC III...

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