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7-20-8

(1907), a “comedy of to‐day” by Augustin Daly. [Daly's Theatre, 49 perf.] Portrait of a Lady, picture #728 at the annual Academy exhibition, so lovingly depicts a beautiful woman ...

Simon Wiesenthal

Simon Wiesenthal   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
2,417 words

...The Holocaust Industry: Reflections on the Exploitation of Jewish Suffering . 2d ed. New York: Verso, 2003. http://portal.unesco.org/en/file_download.php/4c2af3045fc23f0d1a48d720d7f33600074+2nd+Conference+Educating+for+Tolerance.+Case+Resurgent+Antisemitism.pdf. Huttenbach, Henry R. “ In Memoriam: Simon Wiesenthal, 1908–2005. ” Journal of Genocide Research 8, no. 1 (March 2006): 78. Kamm, Henry . “Wiesenthal Defends His Role in Waldheim Affair.” New York Times , December 1, 1993, A14. Pick, Hella . Simon Wiesenthal: A Life in Search of Justice . Boston:...

Palestine

Palestine   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
8,695 words

...2008. Lazaroff, Tovar . “600 Palestinian Cops Deploy in Hebron.” Jerusalem Post , October 25, 2008. Palestine Center for Human Rights. Black Pages in the Absence of Justice: Report on the Bloody Fighting in the Gaza Strip from 7 to 14 June 2007 . http://www.pchrgaza.org/files/Reports/English/pdf_spec/Gaza%20Conflict%20-%20Eng%209%20october.pdf . Rose, David . “The Gaza Bombshell.” Vanity Fair , April 2008. Simpson, Gerlad . Detainees’ Denied Justice: The Palestinian Authority's Contempt for Its Judiciary. July 1999. A comprehensive background report on the...

Due Process, Rule of Law, and Habeas Corpus

Due Process, Rule of Law, and Habeas Corpus   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
6,182 words

...upon the provisions of the African Charter, including, for example, the right to an appeal to a higher court. The American Convention on Human Rights Article 7 of the American Convention on Human Rights, which is the principal human rights treaty in the Western Hemisphere, provides several criminal justice safeguards, including, for example, the right to notice and to habeas corpus. Article 8 deals with the right to a fair trial in a detailed manner, encompassing, for example, the right to a hearing, the presumption of innocence, the rights to a free...

European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (Council of Europe)

European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (Council of Europe)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
4,960 words

...liberty except through lawfully specified procedures (Article 5); the right to fair, timely, and public hearings (Article 6.1); the presumption of innocence in criminal prosecutions (Article 6); the protection against ex post facto prosecutions (Article 7); the respect for private and family life (Article 8); the rights to freedom of thought, conscience, and religion (Article 9); the right to freedom of expression and publication (Article 10); the right to peaceful assembly and to freedom of association (Article 11); the right to marry and found a family (for...

Nanjing Massacre

Nanjing Massacre   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
9,648 words

...John G. Letter to Wife Faith, December 19, 1937. Folder 2, Box 263, Record Group 8, Special Collection, Yale Divinity School Library. McCallum, James H. Letter to Friends, January 7, 1938. Correspondence of James Henry and Eva Anderson McCallum, Disciples of Christ Historical Society Library, Nashville, Tenn. McDaniel, Charles Yates . “Nanking Horror Described in Diary of War Reporter.” Chicago Daily Tribune , December 18, 1937, 8. Prideaux-Brune, H. I. Telegram No. 7, 5:38 p.m ., January 13, 1938. ADM116/3882, Yangtze Records, Public Record Office,...

Right to Food and Adequate Standard of Living

Right to Food and Adequate Standard of Living   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
8,840 words

...27–28 January, 2008. http://www.philsol.nl/A00a/NCOS-FoodSecurity-jan00-main.htm RUSSIA United Nations. Economic and Social Council. Third Periodic Report: Russian Federation . 10/08/95. E/1994/104/Add.8. (State Party Report), Substantive session of 1996. 10 August, 1995. http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/c12561460043cb8a4125611e00445ea9/7c52c1f6ab98f701c12563f0003bf419?OpenDocument See also: Foodfirst International Action Network. The Right to Adequate Food (Art. 11) and Violations of this right in the Russian Federation . Heidelberg, Germany:...

Weapons of Mass Destruction

Weapons of Mass Destruction   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
4,862 words

...has been upheld by the Commission on Human Rights’ special rapporteurs on human rights and the environment (report of 6 July 1994 , UN Doc. E/CN.4/Sub.2/1994/9) and on the adverse effects of the illicit movement and dumping of toxic and dangerous products and wastes (report of 20 February 2006 , UN Doc. E/CN.4/2006/42, paras. 34–43). In its Nuclear Weapons opinion, the ICJ examined environmental issues in the context of international humanitarian law, considering that in an armed conflict, states had “to take environmental considerations into account in...

Israel

Israel   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
8,202 words

...and not harming others (derived from John Stuart Mill's philosophy)—are enshrined also in humanistic Judaism. In 2007 the Israeli population was approximately 7.2 million. Some 20 percent of the Jewish people in Israel are religious and may prefer theocracy over democracy. Some 20 percent of the Israeli people are Palestinian Arabs who do not endorse the Zionist ethos of the state. A further 20 percent of Israelis arrived from the Soviet Union and are in many cases unfamiliar with the practice of democracy. Most of the Russian immigrants are secular, if...

Judaism

Judaism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
7,790 words

...6. Communal responsibility to establish laws for the common good (e.g., fair business practices) and to punish those who would violate them falls upon all members (Babylonian Talmud, Bava Batra 8). 7. Laws and discussions govern the rights of laborers, who are to be paid appropriately for their work and treated with respect (Babylonian Talmud, Bava Metzia 77, 20a). 8. Communal responsibility also entails the care of the poor and the sick and the burial of the dead, whether or not they are Israelites (Babylonian Talmud, Gittin 59). Even from these few...

United Nations General Assembly

United Nations General Assembly   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
5,754 words

...100,000 3.2 0.1 1966 130,314,320 3,233,000 220,000 2.5 0.2 1970 168,956,950 4,270,100 220,000 2.5 0.1 1975 372,907,900 7,972,700 3,211,000 2.1 0.9 1980 623,869,600 13,651,400 5,215,500 2.2 0.8 1985 855,900,600 18,350,700 7,039,050 2.1 0.8 1990 987,317,000 19,430,150 9,522,100 2.0 1.0 1995 1,304,137,000 25,069,550 24,000,000 1.9 1.8 2000 1,267,814,900 19,419,450 19,533,850 1.5 1.5 2005 1,589,598,050 17,320,500 32,285,650 1.1 2.0 S ource : UN budgets published in Yearbook of the United Nations . Assembly majorities have been willing to authorize raising...

China

China   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
13,083 words

...(millions) Low year Population low year (millions) Population decrease (millions) Percentage change Estimated famine deaths (millions) Sichuan 1957 70.81 1961 64.59 6.22 −8.78 9.00 Anhui 1959 34.27 1961 29.88 4.39 −12.81 8.00 Shandong 1958 54.22 1960 51.88 2.34 −4.32 7.50 Hunan 1959 36.92 1961 35.08 1.84 −4.98   Henan 1957 49.79 1961 48.03 1.76 −3.53 7.80 Guizhou 1959 17.44 1961 16.24 1.20 −6.88   Gansu 1959 12.93 1961 12.11 0.82 −6.34   Qinghai 1959 2.60 1962 2.05 0.55 −21.15 0.90 Jiangsu 1959 42.90 1961 42.43 0.47 −1.10   Guangxi 1959 22.05 1961 21.59 0.46...

Foundations and Human Rights

Foundations and Human Rights   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
3,350 words

...home and abroad. With fewer substantial endowments and financial resources, these smaller foundations tend to focus on specific countries or regions of the world and/or on particular human rights. In 2003 the Public Welfare Foundation made fifty-three grants, totaling $3 million—20 percent of the foundation's total giving that year—to organizations in El Salvador, Haiti, Mexico, Northern Ireland, South Africa, and the United States. That year the John Merck Fund disbursed $1.5 million through twenty-four grants that ranged from $2,000 to $150,000 to groups in...

Balkan Wars

Balkan Wars   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
7,513 words

...was acquitted. On 1 May 1995 the Croatian army launched Operation Bljesak (Flash) and freed Slavonia. Between 4 and 7 August 1995 the army liberated Knin in Operation Oluja (Storm), with the help of American private consultants and the army of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Approximately 150,000 soldiers participated on the Croatian side. The operation resulted in the mass exodus of Serbs (approximately 200,000), the burning of villages (over 20,000 houses were razed, even according to Croatian data), looting, and killings (according to Croatian sources, a few...

Forensic Science

Forensic Science   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
6,249 words

...Straus and Giroux, 1997. Saferstein, Richard . Criminalistics: An Introduction to Forensic Science . 8th ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 2004. Snow, Clyde C. “ A Murder Most Foul. ” Sciences 35, no. 3 (May–June 1995): 16–20. Steadman, Dawnie , and William D. Haglund . “The Scope of Anthropological Contributions to Human Rights Investigations.” In Proceedings of the 2001 American Academy of Forensic Sciences Annual Meeting , Vol. 7. Colorado Springs, Colo.: AAFS, 2001. Stover, Eric , and Molly Ryan . “Breaking Bread with the Dead.” In ...

Cyprus from 1964

Cyprus from 1964   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
7,041 words

...actions of the TRNC, which was deemed to be a subordinate administration. Two years later the court issued a subsequent judgment awarding Loizidou CY£300,000 (Cyprus pounds) in pecuniary damages for the loss of use of her property, CY£20,000 in nonpecuniary damages, and costs. The annual interest rate for default was set at 8 percent. The ruling represented a watershed moment as Turkey had been declared to be an occupying power. However, the Turkish government rejected the court's decision as politically motivated and announced that it would not comply with...

Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights

Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
6,636 words

...of everyone to the opportunity to gain his living by work which he freely chooses or accepts.” Article 7 goes on to assure “just and favourable conditions of work.” Article 8 focuses on the right to form and join trade unions. As the commentary to the Reporting Guidelines notes, “The right to work is of fundamental importance, not only for its own sake but because it can be the key to the enjoyment of many other rights.” Together, Articles 6 through 8 address the major factors that may combine to deny the right to work. First, there may be a lack of job...

AIDS/HIV

AIDS/HIV   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
8,225 words

...immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Approximately 2.8 million people died of AIDS in 2005 . Of the world's HIV-positive individuals, more than 90 percent (35 million) lived in developing countries, and of those, 24.5 million inhabited sub-Saharan Africa. Lesotho, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, and Botswana each had more than 20 percent of their populations infected with HIV. In spite of the fact that fewer than 1 percent of people in India were HIV positive, that country had the most individuals with HIV in the world (5.7 million in 2005 ). Although the first AIDS cases...

Lebanon

Lebanon   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
4,844 words

...these principles in all fields and areas without exception” ( Salem , p. 122). Most human rights provisions in the document appear in section A, “Fundamental Provisions,” under the heading “The Rights and Duties of the Citizen” (A.II). Article 7 states the fundamental equality of all Lebanese before the law. Article 8 provides standard guarantees and legal protections for individual liberty. It states, “No one may be arrested, imprisoned, or kept in custody except according to the provisions of the law. No offense may be established or penalty imposed except...

Democracy and Right to Participation

Democracy and Right to Participation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
7,572 words

... and Maurice Kogan , pp. 205–222. London and New York: Routledge, 2004. Report of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women . Twenty-fifth session, UN Doc. A/56/38, July 2–20, 2001. Report of the World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia, and Related Intolerance . A/CONF.189/12, August 31, September 8, 2001. Rosas, Allan . “Democracy and Human Rights.” In Human Rights in a Changing East-West Perspective , edited by Allan Rosas and Jan Helgesen , pp. 17–57. London and New York: Pinter, 1990....

Poland

Poland   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
8,065 words

.... European Court of Human Rights. “Case of Tysiąc v. Poland .” Application no. 5410/03, Judgment, Strasbourg, March 20, 2007. http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/country,,ECHR,,POL,4562d8b62,470376112,0.html . European Court of Human Rights. “Case of Bączkowski and Others v. Poland .” Application no. 1543/06, Judgment, Strasbourg, May 3, 2007. http://cmiskp.echr.coe.int////tkp197/viewhbkm.asp?action=open&table=F69A27FD8FB86142BF01C1166DEA398649&key=62205&sessionId=2583289&skin=hudoc-en&attachment=true . European Court of Human Rights. “Case of ...

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