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7-20-8

(1907), a “comedy of to‐day” by Augustin Daly. [Daly's Theatre, 49 perf.] Portrait of a Lady, picture #728 at the annual Academy exhibition, so lovingly depicts a beautiful woman ...

aspect ratio

aspect ratio  

Of a fin or wing, the ratio of length to width. A high-aspect-ratio fin or wing tends to be long and thin, producing a high lift- or thrust-to-drag ratio.
academies

academies  

Are societies or institutions for the cultivation and promotion of literature, the arts or science, or of some particular branch of science such as medicine, for example, the Académie de ...
abortion

abortion  

There is no actual prohibition in the Bible against aborting a foetus. Nevertheless, in the unanimously accepted Jewish consensus, abortion is a very serious offence, though foeticide is not treated ...
Darwinism

Darwinism  

The theory of evolution by natural selection, often used incorrectly as a synonym for the theory of evolution itself. The term ‘neo-Darwinism’ is often used to denote the ‘new synthesis’ (i.e. ...
television

television  

1. An electronic technology enabling the encoding and decoding of ‘moving images’ and synchronized sounds, together with their unidirectional, instantaneous, long-distance transmission and reception ...
Charles Darwin

Charles Darwin  

(1809–82)British naturalist, who studied medicine in Edinburgh followed by theology at Cambridge University, intending a career in the Church. However, his interest in natural history led him to ...
suicide

suicide  

The act of intentionally ending one's own life. A suicide pact is an agreement between two (or more) people to commit suicide together. See also euthanasia.
Nasca lines, Peru

Nasca lines, Peru   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
201 words

...lines, Peru [Si] A series of large‐scale geoglyphs—straight lines, geometric shapes, and representational motifs—on the surface of the desert plain in the Nasca region of southern Peru. The straight lines range in size from 500 m to 8 km in length and are up to 50 m wide. The other motifs are up to 1.7 km long. All were created by clearing the ground surface of stones to reveal a light‐coloured soil beneath. Because of their size, all the images are best appreciated from the air. Many of the straight lines radiate out from low hills or ridges. The...

amphora

amphora   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
453 words

...and ?Aspiran, France—wine; 7. (D21–22) possibly from Campania and Lazio, Italy—fruit; 8. (D6) from Apulia and the Istrian peninsula of Croatia—mainly olive oil; 9. Rhodian amphorae from Rhodes—wine and sometimes figs; 10. Graeco‐Roman amphorae (D2–4) from a range of sources in Campania, Latium, and Etruria, Italy, Catalonia and Baetica in Spain, southern and central France, and perhaps Brockley Hill in England—mainly wine, sometimes figs and fish sauce; 14. (D12) southern Spain and used for fish‐based products; 16. (D7–11) from southern Spain—fish...

Dunand, Maurice

Dunand, Maurice (1898–1987)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
479 words

...Saint-Joseph de Beyrouth 48 (1974–1975): 3–8. Dunand, Maurice. Le temple d'Amrith dans la pérée d'Aradus . Bibliothèque Archéologique et Historique, vol. 122. Paris, 1985. Mélanges de l'Université Saint-Joseph de Beyrouth 46.1 (1970): 3–8. Bibliography of Dunand's work to 1970. Martha Sharp...

Corbo, Virgilio C.

Corbo, Virgilio C. (1918–1991)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
529 words

...Corbo, Virgilio. “ La fortezza di Macheronte: Rapporto preliminare della campagna di scavo, 8.09–28.10.1978. ” Studium Biblicum Franciscanum?Liber Annuus 28 (1978): 217–231. Corbo, Virgilio. “ Macheronte, la reggia-fortezza erodiana: Rapporto preliminare alla II campagna di scavo, 3.09–20.10.1979. ” Studium Biblicum Franciscanum?Liber Annuus 29 (1979): 315–326. Corbo, Virgilio. “ La fortezza di Macheronte (al Mishnaqa): Rapporto preliminare alla III campagna di scavo, 8.09–11.10.1980. ” Studium Biblicum Franciscanum?Liber Annuus 30 (1980): 365–376. Corbo,...

Beth-Zur

Beth-Zur   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
712 words

...Hasmonean, John Hyrcanus , annexed Idumea In 129 bce , thus undermining Beth-Zur's significance. By about 100 bce , Beth-Zur had been abandoned. Bibliography Funk, Robert W. “The 1957 Campaign at Beth-Zur.” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research , no. 150 (1958): 820. Primary field report from the 1957 season. Lapp, Paul W. , and Nancy L. Lapp . “A Comparative Study of a Hellenistic Pottery Group from Beth-Zur.” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research , no. 151 (1958): 16–27. Study of an assemblage of Hellenistic pottery, with...

Egyptian Aramaic Texts

Egyptian Aramaic Texts   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
12,108 words

...letter Edfu? (acquired at Luxor) Sayce Oxford Cowley (Cowley 82) D1.17 27. 1906–1908 (1911, 1970, 1974, 1978, 1988) 20 letters, 18 contracts, 9 lists/accounts, Bisitun, Ahiqar (with erased Customs Account), fragments Elephantine Otto Rubensohn, Friedrich Zucker Berlin, Cairo Eduard Sachau, Zuhair Shunnar, Degen, Porten A3.1–2, 5–8, 10; 4.1–4, 6–10; 5.2; 6.1–2; B3.1; 4.1, 3–6; 5.1–2, 4–5; 6.2–4; 7.1–4; 8.5; C1.1; 2.1; 3.3–4, 7, 9, 13–15; 4.4–8 28. 1913 (1921) Fragmentary list Saqqara James Edward Quibell Cairo Noel Aimé-Giron C4.1 29. 1924–1925 (1931)...

Ras, Tell er-

Ras, Tell er-   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,774 words

...architectural elements from the temple. The latest coins recovered from the sealed silt layers of the cisterns were those of Julian II ( 360–363 ce ). In 1966 , beneath the foundations of the Zeus temple, Bull excavated a second major structure, building B, 20.94 m long north-south × 20.04 m wide and 8.50 m high. Stratigraphic excavation disclosed that building B was founded on the leveled bedrock of Tell er-Ras at 819 m above sea level and constructed of at least eighteen courses of unhewn limestone slab taken from the local geological bedding planes and...

Hurrian

Hurrian   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
735 words

...Obj +7: Agreement +8: Enclitic Conj/Adv An example, from the Mitanni letter (4, 1. 39), is šen+iff+da+lla+an : “o:brother+2:my+5:to (directive case)+6:them+8:and”—that is, “and them to my brother.” The verbal pattern, which distinguishes thirteen positions, is o: Root +1: Derivational suffix +2: Tense +3: Derivational suffix +4: Plural +5: Transitivity +6: Neg-I +7: Subject +8: Neg-2 +9: Relative +10: Plural +11: Enclitic Obj +12: Agreement +13: Enclitic Conj/Adv An example, again from the Mitanni letter (4, 1. 31), is kad+ož+a+šše+na : “o:ask+2:past+7...

Damascus Document

Damascus Document   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,144 words

...19–20, respectively; page 19 of manuscript B parallels, with some important differences, pages 78 of manuscript A, thus enabling a continuous, but conflated, text to be restored. Page 20 is not paralleled in manuscript A. The document is comprised of two sections. A paranetic section, the Admonition(s), contains Israel's history, the preservation of a righteous remnant after the Babylonian Exile, and criticism of current religious practice (1–4.12); laws governing a sectarian organization (4.13–7.10); and threats of punishments to outsiders and defectors (7...

Keisan, Tell

Keisan, Tell   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
774 words

...of King David ( 2 Sm. 8:3–12 ). Stratum 9 is perhaps best understood as marking the Phoenician ascendency in the area. [See Abu Hawam, Tell ; Hazor ; Megiddo ; Phoenicians .] Strata 8–6 (Iron II period) witnessed major changes. The settlement of stratum 8, which was relatively impoverished, initially reused some earlier walls and did not expand; this settlement continued from about 1000 bce into about the mid-eighth century bce with no notable feature but remarkable continuity. By the beginning of stratum 7, the old LB traditions were...

Hebron

Hebron   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,029 words

...an important Muslim religious site. The modern Arabic name, El-Khalil (“the friend”), harkens back to the Abrahamic saga (“the friend”=Abraham— 2 Chr. 20:7 , in which Abraham is called the “friend” of God; the site is also called variously Hebron and Kiriath-Arba in the biblical text). The designation Kiriath-Arba , after Arba, father of the giantlike Anakim ( Jos. 14:13, 15:13, 34, 20:7, 21:11; Gn. 23:2, 35:27; Jgs. 1:10 ) led Jewish writers, followed by Jerome , to curious etymological gymnastics. The Hebrew word ' arba ῾ (“four”) was taken...

Najran

Najran   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,190 words

...into several subareas. The citadel area (240–250 m on a side, covering 12.8 acres) is defined by walls of fitted and cut masonry. Its uneven bastions and recesses are typical of South Arabic building (e.g., at Shibam). The straight-axis gate is on the west. The house layout is also typical of South Arabian types (Zarins et al., 1983 , pls. 20–21), and their hammered, marginally drafted masonry with inscriptional materials is also well attested (Zarins et al., 1983 , pls. 17–20, 34). The moat on at least two sides of the area may be associated with the...

Ostracon

Ostracon   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,779 words

...of literary texts. In the Levant, scribes chose sherds that were as flat as possible—mainly body sherds from large jars. They sometimes cut or broke them to get a rectangular shape that is easy to hold in the left hand (e.g., in the Elyashib archives at Arad, ostraca are about 5–8 × 7–12 cm). [See Arad Inscriptions .] However, there are also very small ostraca of a few centimeters—labels of sorts—and others as large as a modern sheet of paper (e.g., about 21.5 × 28 cm; see Lemaire and Vernus, 1983 ), or even larger (42 × 60 cm for the Aššur ostracon; see...

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