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20/20

Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

G20

G20   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
81 words

...20 A state-led economic and financial council of wealthy nations consisting of the finance ministers and central bank governors of nineteen countries from around the world, plus the European Union. These major economies represent around 90 per cent of global GDP, 80 per cent of global trade, and two thirds of the world’s population. Founded in 2008 it meets semi-annually to discuss the international financial system and promote financial stability and trade. http://www.g20.org/en Official website of the G20 2012 Mexico...

G20

G20   Quick reference

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
284 words

...20 The Group of Twenty (G20) represents a club of states that meets annually to discuss important economic, financial, and political issues. It is made up of the G7 industrialized democratic countries, the five ‘emerging’ BRICS countries, six other economically emerging countries, and the European Union , which together as the G20 represent the twenty largest global economies, generating approximately 85 per cent of global GDP. Originating as a forum for central bankers in 1999 , ongoing economic stability issues, as well as the 2008 Financial Crisis ,...

G-20

G-20   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...20 ( Group of Twenty ) A group of twenty of the most important economies on the planet. It includes nineteen independent countries along with the European Union: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France † , Germany † , India, Indonesia, Italy † , Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, United Kingdom † , United States, European Union. † = also a member of the...

Form 20-F

Form 20-F   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Accounting (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
24 words

...20-F In the USA, the form required by the Securities and Exchange Commission for the filing of annual results by non-US...

Web 2.0

Web 2.0   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Marketing (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
686 words

...2.0 ( Social Media ) A term coined in 2004 which has come to represent the second generation, or second decade, of the design, development, and applications of the World Wide Web . The most common characteristics of Web 2.0 are community based: social networking, collaboration, harnessing of collective intelligence, personal interactions with friends and sharing of information, expertise, and personal experience. Examples of collaboration and harnessing of collective intelligence on Web 2.0 are: software developments such as LINUX and knowledge...

Group of 20

Group of 20   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Finance and Banking (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...of 20 ( G20 ) A group of 19 leading economies plus the European Union. Meetings of G20 finance ministers and central bank governors have been held regularly since 1999 . The first summit of G20 heads of state was held in November 2008 as a response to the global financial crisis and it was subsequently agreed that the G20 would take over from the Group of Eight as the main forum for the world’s wealthy nations. Summit meetings are now held...

Uprising of 20,000

Uprising of 20,000   Reference library

Annie Schneiderman Valliere

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...of 20,000 The Uprising of 20,000 was a fourteen-week sector-wide strike that shut down women's shirtwaist factories in New York City between November 1909 and February 1910 . The strike was spearheaded by such women workers and union leaders as Clara Lemlich, Rose Schneiderman, Fannia Cohn, and Pauline Newman, who drew upon the support of Local 25 of the International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union (ILGWU). The National Women's Trade Union League also supported the strike by serving as pickets, raising money, eliciting support from college students...

G-20 and Multilateral Economic Cooperation

G-20 and Multilateral Economic Cooperation   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,644 words
Illustration(s):
1

...G-20, or a similar inclusive group, was likely to emerge as the premier forum of international economic dialogue, policy coordination, and decision making even beyond the crisis. A formal declaration to that effect was made at the third G-20 summit in Pittsburgh, USA, in 2009. G-20 leaders will now meet each year at the summit level. The bigger EMEs have now become too systemically important to be excluded from any meaningful or effective international economic consultative process to manage globalization. India is one of the bigger economies within the G-20....

CSR and CSR 2.0

CSR and CSR 2.0   Reference library

Wayne VISSER

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
2,983 words

...the standardized hardware and software of the PC as its delivery platform, rather than on multilevel applications Followed a “one size fits all” standardization through codes, standards, and guidelines to shape its offering Table 2. Web 2.0 Compared with CSR 2.0 Web 2.0 CSR 2.0 Is being defined by watchwords like collective intelligence, collaborative networks , and user participation Is being defined by terms like global commons, innovative partnerships , and stakeholder involvement Includes tools such as social...

Russia, U.S. Military Intervention in, 1917–20

Russia, U.S. Military Intervention in, 1917–20   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...U.S. Military Intervention in, 1917–20 . American intervention in Russia developed in response to the political turmoil and great power competition triggered by the Russian Revolution and civil war. President Woodrow Wilson and his advisers enthusiastically welcomed the revolution of March 1917 , seeing the overthrow of the incompetent and allegedly pro‐German Czarist regime as a triumph of American political principles, an opening to displace German and British rivals for Russian markets, and an opportunity to revitalize Russia's military effort...

Women Entrepreneurs, Global Microfinance, and Development 2.0

Women Entrepreneurs, Global Microfinance, and Development 2.0   Reference library

Radhika Gajjala and Dinah Tetteh

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Communication and Critical Cultural Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
4,994 words

...Entrepreneurs, Global Microfinance, and Development 2.0 Development 2.0 Richard Heeks described contemporary processes of networked and global development as “Development 2.0” ( Heeks, 2010 ). In a 2010 paper, he notes: Where are the Amazon and eBay for international development? If we could find them, they might represent “Development 2.0”: new ICT enabled models that can transform the processes and structures of development. (p. 1) From this very question and its comparison of international development with Amazon and eBay, we know that there is a...

20c The History of the Book in Britain from 1914

20c The History of the Book in Britain from 1914   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
3,991 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...c The History of the Book in Britain from 1914 Claire Squires 1 The 20 th -century book 2 Empire, export, and globalization 3 Wartime 4 Education, access, and the reading public 5 The business of books 1 The 20 th -century book What might be distinctive about the book in 20 th -century Britain, the publishing industry that produced it, the book trade that circulated it, and the readers that consumed it? The most iconic books of the period, as well as the most indicative of the book’s relationship to wider society, were *Penguin *paperbacks . They were...

20b The History of the Book in Britain, 1801–1914

20b The History of the Book in Britain, 1801–1914   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,058 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...b The History of the Book in Britain, 1801–1914 Leslie Howsam 1 A book culture 2 Economics 3 Production and publishing 4 Circulation and preservation 5 Subjects and genres 6 Reading 1 A book culture Print was the principal medium of written communication in Britain during the 19 th and early 20 th centuries. In that era of rapid population increase and concentrated industrial, urban, and imperial expansion, MS circulation was minimal and broadcasting lay in the future. Along with *periodicals and *newspapers , books and *pamphlets constituted the...

20a The History of the Book in Britain, c.1475–1800

20a The History of the Book in Britain, c.1475–1800   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,011 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...a The History of the Book in Britain, c .1475–1800 Andrew Murphy 1 Origins 2 The Stationers’ Company 3 Beyond London 4 MS circulation and playbooks 5 Religious publishing 6 Copyright and control 7 Conclusion 1 Origins The history of the book in Britain begins, in fact, on the Continent. In 1471 , the Kent-born merchant *Caxton travelled from Bruges to Cologne, where he formed a partnership with the printer and *punchcutter Johannes Veldener . Having mastered the art of printing, Caxton returned to Bruges in the following year, probably accompanied...

The (In)visibility of Race in 20th-Century Crime Films

The (In)visibility of Race in 20th-Century Crime Films   Reference library

Taunya Lovell Banks

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Crime, Media, and Popular Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
7,975 words

...into heroes” ( Rafter, 2006 , p. 20). Unsurprisingly, economically hard-hit American film-going audiences strongly identified with the “economic disadvantages and dreams of wealth during hard times” articulated by many film criminals ( Rafter, 2006 , p. 20). But the criminals in these films were largely European ethnics. In a sense, their ethnicity often functioned like older notions of race that treated ethnic differences as racial differences. For example, the classic gangster film Little Cesar portrayed Italian Americans as a criminal menace. Public...

G5; G7; G8; G10; G11; G20; G77

G5; G7; G8; G10; G11; G20; G77   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Finance and Banking (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...G7; G8; G10; G11; G20; G77 Abbreviations for Group of Five ; Group of Seven ; Group of Eight ; Group of 10 ; Group of 11 ; Group of 77 ....

Form 20-F

Form 20-F  

In the USA, the form required by the Securities and Exchange Commission for the filing of annual results by non-US companies.
43a The History of the Book in Southeast Asia (1): The Islands

43a The History of the Book in Southeast Asia (1): The Islands   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
2,543 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...use of roman script. Dedicated to translating the Bible into indigenous languages, Christian missionaries were especially active in employing this script. Its use in printing gave roman script an overpowering advantage, strongly supported in the 19 th and 20 th centuries by colonial governments. In the 20 th century, roman script became the accepted medium for the public sphere throughout the entire region. In the Philippines, Indic syllabaries closely connected to the Indic scripts in Indonesia had been in use before the 16 th century, but under the...

25 The History of the Book in Switzerland

25 The History of the Book in Switzerland   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
1,936 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...20 th century, book production in Switzerland increased from about 1,000 titles to almost 14,000 per year. Just over four-fifths of the books published at the end of the 20 th century appeared in one of the national languages: 59 per cent in German, 18 per cent in French, 3 per cent in Italian, and 0.6 per cent in Rhaeto-Romanic, much of the rest being published in English. Yet these account for only about 30 per cent of the books on sale in Switzerland, with roughly 70 per cent being of foreign origins. Among Swiss publishing houses established in the 20...

43b The History of the Book in Southeast Asia (2): The Mainland

43b The History of the Book in Southeast Asia (2): The Mainland   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
2,488 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...divisions into different periods or eras of a ruler’s reign. The years, in turn, were divided into twelve lunar months of 29 or 30 days. Over a period of nineteen years, seven intercalary months were added in order to bring the lunar cycle into accord with the solar cycle. In the 20 th century, the lunar calendar was replaced by the Gregorian calendar and Christian Era (or Common Era) for official purposes. Modern printed books give an imprint in the Christian Era. In Burma, government and administrative matters are regulated by the Christian Era and...

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