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7-20-8

(1907), a “comedy of to‐day” by Augustin Daly. [Daly's Theatre, 49 perf.] Portrait of a Lady, picture #728 at the annual Academy exhibition, so lovingly depicts a beautiful woman ...

aspect ratio

aspect ratio  

Of a fin or wing, the ratio of length to width. A high-aspect-ratio fin or wing tends to be long and thin, producing a high lift- or thrust-to-drag ratio.
academies

academies  

Are societies or institutions for the cultivation and promotion of literature, the arts or science, or of some particular branch of science such as medicine, for example, the Académie de ...
abortion

abortion  

There is no actual prohibition in the Bible against aborting a foetus. Nevertheless, in the unanimously accepted Jewish consensus, abortion is a very serious offence, though foeticide is not treated ...
Darwinism

Darwinism  

The theory of evolution by natural selection, often used incorrectly as a synonym for the theory of evolution itself. The term ‘neo-Darwinism’ is often used to denote the ‘new synthesis’ (i.e. ...
television

television  

1. An electronic technology enabling the encoding and decoding of ‘moving images’ and synchronized sounds, together with their unidirectional, instantaneous, long-distance transmission and reception ...
Charles Darwin

Charles Darwin  

(1809–82)British naturalist, who studied medicine in Edinburgh followed by theology at Cambridge University, intending a career in the Church. However, his interest in natural history led him to ...
suicide

suicide  

The act of intentionally ending one's own life. A suicide pact is an agreement between two (or more) people to commit suicide together. See also euthanasia.
Skellig Michael

Skellig Michael   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
686 words
Illustration(s):
1

...community is known to have existed there by the 8th century, because one of its monks, ‘Suibni of the Scelig’, is mentioned in a martyrology of c. 800 . In 823 or 824 the monastery was attacked by Vikings , Skellig Michael.  View of clochans (beehive huts), c. 7th century. Photo credit: Colum P. Hourihane who captured Abbot Eitgall ; by the 12th century it had moved to Ballinskelligs on the mainland. The island has two main peaks, that to the north being 218 m high. The monastic site is situated c. 20 m below the summit, where there is a series of...

Bonanus of Pisa

Bonanus of Pisa (fl c. 1179–86)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...: Toskanische Plastik des frühen und hohen Mittelalters (Leipzig, 1926), pp. 55–7 M. Salmi : La scultura romanica in Toscana (Florence, 1928), pp. 99–121 V. Martinelli : ‘Bonanno Pisano scultore’, Belle A. , i (1946–8), pp. 272–97 A. Boeckler : Die Bronzetüren des Bonanus von Pisa und des Barisanus von Trani (1953), iv of Die frühmittelalterlichen Bronzetüren , ed. R. Hamann (Berlin, 1926–53); review by A. Grabar in Kunstchronik , vii/1 (1954), pp. 10–20 F. Bartolini : ‘La data del portale di Bonanno nel duomo di Monreale’, Studi medievali...

Ashburnham Pentateuch

Ashburnham Pentateuch   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...inscriptions penned in ink that follow the Vetus latina text. Based upon stylistic, iconographical, and codicological evidence, the Pentateuch appears to have been made in a late 6th- to early 7th-century Italian scriptorium. Twelve pages were added in the 8th century by scribes from Fleury; an additional restored page (fol. 33) was added in the 7th century by a Touronian scribe. The illustrations often deviate from the exact retelling of the biblical text. The column of smoke and fire, for example, in the story of the Crossing of the Red Sea is...

Visions in medieval art

Visions in medieval art   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Omega (Revelation 1:8, 21:6, 22:13), the Four Living Creatures understood to symbolize the Evangelists (Revelation 4:6–9, 5:8–14, 7:11–12, 14:3, 19:4), Agnus Dei (Revelation 5:6–14, 6:1, 7:9–17, 14:1), St Michael and the Dragon (Revelation 12:7–9), the Antichrist Beasts that Persecute the Righteous (Revelation 11:7, 13:1, 13:7), and the New Jerusalem (Revelation 21). Elements drawn from this archetypal vision are depicted in art ranging from Early Christian mosaics, such as at S Pudenziana, Rome ( c. 401–17 ), and S Vitale, Ravenna ( 546–8 ), to the famous...

Morienval, Notre-Dame

Morienval, Notre-Dame   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... Cah. Archéol ., xxxvii (1989), pp. 19–44 A. Prache : ‘L’architecture et la sculpture de l’église de Morienval’, L’art roman dans l’Oise et ses environs: Architecture civile et religieuse, peinture murale, sculpture et arts précieux, etc … : Colloque organisé à Beauvais les 7 et 8 octobre 1995 par le G.E.M.O.B.: Hommage aux archéologues Emmanuel, Eugène Woillez et Emile Chami D. Lebee : ‘Histoire de l’abbaye royale Notre-Dame de Morienval et de sa paroisse jusqu’à la Révolution’, Groupe d’étude des monuments et oeuvres d’art de l’Oise et du Beauvaisis...

Niesenberger, Hans, the elder

Niesenberger, Hans, the elder (1415–20)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... (Vienna, 1952), pp. 387–8 A. A. Schmid : ‘Zur Kenntnis des gotischen Münsters von Einsiedeln’, Corolla Heremitana: Neue Beiträge zur Kunst und Geschichte Einsiedelns und der Innerschweiz: Festschrift Linus Birchler (Olten, 1963), pp. 155–87 A. Knoepfli : Kunstgeschichte des Bodenseeraumes , ii (Sigmaringen, 1969), pp. 125–6 M. von Scarpatetti : Die Kirche und das Augustiner-Chorherrenstift St Leonhard in Basel: Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Stadt Basel und der späten Devotio Moderna (Basle, 1974), pp. 287–8 J. Julier : Studien zur spätgotischen...

Crosier

Crosier   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,124 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and produced ripe almonds overnight (Numbers xvii. 8). So it would seem that there was some conflict between popular perception of the significance of the crosier and the official interpretation. Only Honorius Augustodunensis in the 12th century made any connection between the pastoral staff and Moses and Aaron ( Gemma Animae i, chaps 217–20). In later periods, the serpent ceased to appear on crosiers, although foliage remained widespread. Crosiers became increasingly precious and ornate until the later 20th century, when it became fashionable to bear an...

Belvoir Castle

Belvoir Castle   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,488 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Hayarden—Belvoir], Yediot , xxxi (1967), pp. 236–49 M. Ben-Dov and Y. Minzker : ‘Kokhab Ha-Yarden (Belvoir)’, Rev. Bib. , lxxv (1968), pp. 419–20; pl. li A. Biran : ‘Kokhav Hayarden’, Christ. News Israel , xix/3–4 (1968), p. 39; pl. 1 M. Ben-Dov : ‘Ha-ḥaphiroth ba-mivṣor ha-ṣalboni Kôkhov ha-Yardēn’ [The excavations at the Crusader fortress of Kokhav Hayarden], Qadmoniot , ii/1 (1969), pp. 22–7 M. Benvenisti : The Crusaders in the Holy Land (Jerusalem, 1970), pp. 294–300 B. Bagatti : Antichi villaggi cristiani di Galilea , Studium Biblicum...

Munich Golden Legend, Master of the

Munich Golden Legend, Master of the ( fl c. 1420–60)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...a Napoli, miniatura e arte minori in Campania , Collana di saggi e studi, ii (Rome, 1968), pp. 42–3, nos 78 O. Pächt and D. Thoss : Die illuminierte Handschriften und Inkunabeln der österreichische Nationalbibliothek, französische Schule , i (Vienna, 1974), pp. 139–41 [list of attributed MSS] E. P. Spencer : The Sobieski Hours: A Manuscript in the Royal Library at Windsor Castle , Roxburghe Club, ccxxxix (London, 1977), esp. pp. 20, 51 Medieval Illumination, Glass and Sculpture in Minnesota Collections (exh. cat., ed. A. Stones and J. Steyaert...

Syfer

Syfer (fl 1498)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Kstsamml ., i (1929), pp. 105–22 R. Schnellbach : Spätgotische Plastik im unteren Neckargebiet (Heidelberg, 1931) J. Baum : ‘Hans Seyfer’, Burl. Mag ., lxix (1936), pp. 252–7 H. Rott : Der Oberrhein , 3 vols (1936–8), iii of Quellen und Forschungen zur südwestdeutschen und schweizerischen Kunstgeschichte im XV. und XVI. Jahrhundert , 3 vols (Stuttgart, 1933–8), pt. iii/1, pp. 20–23; iii/3, pp. 16, 31–3 L. Fischel : Nicolaus Gerhaert und die Bildhauer der deutschen Spätgotik (Munich, 1944), pp. 136, 138–44 W. Paatz : Süddeutsche Schnitzaltäre der...

Boqueteaux, Master of the [Master of the Jean de Sy Bible; Master of the Umbrella-trees]

Boqueteaux, Master of the [Master of the Jean de Sy Bible; Master of the Umbrella-trees] (1350–80)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...the Duke (London, 1967), pp. 20–23, 96, 162, 181, 198, 287–8, 388 P. M. de Winter : ‘The Grandes Heures of Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy: The Copyist Jean L’Avenant and his Patrons at the French Court’, Speculum , lvii/4 (1982), pp. 786–842 C. Sterling : La Peinture médiévale à Paris, 1300–1500 (Paris, 1987) M. Manion : ‘The Princely Patron and the Liturgy: Mass Texts in the Grandes Heures of Philip the Bold’, The Cambridge Illuminations: The Conference Papers: Cambridge University Library and Fitzwilliam Museum: 8–10 December...

Aquileia

Aquileia   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

..., i (1958), pp. 511–20 H. Kähler : Die Stiftermosaiken in der konstantinischen Südkirche von Aquileia (Cologne, 1962) G. C. Menis : I mosaici cristiani di Aquileia (Udine, 1965) W. N. Schumacher : Hirt und ‘Guter Hirt’ (Rome, Freiburg, and Vienna, 1977), pp. 217–307 N. Himmelmann : Über Hirten–Genre in der antiken Kunst (Opladen, 1982), pp. 168–72 G. C. Menis : Il complesso episcopale Teodoriano di Aquileia e il suo battistero (Udine, 1986) Aquileia e l’arco adriatico. Atti della 20. Settimana di Studi Aquileiesi . 22/8 Aprile 1989, ...

Annaberg, Annenkirche

Annaberg, Annenkirche   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...church. In 1577 the ‘beautiful portal’ built by Master H W ( fl 1501–20)at the Franciscan church in Annaberg was transferred to the Annenkirche. The roof was destroyed by fire in 1604 and replaced between 1688 and 1692 by a Baroque one. After the destruction of the spire by fire in 1813 , the present classicizing termination was built. During the extensive historicist restorations carried out between 1879 and 1884 the walls were painted and stained glass introduced, but in 1927–8 the historicist paintings were partly removed, and from 1975 the original...

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