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7-20-8

(1907), a “comedy of to‐day” by Augustin Daly. [Daly's Theatre, 49 perf.] Portrait of a Lady, picture #728 at the annual Academy exhibition, so lovingly depicts a beautiful woman ...

aspect ratio

aspect ratio  

Of a fin or wing, the ratio of length to width. A high-aspect-ratio fin or wing tends to be long and thin, producing a high lift- or thrust-to-drag ratio.
academies

academies  

Are societies or institutions for the cultivation and promotion of literature, the arts or science, or of some particular branch of science such as medicine, for example, the Académie de ...
abortion

abortion  

There is no actual prohibition in the Bible against aborting a foetus. Nevertheless, in the unanimously accepted Jewish consensus, abortion is a very serious offence, though foeticide is not treated ...
Darwinism

Darwinism  

The theory of evolution by natural selection, often used incorrectly as a synonym for the theory of evolution itself. The term ‘neo-Darwinism’ is often used to denote the ‘new synthesis’ (i.e. ...
television

television  

1. An electronic technology enabling the encoding and decoding of ‘moving images’ and synchronized sounds, together with their unidirectional, instantaneous, long-distance transmission and reception ...
Charles Darwin

Charles Darwin  

(1809–82)British naturalist, who studied medicine in Edinburgh followed by theology at Cambridge University, intending a career in the Church. However, his interest in natural history led him to ...
suicide

suicide  

The act of intentionally ending one's own life. A suicide pact is an agreement between two (or more) people to commit suicide together. See also euthanasia.
Weitz, Morris

Weitz, Morris (1916–1981)   Reference library

Aili Bresnahan

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
1,664 words

... Journal of Aesthetic Education 11, no. 2 (April 1977): 9–15. “Reasons in Criticism.” Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 20, no. 4 (Summer 1962): 429–437. “The Role of Theory in Aesthetics.” Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 15, no. 1 (September 1956): 27–35. “Wittgenstein’s Aesthetics.” In Language and Aesthetics: Contributions to the Philosophy of Art , edited by Benjamin R. Tilghman , pp. 720. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1973. Other Sources Abrams, M. H. “What’s the Use of Theorizing about the Arts?” In In Search of...

Augustine

Augustine   Reference library

Oleg V. Bychkov and Victor V. Bychkov

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,691 words

...rhetorically highlighting the meaning and supporting it by a strong emotional appeal (cf. De cat. rud . 20.3–4; De doctr. Christ . 4.1–5). Specifically, the interpreter of scripture must establish an emotional union between the speaker and listener through empathy and the use of an appropriate style ( De cat. rud . 3.11). Augustine is the first to realize the specific aesthetic and rhetorical qualities of scriptural texts (cf. De doctr. Christ . 4.6–7), become a literary critic of scripture as a work of art, and outline many fundamental issues in literary...

Depression

Depression   Reference library

Christine Ross

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,386 words

...Health, 13 August 2003. http://www.wvdhhr.org/bhhftest/ScienceOnOurMinds/NIMH%20PDFs/11%20Invisible.pdf . Porter, Roy . Madness: A Brief History . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002. Radden, Jennifer , ed. The Nature of Melancholy: From Aristotle to Kristeva . New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. Ruesch, Jurgen . “Values, Communication and Culture.” In Communication: The Social Matrix of Psychiatry , edited by Jurgen Ruesch and Gregory Bateson , pp. 3–20. New York: W. W. Norton, 1987. Schaeffer, Jean-Marie . Adieu à l’esthétique . Paris:...

Hume, David

Hume, David   Reference library

Peter Jones, Mary Mothersill, and James Grant

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
12,244 words

...conversations, and even our sensitivity to beauty itself (“Of the Delicacy of Taste and Passion” [hereafter D] 4, 5; ST 241; M 7.28). Notably, actions, virtues, and people’s characters can be morally beautiful (T 2.1.1.3, 3.1.2.2, 3.2.2.1; M 5.4; D 6–8). Hume often refers to moral beauty, and some of his arguments succeed only if the morally beautiful is literally a species of the beautiful (e.g., T 2.1.8.3, 3.3.1.19–20; M 1.9). His belief in moral beauty also explains his insistence that an artwork’s immorality mars its beauty (ST 246–247). Indeed, the...

Bourgeois, Louise

Bourgeois, Louise (1911–2010)   Reference library

Mignon Nixon

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
4,523 words
Illustration(s):
1

...2 (1999): 71–100. Potts, Alex . “Louise Bourgeois—Sculptural Confrontations.” Oxford Art Journal 22, no. 2 (1999): 37–53. Robbins, Daniel . “Sculpture by Louise Bourgeois.” Art International 8 (20 October 1964): 29–31. Rubin, William S. “Some Reflections Prompted by the Recent Work of Louise Bourgeois.” Studio International 8 (20 April 1969): 17–20. Storr, Robert . Louise Bourgeois Drawings . New York: Robert Miller Gallery, 1988. Strick, Jeremy . Louise Bourgeois: The Personages . Saint Louis, Mo.: Saint Louis Museum of Art, 1994. Wagner,...

McLuhan, Marshall

McLuhan, Marshall (1911–1980)   Reference library

Richard Cavell

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,153 words

...that the governing principle of cultural production in the electronic era was poiesis , and that the profoundly involving nature of electronic media made aesthetic consumers into producers. Bibliography Works by McLuhan “Acoustic Space.” In Explorations 4 (February 1955): 15–20; reprinted in Explorations in Communication , edited by Edmund Carpenter and Marshall McLuhan , pp. 65–70. Boston: Beacon, 1960. The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographical Man . Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1962. “Innovation Is Obsolete.” Evergreen Review 15...

Reception Aesthetics

Reception Aesthetics   Reference library

Robert C. Holub

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,656 words

...‘Rezeptionsästhetik.’” Poetica 8 (1976): 451–466. Naumann, Manfred , et al. Gesellschaft, Literatur, Lesen: Literaturrezeption in theoretischer Sicht . Weimar, Germany: Aufbau-Verlag, 1973. Schober, Rita . Abbild, Sinnbild, Wertung: Aufsätze zur Theorie und Praxis literarischer Kommunikation . Berlin: Aufbau-Verlag, 1982. Stierle, Karlheinz . Text als Handlung: Perspektiven einer systematischen Literaturwissenschaft . Munich: Fink, 1975. Stierle, Karlheinz . “Was heisst Rezeption bei fiktionalen Texten?” Poetica 7 (1975): 345–387. Abbreviated...

Agamben, Giorgio

Agamben, Giorgio (1942)   Reference library

Julia Ng

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,834 words

...point an inquiry might then be imaged to “lead signatures to their historical fulfillment” (p. 80). Third, every inquiry should entail an “archaeological” tracking of its own trajectory such that what is left unsaid at the point of a thought’s origination might be elaborated (pp. 78). For instance, the analysis of medieval pneuma-phantasmology in Stanzas owes much to the work of art historian Aby Warburg—at whose institute in London Agamben was a fellow in 1974–1975 . Known for his multidisciplinary approach to the study of images and, in particular, to the...

Exhibition

Exhibition   Reference library

Caterina Albano

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
4,045 words

...paradigm of the exhibition, setting the parameters of much of twentieth- and early-twenty-first-century display practice. The White Cube and the Modern Exhibition of Art. In 1976 in a now canonical series of articles, Brian O’Doherty observed that the “archetypal image of 20th century art” is not that of a single picture but rather “of a white, ideal space” that he named “the white cube” ( O’Doherty, 1999 , p. 14). O’Doherty drew parallels between the development of modernist art and the creation of this “ideal,” self-contained, and timeless space...

Bachelard, Gaston

Bachelard, Gaston (1884–1962)   Reference library

Roch C. Smith

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
4,060 words

...( 1998 , p. 5). Focusing in particular on the encounter between the dynamic imagination and the resistant element of earth in which “the human being is revealed as the counter being of things” (p. 119), Bachelard considers that “the image is always an advancement of being” (p. 20). Being increases when the human imagination imposes its will on matter through work, whereas “an arrested dynamism” brings about “a diminution of being” (p. 374). Bachelard finds his examples for the dynamic imagination of earth in the literary image and its “differential of...

African Aesthetics

African Aesthetics   Reference library

Barry Hallen

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
4,682 words
Illustration(s):
1

... “Primitivism” in 20th Century Art: Affinity of the Tribal and the Modern . Vol. 1, edited by William Rubin , pp. 125–175. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1984. Price, Sally . Primitive Art in Civilized Places . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989. Rorty, Richard . Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature . Corr. ed. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1980. Rubin, Arnold . African Accumulative Sculpture: Power and Display . New York: Pace Editions, 1974. Rubin, William . “Modernist Primitivism.” In “Primitivism” in 20th Century Art:...

Anthropology

Anthropology   Reference library

Susanne Küchler

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
4,465 words
Illustration(s):
1

...no recognisability if they did not” (p. 20). Douglas summarizes with her excurse on the “genuine article” anthropology’s long-standing recognition that aesthetics is a function not merely of language, but of the skill to discriminate in context. The socialness of concepts of value and taste and their activation in the making of “distinctions” were demonstrated by the French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu ( 1984 ), who offers a concise examination of the social parameters of discrimination (see also Price, 1993 , pp. 7–22). Bourdieu’s study of the preferences...

Beauty

Beauty   Reference library

Stephen David Ross, Nickolas Pappas, Jan A. Aertsen, and Nicholas Riggle

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
16,875 words

...itself attracted to bodies’ beauty, it must be perceiving a reminder of something soul-like, hence something higher, in those bodies (I.6.2.3–11). Beauty is form (I.6.2.19–22, V.8.2.14, V.8.3.1–3, V.8.9.43–47, V.9.2.14–15), an essential characteristic of the intelligible Forms (V.8.5.23, V.8.10.25–27), and a product of the divine principle that Plotinus calls Intellect ( nous: V.8.3.20–22). It occurs in objects of sense when their guiding form has overcome matter’s inclination toward chaos, so that what the perceiving soul delights in, when it calls a physical...

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